How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

How To Make Layers Of The Earth For Kids :

How to make layers of the earth for kids is a cool science fair ideas for kids. Children can learn about science with simple materials available around them. Today we are making the 3d model of earth. 3d model of earth layers can be made with easily at home. We have used simple children’s play dough and made this awesome kids science project.

If you are searching some science fair ideas for kids.Then this layers of the earth project can be great idea. 3d model of earth is best suitable for school students from class 4,5 and 6.

What is earth layers working model ?

Earth layers working model is a simple 3d model of earths layer. We have learned that there are four different layers in earth. Four different layers of earth are crust, mantle, outer core and inner core.

Working model of 3d model of earth layers helps us to answers many questions like :

  • How To Make Layers Of The Earth For Kids ?
  • What are different layer of earth ?
  • Can be great science fair ideas for kids.

Working model of earth layers experiment is best way to teach students different layers of earth. From this school science project we can learn about earths surface. Now let us make this science project.

Materials Required to Make Layers Of The Earth For Kids :

This working model can be made from different materials. We have made this simple science project using simple materials. Some of materials needed for layers o the earth for kids are :

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earthlayers of the earth project

Take ten different colors of play dough. I suggest you to take these colorful play dough of large size.You can also make these dough at home and color it as your requirement.

  • We have used a Diy knife for cutting play dough. You can also use any other type of knife. Best recommended is exacto knife (DIY knife).
  • A white color paper is needed. This paper is used for indexing different layers name..
  • Some of other materials needed are metal scale,scissor, pen or pencil, etc.
  • How To Make Layers Of The Earth For Kids :

    • First of all we have take a cup of blue color play dough. Press this dough and make a spherical “ball” shape. This color represent the oceans ,seas . Which are on the outer surface of earth crust.
    • Take a scale or any rectangular shape object and slightly press making v shape on the spherical ball.
    • We have taken small piece of yellow color play dough and stick it to the center of the ball on V shape. This is outer core layer of earth .
    • After yellow color play dough orange color dough is used as the inner core.
    • Brown color of play dough is finally stick on the outer surface of V shape. This layer is mental layer of our 3d model.
    • Lastly different color of play dough are used to make continent. These continent are attached to the outer surface .
    • Finally our layers of the earth for kids is ready for demo.

    layers of the earth for kids Video :

    For better demo of preparation of this project, we have embedded our working process below in video format.


    Here is full process of making this school science projects layers of the earth for kids in video form. This is our YouTube channel DIY Projects. We also have crated many other school science projects in our channel. We also provide many science fair ideas for school students.

    School science projects layers of the earth for kids :

    Working model of earths layer is best science project. It can be performed at home or class room. 3d model of earth layers is also best for kids science project ideas. There are four layers of earth according to our text book.

    Crust :

    Crust is a outer most layer of earth. This the layer in which we are living. It is said that thickness of crust is from 8km to 32km. It consist of all oceans, cultivable land, mountains,etc.

    Mantle :

    Mantle is the second outer layer of earth. This is the most thickest layer of earth. It is hard part. There is no any possibilities of living things in this layer of earth.

    Outer Core :

    Outer core is third layer of earth surface. It is said that thickness of outer core is about 2,200 km. This layer is very hot. Some minerals found in this layer are molten nickel and iron.

    Inner Core :

    Inner core is the fourth layer of earth surface. It is the inner most layer. This is the hottest among all surface. Its thickness is about 1250km.

    We can also divide earths layer in 5 different layers. They are lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer core and inner core.

    What is lithosphere ?

    lithosphere is the outer most layer of earth surface. It consist of crust and some outer part of mental. This is the rocky part. It also consist of soil.

    What is asthenosphere ?

    Asthenosphere is the weak layer of upper mental. Asthenosphere is in the semi molten state.

    Advantages of Working model of earth layers :

    There are lots of advantages of this Working model of earth layers. We have mention some of the merits :

    • We can get knowledge about the concept layers of earth.
    • 3d model of earths layer help us to get knowledge regarding different layers of earth.
    • We can better understand as well as it makes us easy to explain earth’s layer.
    • This science project can be great science fair ideas for kids.
    • It also helps us to make different shapes using play dough.

    Safety tips while making layers of the earths for kids :

    Our first priority before doing any science project must always be safety. We always suggest you to perform any science project protecting yourself.

    • Always ware a safety glass which protects your eyes.
    • Carefully handle knife otherwise it might cut our hand.
    • Do this science project with your parents, teachers or any senior brother and sister.

    Alternative process of making 3d model of the earth layer :

    There are lots of ways to make working model of earths layer as school science project. We can make the 3d model of earth layer using therocole also. For this simply use spherical thermocole and paint different layers of earth.

    Working model of earths layer can also be made using clay also.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Learning the layers of the Earth is fascinating for kids. It opens their minds as they realize all the things that are under their feet. Suddenly the world becomes a much bigger place.

    Innovative Layers of the Earth Activities

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Disclaimer: This article may contain commission or affiliate links. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.
    Not seeing our videos? Turn off any adblockers to ensure our video feed can be seen. Or visit our YouTube channel to see if the video has been uploaded there. We are slowly uploading our archives. Thanks!

    We love doing Earth Sciences. I think learning about our planet is extremely important for our children. They need to understand how our Earth works, plus how our behaviours are impacting it. From studies of bioplastics to learning about the seasons, to studying the layers of the Earth, kids need to learn these important lessons to ensure we have a healthy planet for future generations.

    Not sure about the layers of the Earth? Here is an image!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Earth Sciences are a very important area of study for all students. We only have planet and it is so important that we start teaching students about the inner workings of the Earth and how we can protect it. As part of our studies we decided to look for some more interesting ways to study the Earth’s layers in a hands on way. Here are 10 of the best projects we found!

    LAYERS OF THE EARTH DIY PROJECTS WITH INNOVATIVE MATERIALS

    Gorgeous Layers of the Earth Soap Project For Kids

    This project is what kick started our love of learning all about the inner workings of our planet! These soaps are not only stunning, they are easy to make and environmentally friendly!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Paper Mache Earth Model Bowls

    These bowls make a great science fair project and kids love creating with paper mache!

    Needle Felted Earth with Layers

    Needle felting has gained a lot of popularity recently. Have your students create a model of the Earth and learn these hands on skills.

    Earth Science with Clay

    These activity is really pretty and also a great sensory activity building a model of Earth out of modeling clay.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Play Dough Earth Project

    Make your own play dough then have the kids roll and shape and form a model of the Earth including all the layers.

    Engineer a Slice of Earth Out of Paper

    Bring a little STEM with this project where you build a slice of Earth out of paper then calculate the thicknesses of each layer.

    Build Earth with Lego

    Got a kid that loves to build with Lego? Challenge them to build the Earth out of Lego!

    EDIBLE MODELS OF EARTH

    Earth Layers Pudding Cups

    These layers of the Earth pudding cups are a great way to eat your lesson!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Earth Sugar Cookies

    Why stop at pudding? Really have a blast eating your way through your lessons with these sugar cookies!

    Edible Earth’s Core Project

    This edible model of Earth is one giant rice crispy square! It is fun to make and delicious!

    LESSON MATERIALS FOR LEARNING ABOUT THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH

    Here are a few different resources and kits for learning about planet Earth.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    More Earth Sciences for Kids

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Shelley is the owner and creator of STEAM Powered Family, which she started in 2015 as a way to share her passion for how brains work, plus education and learning. She has a BSc Psychology Specialization, with post grad research and studies in memory, cognition, learning and childhood mental health. She is passionate about exploring educational approaches that promote positive children’s mental health practices, and inclusive practices that encourage a love of learning in all students. Most of all she loves research and figuring out how things work, and sharing that knowledge with others. Shelley also loves reading, writing, hiking and traveling with her family.

    Welcome to STEAM Powered Family! Here we are constantly looking for ways to foster curiosity and a love of learning in our children, regardless of ability or history. With a focus on STEM and STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math), and positive children’s mental health practices, our goal is to foster resilient, healthy minds. Read More…

    Did you like this article? If so, please help by sharing it!

    A couple of weeks ago while at my sister’s house, I noticed a nifty layered spice jar sitting on her window sill. When I asked where she got it, she told me that my niece made it for school – it was a representation of the Earth’s layers.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    It was so cool that I asked my niece to tell me how she made it so that I could share it with y’all. I’ve shown you how to make a paper mache Earth and a construction paper model of Earth’s layers. Now, I give you How to Make a Model of Earth’s Layers – Spice Jar Style!

    Supplies you’ll need to make an Earth’s layers model

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    • Small, decorative jar (Choosing one with a wide mouth will make the project easier.)
    • Assortment of spices, coffee, and/or decorating sprinkles in a variety of colors (or dye salt or sugar using food coloring) – I used the cheap, $1 spices from Walmart. (Oh, and the coffee was an old, out-of-date bag from the flea market.)
    • Small piece of cardboard to separate the layers
    • Plastic wrap (optional)
    • Image depicting the compositional and mechanical layers of the Earth for reference (There is a good image of Earth’s layers here – just scroll down to the heading “Layers of Earth”)

    How to Make an Earth’s Layers Model Spice Jar

    Step 1: Cut the piece of cardboard to fit as snugly inside the middle of the jar as possible. The Earth’s layers jar will be split into two sides, one showing the compositional layers and the other showing the mechanical layers.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    The cardboard will serve to separate the two sides, so it needs to fit snugly to keep the spices from pouring into the other side. (Ask me how I know. There may or may not have been an onion salt landslide during Take 1.)

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Optional: I wadded up a small piece of plastic wrap to place into the bottom of the jar before placing the cardboard inside. This created a snug fit in the bottom of the jar and was easily concealed by the first layer of spices.

    Step 2: Decide which spices will represent which layers and jot down your chart. We used:

    Compositional Layers:

    • Crust – seasoning salt
    • Mantle – coffee
    • Core – paprika

    Mechanical Layers:

    • Lithosphere – yellow sprinkles
    • Asthenosphere – red sprinkles
    • Mesosphere – seasoned salt
    • Outer core – blue sprinkles
    • Inner core – coffee

    And, just for fun, we did a small layer of green sprinkles on the top to represent grass/growing things.

    Step 3: Begin layering! We did one layer at a time on each side of the cardboard to try to keep it from getting pushed to one side and possibly causing us to lose the distinction of each layer during the layering process.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    We attempted to keep the layers fairly proportional to those in the diagram, but we didn’t get too technical with it. We just eyeballed it.

    Optional: Place a bit of wadded up plastic wrap on top of the layers to fill in any remaining space between the spices and the jar lid to prevent shifting. You might also choose to use a Sharpie or dry erase marker to label the layers.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    There you have it – a simple, but fun and effective way to represent the layers of the Earth in a colorful spice jar!

    This article was written by Kris Bales–the previous owner of Weird, Unsocialized Homeschoolers.

    Did you like this article? If so, please help by sharing it!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    *This post may contain affiliate links.

    Do you have a crafty kiddo who loves making things? I do! As we were studying rocks and minerals lately I came up with a twist on the classic play-dough Earth layers project. This project made our lesson so much fun. I can’t wait to share it with you.

    You’ve probably seen models of Earth’s layers made out of different colors of play-dough. Well, I decided to use some polymer clay that I had left from some prior project. I have no idea what the prior project was because I actually found it in a box of left over art supplies from my childhood at my mom’s house. It was probably 15 years old, but it still worked. I guess that stuff really doesn’t dry out!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    We started the project by reading about each layer of the Earth and learning some fun facts. There are 4 layers to the Earth: the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core. Here are some of the cool facts we learned.

    • Even the bottom of the deepest ocean is still part of the crust. That means every single bit of life on the Earth is found on the crust. There is no type of life form that inhabits any other layer of the Earth.
    • The crust is the only layer we can actually reach. It is the only layer scientists are able to drill into and it is definitely the layer we know the most about.
    • 85% of the Earth’s weight comes from the mantle! It is by far the biggest layer. It’s made of solid rock, but since it is so hot the rock isn’t completely hard. It’s more like the texture of molding clay and it slowly moves. That movement causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions!
    • The outer core is liquid rock and it is HOT! We don’t know the exact temperature, but some estimates put it at 4,000 -6,000 degrees Celsius.
    • The inner core is solid rock. Even with the mega hot temperatures the rock can’t melt because of the amount of pressure down that the inner core is under. In fact it is as hot as the sun! Another cool thing about the inner core is that it spins at a different rate from the rest of the Earth and is magnetic.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    After learning about the Earth’s layers we got started on making our beads. To make the beads we picked 5 colors of clay. We used pink for the inner core, orange for the outer core, yellow for the mantle, and of course blue and green for the crust.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    We started by rolling little balls of pink clay. Then we flattened little pieces of orange clay, stuck them all over the outside, and then re-rolled our balls. We repeated the process with the yellow clay and the blue clay. At the end we added some pieces of green on the top and re-rolled our balls one last time.

    Then, I carefully cut each “Earth” in half and used a toothpick to poke holes in the top to make beads. My daughter used the leftover clay to make a bunch of smaller beads, but if I was doing this project with a group I would use pony beads for everything but the main Earth layers bead. We baked the beads at 275 degrees Fahrenheit for about 20 minutes before using them to make some pretty nifty Earth layer necklaces.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    All in all it was a perfect STEAM project for my 8 year old who to combine her interest in science with her desire to be a fashion designer. She loved it and we definitely had fun learning.

    Grab the Checklists Now!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    • Completely editable!
    • Designed for teachers!
    • Type & print!

    See the privacy policy here.

    Got it! Check your email and confirm your email address, please. 🙂

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    From the core to the crust, the Earth is a pretty big deal. It has a diameter of about 6,400 km, and it is made of various layers that help change the surface of the earth. These layers are defined by either what they are made of or how they move. When we look at the chemical composition of each layer, we are defining them as compositional layers. The compositional layers are the crust, the mantle and the core. When we look at the mechanical properties of the layers, we are defining them as the mechanical layers. The five mechanical layers are the lithosphere, the asthenosphere, the mesosphere, the inner core and the outer core. Although we only see the outermost layer of the earth, we have learned a lot about the layers underneath by looking at seismic waves and various rocks at the surface.

    The three compositional layers of the earth are defined by significant changes in chemical composition. The outermost layer is the crust. It is the thinnest layer making up only about 1 percent of the earth. The crust is mostly made of elements like silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), oxygen (O), sodium (Na) and minerals made of these elements. The crust can be subdivided into two types – oceanic crust and continental crust. Oceanic crust tends to be thinner (approx. 5-10km thick) than continental crust and younger too! Continental crust is on average 30 km thick, and contains the oldest rocks and minerals. Both types of crust cover the entire outer portion of the earth. Below the crust lies the mantle (approximately 2,890 km thick.) The mantle is made of silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) like the crust, but it also contains large amounts of iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg). The final compositional layer of the earth is the core (approx.3,480 km thick). The core is made of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni). It is under intense pressure and high temperatures, and it is the densest layer of the earth. Although these layers may share common elements, the contents differ enough to create the distinct layers.

    The five mechanical layers of the earth are defined by how the layers move. The layers can be described as rigid, plastic or liquid in consistency. The outermost mechanical layer is the lithosphere. The lithosphere is rigid, and it includes the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle. The lithosphere is divided into the tectonic plates, areas of continental crust and/or oceanic crust that move and shift over time. The tectonic plates of the lithosphere move and shift on the plastic layer called the asthenosphere. The asthenosphere is under more pressure than the lithosphere and has a higher temperature. It is considered plastic because the rock has the ability to flow more than a rigid layer, but not as easily as a liquid layer. The rock in the asthenosphere could melt if exposed to the surface, but it is under extreme pressure causing it to flow like a plastic. The mesosphere is the layer below the asthenosphere. The mesosphere is hotter than the asthenosphere, but it is rigid because it is experiencing more pressure than the layers above. The last mechanical layers of the earth are found in the core. The core is split into the outer core and the inner core because the two layers differ in rigidity. The outer core is liquid iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni). The flow of the outer core creates and sustains the earth’s magnetic field. Unlike the outer core, the inner core is solid. The inner core is made from mostly iron (Fe), but it can also contain nickel (Ni) and traces of precious elements like gold (Au). It is extremely hot, and under extreme pressure from the layers of the earth and atmosphere around it. All of these layers work together to make our dynamic earth!

    Create a foldable Earth with the activity below to teach students about the various layers of the earth. To learn how the asthenosphere moves tectonic plates or learn about the natural disasters caused by that movement, check out our new Earth Science on Wheels topic Dynamic Earth!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    This project models two different ways to understand the layers of the earth. It addresses the compositional layers of the earth, and the mechanical layers of the earth.

    Materials:

    • • Layers of the Earth templates (1 per student)
    • Construction paper for background
    • Scissors
    • Glue
    • Pencils
    • Colored pencils or crayons

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Procedure:

    1. Pass out template to each student.
    2. Instruct students to cut out the Earth. Once they have cut the outside, tell them to cut along the dashed line that says “cut here.”
    3. Next, fold along the “Fold line.” Then, set the Earth aside.
    4. Now, tell students to cut out the quarter circle labeled A. This will represent the mechanical layers of the earth.
    5. Invite students to color each of the areas in the quarter circle a different color starting from the inside:
      1. Yellow – inner corre
      2. Orange – outer core
      3. Red – mesosphere
      4. Pink – asthenosphere
      5. Purple – lithosphereHow to create a school project on the layers of the earth
    6. Have students set aside the mechanical layers (A.) for now
    7. Instruct students to cut out the second quarter circle (B.) from the template sheet. These will represent the compositional layers of the earth. Invite students to color each of the sections a different color:
      1. Yellow – core
      2. Red – mantle
      3. Brown – crust
    8. Have students set aside the compositional layers (B.) for now
    9. Instruct students to glue the earth, to the background paper. Remind them to not glue down the flap.
    10. Tell students to place the mechanical layers (A.) on the background paper underneath the flap and glue it to the paper.
    11. They should then take the quarter circle that represents the compositional layers (B.), and place it on the backside of the flap of the Earth. Then, carefully glue it to the back of the flap.
    12. Once completed, show students how to flip up the flap and see the mechanical layers on the background page and the compositional layers on the back of the flap. Students can add notes to the layers to help them learn what the layers do!

    Kelsey started working at the Museum through Xplorations summer camp, and this fall she started working as a programs facilitator. She is a presenter for several outreach programs, assists with overnight programs, and assists with education collections during summer camp. Her favorite dinosaur is a Triceratops found at HMNS Sugar Land. The Triceratops is also named “Kelsey.”

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Long ago, many people believed the world was flat. Explorers who loved geography—studying the earth—eventually proved it was round. As people learned more and more about what the world looked like, they shared this knowledge with everyone by making globes.

    Creating an earth model is a fun, hands-on way to learn all about our planet. In this project, you’ll build a model of the world, complete with all seven continents and four major oceans.

    Problem:

    To understand where major land masses and bodies of water are located on earth by building a model.

    Materials:

    • Painter’s smock
    • Newspaper sheets
    • Tape
    • Globe
    • Large Styrofoam ball
    • Blue tempera paint
    • Green tempera paint
    • Black tempera paint (or black marker)
    • Paintbrush

    Procedure:

    1. Cover your table with several sheets of newspaper to protect it from the tempura paint. Tape the sides of the newspaper down so it doesn’t slide around.
    2. Slip a painter’s smock over your clothes, so you don’t end up with a new painted outfit!
    3. Put your Styrofoam ball in the center of the newspaper.
    4. Place your globe somewhere nearby so that you can look at it for guidance whenever you need to.
    5. Look at the globe and find the seven continents: Asia, North America, South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia and Europe.
    6. Locate the four major oceans on your globe: Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean.
    7. Using the north pole as a starting point, paint the seven continents onto the Styrofoam ball with green tempera paint. Try to keep it to scale (make it proportional) as best you can.
    8. Paint the rest of the Styrofoam ball with the blue tempera paint. Other than the seven continents, the earth is filled with water.
    9. Set your Styrofoam ball aside to dry. This may take a few hours, so you might want to plan on finishing the project the next day.
    10. Paint the names of the four oceans and seven continents on the Styrofoam ball with black tempera paint, using the non-brush end of the paintbrush to write with. If using paint is too tricky, write the names of the oceans and continents with a black marker.
    11. Set your earth model aside to dry one last time.

    Results:

    Your child will be able to see more clearly which oceans border which continents. They’ll notice how far one continent is away from another, and where the north and south poles are in relation to the land masses.

    Many children learn best by participating in hands-on activities. Making a model of the earth is a great project for helping your kid begin to understand and develop an appreciation of geography. Don’t stop at using a Styrofoam ball to create a model earth. Try creating a clay earth, paper mache earth, or even an old volleyball earth! Recycled materials make for excellent science fair materials.

    Once your child learns all of the major oceans and continents, delve deeper into geography by having him paint the names of the countries on the model earth, as well as the names of some of the larger bodies of water. Or, keep the science going by building out the rest of the solar system; it’s never too early to start space exploration!

    Disclaimer and Safety Precautions

    Education.com provides the Science Fair Project Ideas for informational purposes only. Education.com does not make any guarantee or representation regarding the Science Fair Project Ideas and is not responsible or liable for any loss or damage, directly or indirectly, caused by your use of such information. By accessing the Science Fair Project Ideas, you waive and renounce any claims against Education.com that arise thereof. In addition, your access to Education.com’s website and Science Fair Project Ideas is covered by Education.com’s Privacy Policy and site Terms of Use, which include limitations on Education.com’s liability.

    Warning is hereby given that not all Project Ideas are appropriate for all individuals or in all circumstances. Implementation of any Science Project Idea should be undertaken only in appropriate settings and with appropriate parental or other supervision. Reading and following the safety precautions of all materials used in a project is the sole responsibility of each individual. For further information, consult your state’s handbook of Science Safety.

    DISCLOSURE | This post is sponsored on behalf of Floracraft® Make It: Fun Crafts®. All opinions and ideas are 100% my own. This post may also contain affiliate links.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earthEach month I receive a box full of foam items / shapes from Make It: Fun Crafts® that we are asked to create projects with based on a specific theme. This month we were asked to create a project focused on learning since we are right in the midst of science fair season. While I don’t typically post a lot of these types of projects I thought it would be fun to do a project based on something my kiddo’s have been learning about in school. This Layers of The Earth DIY Foam Model is perfect for students of all ages to create.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earthFirst, cut out a portion of the 8″ foam ball to show the layers of the earth. For this you can either use a foam saw or the foam wire cutter, it heats up and cut clean through the foam. Just cut it out like a piece of pie.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    This next step is optional, but I prefer the way it looks with it. I used the Smooth Finish to create a smooth surface on the foam ball. It makes the model easier to paint.

    Using a plastic spatula or a popsicle stick apply the Smooth Finish all over the foam ball.

    Allow the Smooth Finish to dry completely, then using sandpaper lightly sand the entire surface. It’s totally okay to have a bumpy surface on the outside of the sphere, it will look more like earth.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    With acrylic paint, paint the layers of earth in the center of the sphere and let dry.

    Then paint your oceans and continents. Once that is dry you can either choose to label your layers of the earth with a marker or leave it as is. I left mine without labels so I could make the kids guess.

    If you do choose to label the layers here is the way it should go:

    • Brown Layer = Crust
    • Coral = Mantle
    • Orange = Outer Core
    • Yellow = Inner Core

    The last step is to paint a wood dowel and insert it into the center of the earth model. I propped my model up in a tin can, you can use whatever container you’d like. If you want to create a wood stand that would work too.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earthIt turned out pretty fun, my boys loved it and knew the layers right away. In fact, my youngest is super excited to take it to class to share as part of their science lessons.

    This post may contain affiliate links.

    Explore the inside of the earth with this easy layers of the Earth preschool craft! It’s perfect for Earth Day and your Earth science activities.

    There are so many Earth science activities for older kids. Activities that go in depth about the layers of the earth, their purposes, and more. But, there really isn’t much for preschoolers.

    Until now! This Earth preschool craft is super simple to make. And, you can choose how in depth you want to go as to what each layer does and the depth of each one.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    This simple preschool craft is easy to assemble with just some paper and glue. It doesn’t get any easier than that!

    Layers of the Earth Preschool Craft

    With this step-by-step tutorial, you’ll have this craft ready for your preschoolers in no time.

    What You’ll Need

    • 6 Pieces 12”x12” Paper—red, orange, yellow, green, blue, black

    • White Paper, small piece

    • Brass Paper Fastener

    • Optional: Geometric Compass

    What You’ll Do

    Use the compass to draw circles on the colored paper in these sizes:

    • black and blue paper make 11 ½” circles

    • red paper make a 10” circle

    • orange paper make a 6” circle

    • yellow paper make a 3 ½” circle.

    Using the green paper, cut out shapes that resemble some of the continents. You can fit 3-4 on your earth.

    You can look up pictures of continents to make look very realistic, or just kind of wing it and cut out some different green shapes that resemble the continents.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Cut out one fourth of the blue circle so you have three fourths of it left intact. Discard the fourth piece, you don’t need it. Glue the green continents onto the blue earth.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Lay the black circle down, put the red one on top of that, then the orange, and then the yellow. Make sure they are centered.

    Use the marker to write Inner Core on the top edge of the yellow circle. Right above that write Outer Core on the orange circle. Right above that write Mantle on the red circle. On a small piece of white paper write Crust, and glue it on the black circle right above the word mantle.

    If you choose, write the mileage on the circles. On the opposite side of the yellow circle write 778 Miles on the edge. Above that on the orange circle write 1,367 Miles. Above that on the red circle write 1,800 Miles. On a small piece of white paper write 25 Miles and glue it on the black circle right above the other miles you wrote.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Take a paper fastener and poke it through the center of the blue circle on the top side with the continents. Put the yellow circle on next, then the orange, the red, and finally the black circle. Secure the fastener at the back of the black circle.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Now you have the earth and its layers. You can spin them to see the facts about each layer or just see the layers without writing.

    What a fun learning craft for young kids!

    Related Posts

    • Share 60
    • Pin 6.9K

    About Homeschool Preschool

    Tara is a Southern girl at heart and mother of 3. As a longtime homeschool momma, she is passionate about equipping and encouraging mommas in their efforts to educate their littlest learners at home. Tara loves to crochet and read in her downtime. She is also a self-proclaimed planner addict and shutterbug!

    Leave a Reply Cancel reply

    Welcome to Homeschool Preschool. My goal is to equip moms to educate their preschoolers at home. Read More…

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Greetings, Earthlings! Did you know the Earth has four layers? To learn more about the layers, I am suggesting you try this fun project out with your kids!

    The four layers of the Earth are the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core. When you are making these treats, it is important to understand how thick each layer is compared to one another. The crust is not very thick relative to the rest of the earth. For oceanic crust, the average thickness is between 3 and 6 miles. Continental crust is a good deal thicker, with an average thickness of about 22 miles. The distance from the Earth’s surface to its center is about 4,000 miles which means the crust does not even cover 1% of the distance. The mantle is the largest layer within the earth, spanning about 1,800 miles. The outer core is the earth’s second thickest layer at 1,500 miles thick and the inner core is only about 760 miles thick. But, being the earth’s inmost layer, it’s also a full sphere shape.

    Take a deeper look into these key terms before jumping into this workshop.

    Key Terms

    Crust: The earth’s crust is the top and thinnest layer. It’s divided into two types, oceanic and continental. The crust is unique in that it’s the only layer made entirely of moving plates. This motion is actually the basis for a major theory: plate tectonics. The crust is made primarily of three elements: oxygen, silicon and aluminum.

    Mantle: The layer right below the crust is the mantle. It is an interesting layer in that it has both solid and liquid parts. By far, most of it is liquid.

    Outer Core: The outer core is fluid, like the mantle. The outer core is extremely hot at 8100 degrees Fahrenheit. This causes it to be a liquid.

    Inner Core: The inner core is solid and is not unlike the outer core in terms of composition. Heat increases as we go deeper into the earth (the inner core’s temperature is 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit). But, so does pressure. In the earth’s inner core, there’s actually so much pressure that it prevents the rock from melting. It pushes the atoms together, maintaining a solid state.

    Materials

    Directions

    Step 1: Make four separate batches of rice krispy treats, four separate colors (Melt butter and marshmellows together, add food coloring, add Rice Krispies)

    Step 2: Spray bowl with Pam so the Rice Krispies won’t stick

    Step 3: Cover the inside of the bowl with batch 1

    Step 4: Cover batch 1 with batch 2

    Step 5-6: Repeat for batch 3 and 4

    Step 7: Put in the refridgeatr for about 30 minutes to cool

    Step 8: Remove from the bowl and Ta-Da! You have the Earth’s Layers!

    Photos of finished products can be found here and here

    More on this project can be found here. If you need more directions, look at this site.

    More information on the Earth’s layers

    Here is my favorite Magic School Bus episode on the Earth’s layers

    4 Answers

    • Thank Writer
    • Comment
    • Blurt
    • Thank Writer
    • Comment
    • Blurt
    • Thank Writer
    • Comment
    • Blurt
    • Thank Writer
    • Comment
    • Blurt

    You might also like.

    Self Build

    There are many things required to build a proper house. Here are some of the things that you will require.

    Science Education

    If thats important to you, maybe put more effort in than asking others to find out for you.

    Recycling

    Sound s kinda hard, but if you mean by wood then thats a lot easier then garbage try making one. start.

    Recycling

    Paper mashee, straws, and twist ties are always a good start. Crumpled paper, in different colours either.

    School Projects

    Yes first you need is red,yellow,green,white,orange,brown,and blue clay. Now the green and blue clay.

    Cell Biology

    Engineering Science

    Limestone is not a particularly good structural material. It is not as strong as some alternatives under.

    Cars

    Strength and durability would be two very important properties.

    Self Build

    Pucca House: A pucca house is one, which has walls and roof made of the following material. Wall.

    Cultures

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    So Much Beneath the Surface

    We spend pretty much all our time on Earth’s crust. It’s where all the land and oceans are. But below the crust, there’s a lot going on.

    The crust is a lot like the skin on an apple. It doesn’t go very deep. But it’s still deeper than you could ever dig. It’s about 19 miles (30 km) deep on average on land. At the bottom of the ocean, the crust is still about 3 miles (5 km) deep.

    Below the crust is Earth’s biggest layer: the mantle. The mantle is a rocky, mostly solid layer that moves slowly beneath the crust. The mantle goes 1,800 miles (2,900 km) deep. Below the mantle is the outer core; it’s made of liquid iron and nickel. At the center of Earth is the inner core. It’s a solid center made of iron and nickel metals.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    The colors in this diagram are the same colors used in the Earth Fan worksheet below. Remember what each color represents as you assemble and use your fan.

    Be a Fan of Earth and Make an Earth Fan!

    To remember that Earth is much more than just the surface we see every day, make this Earth layer fan.

    What You’ll Need

    • 3 copies of the Earth Fan worksheet
      (Available in a black and white version for coloring)
    • Scissors
    • Glue stick
    • 2 jumbo popsicle sticks

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    What To Do

    Cut out the three square shapes.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Fold along the first dotted line.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Flip over the paper and fold to the next dotted line.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Keep folding, turning the paper over after each fold, until you’ve folded a fan.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Fold the fan in half.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Glue the inside of the fold together to create a small fan section.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Repeat steps three through seven with the other two printouts. Now you have three small fans.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Glue the first section to your popsicle stick with the fold of the fan touching the top of the popsicle stick.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Glue the next fan section on top. Make sure the fan folds point the same direction.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Glue the last fan section on top.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Glue the other popsicle stick on top. Press down to get a good seal.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Let the glue dry for a few minutes.

  • Open your fan and cool yourself off.
  • How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Remember what the colors represent:

    The inner core is yellow.
    The outer core is red.
    The mantle is orange and tan.
    The crust is a thin brown line.

    Download a PDF of this activity.

    Lively Layers

    Earth’s layers are responsible for all kinds of activity, like tectonics, volcanoes, and the magnetosphere.

    Did you like this article? If so, please help by sharing it!

    We had a lot of fun making our paper mache Earth model. We decided to do a cut-away version to show Earth’s layers. I was pleasantly surprised that it turned out just like I had in mind with the slight exception of the fact that I couldn’t find any round balloons, so it wasn’t perfectly round. It made a great, hands-on science project to which I think we’ll refer back frequently as we go through Christian Kids Explore Earth and Space this year.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Supplies needed to make a paper mache Earth model

    • a balloon
    • Sharpie marker
    • newspaper, torn into strips about 1-inch wide
    • flour
    • salt
    • water
    • paints

    How to make a paper mache Earth model

    Step 1: Inflate balloon and, if you’re making a cut-away model, mark off the cut-away area. I drew an area covering about a fourth of the balloon for the cut-away portion.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Step 2: Make the paper mache paste by mixing flour, about a tablespoon of salt (to help prevent mold) and enough water to make a thick paste with a consistency similar to glue. I didn’t give an exact measurement for the flour because we didn’t really measure it. I’d say the first couple of layers, in which we covered most of the balloon, took about a cup of flour. Subsequent layers over the “cut-away” part only took a quarter to a half-cup.

    **I did discover that any extra can be stored in the refrigerator for a day or so. I just had to stir it up and add a bit more water the next time we used it.

    Step 3: Cover all of the balloon except the cut-away portion with strips of newspaper dipped in the mache paste. Make sure to make the strips lining the cut-away portion as square as possible. Let dry overnight, or until thoroughly dry, and add a second layer.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Step 4: Once you have at least two layers of dry paper mache covering the balloon, burst the balloon and remove it from the paper mache shell.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Step 5: Cover the cut away portion of the paper mache shell by layering newspaper strips as tautly as possible over the open portion. Keep everything as taut and square as possible and try to make a defined line separating the top and bottom halves. Let dry overnight and add a second layer.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    You may want to wad up a small ball of dry newspaper for the Earth’s core. If so, do this when you add the second layer. Cover this with a couple of layers of newspaper dipped in the paper mache paste and let dry.

    Step 6: Once the layers are completely dry, draw the circles marking the Earth’s layers (we only did the standard four, even though our text listed five) and draw out the continents, being sure to leave some of them cut off for the cut-away part.

    For Earth’s layers, I drew a circle around the lump we made for the core. Then, I drew four lines off from that, sectioning the center into fourths. I then drew arcs (think: rainbows), connecting them at the lines to achieve even layers. Those who are more artistic than I am can probably skip this step. 😉

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Step 7: Paint the layers, the continents and the oceans. We used acrylic paint. You may want to let the paint dry a bit between “layers,” so that the colors don’t run together. Then, enjoy your masterpiece!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    **As a mostly unrelated note, I’m sure people wonder, so, in the interest of full disclosure, those beautifully manicured nails are not mine. They belong to my thirteen-year-old daughter. Mine are short, stubby, brittle little things that break at the drop of a hat. Yes, they are her natural nails and, yes, I am slightly jealous.

    This article was written by Kris Bales–the previous owner of Weird, Unsocialized Homeschoolers.

    Did you like this article? If so, please help by sharing it!

    This week long lesson uses a three dimensional model to help teach the Earth’s layers, longitude/latitude, and plate tectonics. The activity allows students to build a scaled 3D model of the Earth, which they use and interact with to complete activity sheets. The model is constructed using basic materials (paper, cardboard, string, and glue) and can be broken down to fit into a folder. Finally, the lesson is broken into four daily activities, each day focusing on different material. Worksheets and PowerPoints are provided for each daily activity.

    • Students construct a scaled model of the Earth using basic materials.
    • Using the model, students learn about Earth’s layers, latitude/longitude, and plate tectonics.
    • Students develop an ability to visualize and understand geologic processes in three dimensions.
    • This lesson was designed for introductory Earth science (grade 6-9). The goal of the activity is for the students to build their own Earth model and use this model to understand the Earth’s layers and what drives plate tectonics. Students will also learn about latitude and longitude and map projection. The lesson also helps students visualize structures and processes in three dimensions.
    • This activity covers standards based on the structure of the Earth and plate tectonics.
    • This activity starts with building the model. Teachers should build the model first. Click on the links above for model print-outs and instructions on how to build the model. Depending on class size, teachers should have each student or group start building the model. The model is based on 8.5” x 11” print outs, which students will cutout and glue onto the appropriate material. The model will probably take about 2 class periods (50 min) to build. After each student or group has a completed model the lesson shifts to using short PowerPoints and activity sheets. The teacher will lead the students through the activity sheet, using the model as the guide to answer the questions. The activity ends with an overview of topics covered and exam. Students will be provided an overview sheet, which will be slowly filled in each day. This sheet will serve (in combination with the model) as an overview study guide for the students. The overview sheet is broken into four quadrants that represent the four days of activities. Students fill in the overview sheet clockwise.
    • 8.5” x 11” sheets of paper (thirteen).
    • Printer (color or black and white).
    • Cardboard (three 8.5”x11” pieces).
    • Manila Folder (three 8.5”x11” pieces).
    • Glue.
    • String (4 “student” arm lengths).
    • Paper Clips (three).
    • Day 1: Earth’s Layers.
    • Day 2: Latitude and Longitude.
    • Day 3: Rheology and Heat Flow.
    • Day 4: Plate Tectonics.
    • Day 5: Review and Test.
    • It is suggested that teachers give the pre-test at the beginning of Day 1 activities. The post-test of Day 5 is a variation of the same questions and material. Grading of the model itself is highly recommended. Evaluation should include completion and quality of model construction. The checklist can be used as a guide for model assessment.
    This section describes the topics that are covered each day of the week. Each day begins with a short PowerPoint introducing the students to the material that is being covered. Activity sheets are then handed out and students use the model as a 3D reference to answer the questions. The teacher should demonstrate the activities using the model they built. Below are the daily PowerPoints, activity sheets, teacher keys, and instructions.
    • The students learn the basics of the Earth’s layers.
    • Teacher first gives out the pre-test for assessment purposes.
    • After the exam, the teacher hands out the overview sheet for students to keep for the whole week. The students will add information to it daily.
    • Present the provided powerpoint on the Earth’s Layers and Structure.
    • Students should unpack the model pieces and review sheet. Have them build the model.
    • Present the provided PowerPoint on Latitude and Longitude.
    • Hand out activity sheet and have students complete the sheet. They should use the model for reference.
    • Present the provided PowerPoint on the Earth’s Rheology and Heat Flow.
    • Students should work on provided activity sheet on Rheology and Heat Flow and hand it in.
    • Present the provided PowerPoint on the Introduction to Plate Tectonics.
    • Students should work on the activity sheet on Plate Tectonics and hand it in.
    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth
    Earth’s Layers

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth
    Plate Tectonics and Convection

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    The Earth is not just one big ball that’s solid throughout, although it might look that way! But it is made up of different layers, a bit like an onion. Each layer you peel off is made up of different things and they do different things too. Let’s get on with it and find all there is to know about the layers of the Earth!

    How Many Layers Does the Earth Have

    • The Earth has 4 layers
    • Crust – We live on this part
    • Mantle – Mostly solid rock but parts are hotter and more fluid
    • Outer Core – Made up of liquid metal and rock
    • Inner Core – Solid Rock made up of iron and nickel
    • Its radius is around 6371 km or 1,800 miles

    What are the layers of the Earth?

    The Earth is made of four layers. Let’s start from the outside and move our way in. The top layer, which is what we stand on is the crust, next comes the mantle, and finally the core. Some of these layers are made up of even more layers and they’re always on the move. The Earth is mostly made of rock and metal. Scientists can’t exactly get in a rocket and head right to the middle of the Earth, or the core, so it’s difficult to know exactly what’s there. But being as clever as they are, they are always coming up with new ideas, and as measuring equipment becomes more advanced so they learn new things all the time.

    What is the Crust?

    The crust is an outer solid layer and this is where all life exists on the earth’s surface, including us, animals, mountains, sea, and soil. It is about 8km thick in the ocean bed, which is called the oceanic crust. The oceanic crust is mostly made from basalt rock.

    Then there’s the continental crust which is covered by land and is made mostly out of granite. Above that granite is a sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks form over long periods of time and are made from debris, chemical sediment, and broken rocks. It is between 5km to 70km thick.

    The crust is the only later on Earth that scientists can study, as they can drill into it. So this is the layer that we know the most about!

    But how do they study the crust? Well, they watch how waves travel through the Earth, called Seismic waves, which are caused by earthquakes or eruptions and the movement of tectonic plates. They also watch things like pressure and temperature

    They use a machine called a seismograph to study the waves.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    What is the Mantle?

    The next layer that comes is called the mantle and here’s all the info you need to understand this layer of the Earth.

    The mantle is about 2,900km thick and amazingly it makes up about 85% of the Earth’s weight. Wow! That’s one heavy layer.

    It is made molten or melted, iron, minerals, and other semi-solid rocks that will still flow under pressure.

    report this ad In this layer, the rocks rise. Those clever scientists think that when they rise from the very intense heat, and then cool down again, they sink back to the core. This movement makes the crust break into plates or different sections.

    What happens when the crust breaks up into plates? Well, they move and crash into each other and this causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This movement is how new mountains and sea beds are formed. Wow, that’s interesting.

    As we mentioned earlier, the oceanic crust is made of basalt, which is a really thick rock, and this can press into the mantle and then fill with water.

    This is amazing. The continents were made from lighter blocks that float on the mantle like massive big icebergs.

    How do they explore the mantle? This is usually done from the sea bed where the layer is thinner than it is on land. They first explored it back in 1996. But, they actually gave up as they just couldn’t get it right. In 2007 they drilled 7,000m below the seabed from a ship. This drilling was three times deeper than any other drillings that they’d done.

    What is the Core?

    Next up is the core! This is made up of two layers, the inner and the outer core. The Earth has formed 4.5 billion years ago, and when this happened, all the heavy materials sunk to the middle, and this became the inner core. The lighter ones like air and water stayed on the top on the crust.

    • The inner core is kind of like a solid lead ball, which is about 2,400km thick. No wonder it’s like a solid lead ball! There’s heaps of pressure in the inner core, and that means it actually can’t melt. This is unbelievable!
    • The temperature in the inner core is between 4, 982⁰, and 7,204⁰C. That’s seriously hot and just as hot as the surface of the sun. No wonder they can’t explore here, everyone would fry! Have you ever spilled some boiling water on yourself? Well if you have, you know it’s seriously sore! That water is 100⁰C. Now compare that to the inner core…can you even begin to imagine how hot it is?

    The inner core apparently spins at a different speed to the rest of the planet and this causes the Earth’s magnetic field.

    It is because of the flow of metals in the inner core that the Earth is magnetic. The effect of this magnetic field spreads way beyond the Earth and goes off far into space. It actually forms a barrier that helps protect the Earth from the Sun’s destructive solar winds. Wow that’s interesting.

    The second layer of the core is made of liquid iron and nickel and is about 2,300km thick. As we don’t really know for sure, there are some people who think that it is 5,150km thick and between 3,982⁰C to 4,982⁰C hot! Whoa!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Some Other Interesting Facts

    The mantle of the earth is solid rock, but amazingly it can be molded, just like play-dough. This certainly isn’t the type of playdough you’d want to play with; your fingers would burn as it’s so crazy, mad hot!

    The inner core and the outer core of the Earth are as big as Mars! Now that’s something.

    Kids are going to love learning about the Layers of the Earth for Kids with this fun lesson on what is the earth made of. This lesson for preschool, pre-k, kindergarten, first grade, 2nd grade, and 3rd graders will use some fun Earth Science Experiments to study the layers that make up our planet Earth. Take a peak at our easy playdough earth layers, books, earth layers worksheet, and a fun core sampling activity for kids.
    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    What is the Earth Made of

    This what is the Earth made of lesson is a fun, hands-on earth science unit for preschoolers, kindergartners, grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3 students. We will explore the 4 layers of the Earth using a fun, informational, and easy-to-read book. Then we will dive into some hands-on earth science experiments to help the information click and make sense including a super cool playdough earth model that helps kids really visualize what the layers look like. Next up students will learn how scientists take a core sample to deterine what the Earth is made of. This is such a fun way to play and learn while having FUN! These ideas are great for parents, teachers, and homeschoolers alike.

    4 layers of the earth

    We started our Homeschool Earth Science unit by reading Planet Earth / Inside Out by Gail Gibbons. I found this to be a good resource with nice clear illustrations. I often make the mistake of trying to procure 4-5 books per topic and then never use all of them. This was my favorite of all the ones I read through at the library. I will point out that if you are a Creationist who believes in a young earth (as we do) you will want to skim over a couple parts.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Layers of the Earth for Kids

    To help the kids really understand the layers we did an Earth Science Experiment for kids. I wanted to help them visualize it. Studies show we remember better if we see, hear, say & do things! So we made a model of the earth’s layers out of playdough. We talked about each layer as we made it. Then we repeated the layers again after we cut it open. As a visual learner myself this unit really helped me retain the information and it was such a pretty earth!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Playdough Earth Layers

    You will need 6 balls of play dough (store bought or homemade playdough). Make the red ball the smallest and increase slightly in size for each remaining color (yellow, orange, purple) ending with the blue ball being the largest. You will also need some green to shape the planets on the outside of your earth.
    Now begin layering up your earth by flattening the yellow ball and putting it around the red ball layer.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Pinch the ball closed so it looks like you just have a yellow ball. Repeat with the remaining layers one by one ending with the blue layer. Use Planet Earth Inside Out by Gail Gibbons to make your layers as accurately as possible.
    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Now use the green playdough to arrange planets on the outside of your earth. (this would also make an excellent project for Earth day!)

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Now for the fun part of this earth science experiment. Using a knife cut the playdough earth ball in half. Now you will see all the earth’s layers!

    Above you can see a view of the inside of the earth with the parts labeled. Isn’t it pretty!

    What’s Inside the Earth

    Taking a Core Sample Experiment

    Next I posed a question to the kids, “How do we know what is in the middle of the earth?” Goofy (7) immediately remembered how HOT it is and that we couldn’t “go there.” So we talked about how Scientists (Geologists) take core samples. To help them really understand what a core sample is we did a Cupcake Core Sample. I made cupcakes with several different layers and then frosted them brown (dirt) on top.

    Earth Science Experiments

    The kids used a straw and stuck it straight in. They pulled it out and could see a sample of what was in the cupcake. If you look carefully you can see a brown, purple, green, and yellow layer in the straw. They thought it was VERY cool! Then to help them really get the correlation with the cupcake and playdough earth model I cut the cupcake down the middle.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Earth’s Core for Kids

    They both immediately said Ooooh!! I get it! I couldn’t wish for anything else! Science fun that my kids GET!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Solar System Project

    Help kids learn the name of the planets and arrange them in order from the sun with this fun playdough solar system projects for kids. This is a quick and easy-to-make solar system model that can be done along with a solar system project or done cooperatively with each student adding a planet.

    Earth Layers Worksheet

    To help kids reinforce what they learned, don’t miss our free printable earth’s interior worksheetcoming soon!

    Fun Science Projects

    Water Displacement Science Project

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Water displacement science project is a cool science experiments that helps us to understand about Archimedes principle . It is very difficult to measure the volume of irregular object. With the help of Archimedes principle we can easily measure volume of any object that can be submerged. Today we are making a science experiment related to water displacement.

    This science experiment is best for 5th grade science projects. You can make this school experiments and calculate volume of irregular object.

    What is Water displacement experiment ?

    Water displacement experiment is a easy experiment that can be done with some common items. When we emerge an object in a liquid inside a enclosed vessel then volume of liquid rise’s. This increased volume is a volume of object.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earthwater displacement science project

    Materials required for Archimedes principle experiment :

    There are a lot of items we need to make this science project. We have listed some of the essential items.

    • Beaker or a clear water glass
    • Clear water
    • Color
    • irregular object

    How to make Water displacement Project?

    After all materials are collected now its time to make this school science project:

    • First of all take clear water glass or beaker.
    • Pour a half glass with clean water.
    • Take the measurement of the initial reading.
    • Immerse an irregular object inside this vessel. As we put this object volume of liquid increases.
    • Take the final reading and note it.
    • Finally our science experiment is completed.

    Water Displacement Science Project :

    For better demo of preparation of this project, we have embedded our working process below in video format.

    Here is full process of making this science project in video form. This is our YouTube channel DIY Projects. We also have crated many other school science projects in our channel. We also provide many science fair ideas for school students.

    Water Displacement Science Project Explanation :

    Archimedes principle can be simply understand as, When we put an object partially or full immerse inside liquid then the weight of that object is equal to weight of liquid displaced.

    Advantages of water displacement experiment :

    There are many advantages of this class 5 science project.

    1. Understand Archimedes principle.
    2. We can measure volume of irregular object.

    Safety tips while making This experiment :

    Our first priority before doing any science project must always be safety. We always suggest you to perform any science project protecting yourself.

    • Always ware a safety glass that protects your eyes.
    • Properly handle diy knife and scissor.
    • We suggest to do this science project with your parents, teachers or any elders.

    Also read Science fair projects for students :

    • Robotic Arm
    • Wheel And Axle Science Experiment
    • Earth Layers Science project
    • Rising Water Experiment
    • Seed Germination Experiment

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earthArchimedes principle experiment

    Questions and Answers:

    • How do you calculate volume of irregular object ?

    We can calculate volume of irregular object using Archimedes principle.

    • Who invented Archimedes principle ?

    Greek mathematician Archimedes introduced Archimedes principle .

    • What is formula of Archimedes principle ?

    Archimedes principle formula ( Fb = ρ x g x V )

    If you are searching any science project for class 5. I hope this experiment can be of great help. This documentation can be best for your working model of escalator.

    If you like this science project or has any queries about this project. You can simply comment us at our comment section.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    There is something fascinating about playing in the dirt. Most kids love digging their hands into fresh earth and exploring the various textures. With temperatures rising, it is the perfect time to learn about the layers of the earth, how rocks form, and other fun geology lessons by making a sediment jar!

    The sediment jar is super simple to make, and it teaches kids a lot about how rocks form, and why the earth has layers. My kids were fascinated by this dirty, hands-on science activity.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Sediment Jar Science Investigation

    Learn all about the layers of the earth, why some rocks have layers, and how sediment forms and is moved about with this super-fun sediment jar science investigation!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    You’ll need just a few things for this project:

    • Various types of dirt, soil, plant matter, sand, etc
    • A large jar
    • Water
    • Magnifying glass
    • Science journal

    First, have your kids run around the yard and collect a variety of materials to put in their jar. Mine found leaves, potting soil, sand, clay, small rocks, and dry dirt.

    Next, bring everything inside and mix it all up.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Fill a jar about 3/4 of the way full of water.

    Pour the dirt into the jar.

    Then put on the lid, and shake things up!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Set the jar in a sunny spot and watch the layers start to form.

    Our jar started to form layers almost instantly.

    Within an hour, we had clearly defined layers.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    The kids loved examining the layers to see what material landed where in the jar. Older kids may note that the layers in the jar look similar to the inside of a mountain where it has been carved into to make a road. Younger kids will love exploring the jar’s layers with a magnifying glass and identifying each type of soil.

    Sediment Jar Science Explained

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Over thousands of years, dirt, rocks, sand, and organic matter is compacted, moved, and ground into other materials. When snow, ice, and rain occur, sediment builds up in certain areas. Sediment will always fall from lightest to heaviest, which is why you’ll find rocks at the bottom of your sediment jar and the water at the top. We were most surprised to see that our potting soil was the lightest thing in our jar. The kids loved examining the layers in this natural density jar to see which material the collected was the heaviest.

    What other thing could you talk about with your kids?
    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    More fun science for kids:

    Welcome!

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Hi! I’m Colleen, gifted specialist, educational consultant, author, speaker, and homeschool mom of four gifted/twice-exceptional kids.

    Grab a cup of coffee, some of that chocolate you’re hiding from the kids, and join me as I learn, experiment, and explore with my kiddos — and hopefully inspire you a little in your journey alongside smart, quirky, creative kids, too!

    So, now that you know how to explain the different types of rocks to your students, let’s do a simple activity to help them see the difference between a sedimentary and a metamorphic rock.

    You will need the following:

    • Glass cup
    • Chocolate chips
    • Peanut butter chips
    • White chocolate chips
    • Spoon
    • Plastic wrap

    Begin by adding ¼ cup of chocolate chips, followed by ¼ cup of peanut butter chips, and finally by ¼ cup of white chips. Repeat the layers once more and observe what you see.

    Next, use the back of the spoon to press down and crush the layers as much as you can. Observe how the layers have changed. (The students should see that the layers are relatively compact, but that it is still easy to define the different types of chips. This is meant to be a representation of sedimentary rock.)

    Then, cover the cup with plastic wrap and heat it in the microwave at 30-second intervals until all the layers have melted together. (CAUTION: At this point, the cup and the material will be extremely hot. Do NOT remove them until the cup has completely cooled.)

    After the cup cools, take it out of the microwave and gently smoosh the chocolate with the back of the spoon once more. Observe how the layers have changed at this point. (The students should see that the layers are even more compact and it is difficult to discern the different types of chips as they have swirled together. This is meant to be a representation of metamorphic rock.)

    When your chocolate rock cools completely, you can pop it out of the glass and have yourself a metamorphic treat! If you can’t wait that long, put it in the freezer for a few minutes to quickly cool and it should slide right out into your hands.

    Did you like this article? If so, please help by sharing it!

    Today, while Brianna works on a paper mache cutaway model of the earth, the younger kids will be making paper models. I made a sample this weekend to show them what we’re going for. It was easy enough and I think it will be enjoyable for the younger kids.

    Supplies for Making a Model of Earth’s Layers

    • an Earth outline (scroll down for the Earth coloring page)
    • five colors of construction paper
    • crayons or colored pencils
    • scissors (or, if you have it, the Creative Memories Cutting System circles work fabulously for this)
    • glue

    How to Make a Simple Model of Earth’s Layers

    Step 1: Cut out and color the Earth coloring page.

    Step 2: Cut out the first construction paper circle the same size as the Earth circle. Then, cut out the remaining four circle in gradually smaller sizes.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Step 3: Glue the largest shape to the back of the Earth sheet. Then, glue the next largest shape and so on until they’re all glued.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Step 4 (optional): Label each layer: crust, upper mantle, lower mantle, outer core and inner core.

    (Note: Most websites I’ve seen combine the upper and lower mantle and simply call it the mantle, giving the Earth four layers, rather than five. Our science text, Christian Kids Explore Earth and Space, lists them separately. I would recommend going with whatever your particular science text has.)

    Alternate: You could do a cutaway picture of the layers by gluing the layers as stated above, then, cut out 1/4 of the Earth page and glue it over all of the construction paper layers, rather than on the back of the largest one.

    Did you like this article? If so, please help by sharing it!

    I have a bit of a thing for learning with food. There’s something about feeding your brain -and- your appetite at the same time that seems to make learning a lot more fun. And make it stick, too. And I have a bit of a thing for pudding, too 🙂 So today’s project is Layers of the Earth Pudding Cups. Kids can learn about the different parts of the earth’s core with every deliciously, creamy bite of this layered pudding cup. They make awesome party desserts too, with the addition of a cute dinosaur on top!
    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Just imagine if you could see the inside of a pudding filled earth… With a giant spoon 😉 All the way to the marshmallow core.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Or if volcanoes erupted vanilla mantle goodness?

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Wouldn’t it be awesome to farm an Oreo field?

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Or if we could play with the dinosaurs in coconut grass in our barefeet… Totally silly. But a really fun daydream!! And an awesome learning experience to picture it.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Check out this fun recipe plus another fun Earth-themed recipe: Earth Toast, in this video.

    Learn About the Layers of the Earth

    Before we get to the recipe, let’s talk a little science.

    The Earth is made up of 4 distinct layers:

    • Crust: This is the outer layer of the earth and is 0-60 km thick, depending upon the location. The crust has two types, oceanic, which carries water and continental, which carries land. The crust is solid, rocky and brittle and packed with calcium and sodium-aluminum silicates. The crust’s temperature is about 0 ºC.
    • Mantle: The mantle is the next layer downwards towards the Earth’s core. It’s the thickest layer of the Earth at nearly 2900 km. It’s a semi-molten solid that can deform like a plastic. The top of the layer is hard like rock, but the bottom of the layer is beginning to melt due to temperature. The mantle’s temperature is about 1000 ºC. When volcanoes erupt, the molten liquid called lava is melted mantle and crust.
    • Outer Core: Traveling down into the Earth, you’ll find the outer core. The outer core is a molten layer 2900-5100 km thick made up of primarily of iron, sulfur and oxygen. The temperature here is about 3700 ºC. The outer core is the only liquid layer of the Earth.
    • Inner Core: The center of the Earth is the inner core and the hottest zone at

      5500 ºC. It’s basically a big ball of solid iron about 5000-6000 km deept that floats in the middle of the outer core.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    I love this video’s description of the different layers of the Earth! It talks about the newly discovered oceans inside the Earth’s core!

    Or to have more fun with layers of the earth projects, check out these:

    And now on to the delicious stuff… pudding!

    Layers of the Earth Pudding Cups Recipe

    As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. This is at no cost to you.

    Ingredients

    • 1 x 5.1 oz box instant vanilla pudding mix
    • 1 x 3.9 oz box instant chocolate pudding mix
    • 5 cups milk
    • Red, yellow, and green food coloring
    • 1 cup shredded coconut
    • 10 Oreos
    • 1 cup mini marshmallows
    • 8 x 5 oz. clear plastic cups
    • 8 plastic dinosaur toys

    Makes 8 servings.

    Make the Earth Layers

    1. Make vanilla pudding according to the directions on the box. Divide pudding into three small mixing bowls.
    2. Color your pudding:
      • Add 5-10 drops red food coloring to one bowl. Mix well.
      • Add 7 drops yellow and 3 drops red food coloring to the second bowl. Mix well.
      • Add 4 drops yellow food coloring to the third bowl. Mix well.
    3. Make chocolate pudding in a separate bowl according to the directions on the box.
    4. Chill pudding for one hour.
    5. While pudding is chilling, prepare coconut and Oreo toppings.
      • Put shredded coconut in a zipper bag and add five drops of green food coloring. Close bag well and shake until coconut is green.
      • Put Oreos in a zipper bag, close bag well, and crush with a rolling pin.

    Build the Earth

    Make the pudding cups by adding the layers to your plastic cup as follows. Each layer should completely cover the previous layer. Adjust amounts as necessary based upon your cup size.

    1. Inner Core: 6 mini marshmallows
    2. Inner Core: 1 tablespoon yellow vanilla pudding
    3. Outer Core: 1 tablespoon orange vanilla pudding
    4. Inner Mantle: 1 tablespoon red vanilla pudding
    5. Outer Mantle: 1 tablespoon chocolate pudding
    6. Crust: 1 tablespoon crushed Oreos
    7. Grass: 1 tablespoon green coconut
    8. 1 plastic dinosaur

    Learning, laughing and loving together

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Making a 3D model is an easy hands-on way for kids to learn what the Earth is made of.

    We read about the Earth’s layers, to begin with, in The Magic Schoolbus – Inside the Earth.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Then we grabbed some clay and the children used the pictures from the book to make their own models. (I was going to make one too, until I realised how much plasticine we were going to get through!)

    First roll a small ball of clay for the solid metal inner core.

    The inner core is about 1,500 miles in diameter. We used an atlas to calculate that this is equivalent to the distance from London to Madrid (or San Diego to Memphis).

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Next the melted metal outer core.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Then the solid rock mantle.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Followed by the Earth’s crust (one layer in our models, but in reality, layers of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rock). We looked at these when we simulated the rock cycle with crayons.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    And finally, the oceans and continents.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    When you’re done, use a sharp knife to cut your Earth in half to reveal it in cross-section.

    Please help us grow this free resource by submitting your favorite lesson plans.

    Lesson Plan #: AELP-GLG0051
    Submitted by: Jason Scott Kurtz
    Email: [email protected] (email address no longer valid)
    School/University/Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
    Endorsed by: Bernard Poole
    University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown Date: February 1, 2000

    Grade Level(s): 2, 3

    • Science/Geology

    Duration: This lesson could be done in two 40-minute sessions. Description: Through literature, multiple overheads, an egg, the Internet, and styrofoam balls, the students will become more familiar with the four layers of the earth and also make a model of the earth from the styrofoam balls to keep for themselves.

    Goals: Students will be able to learn different features of our earth.

    Objectives: Students will:

  • identify the four layers of the earth.
  • differentiate between the size of each layer.
  • create their own model of the earth from the styrofoam balls and label the layers accordingly.

    • A globe
    • 2 two hard-boiled eggs and a butter knife
    • Layers of an Egg/Layers of the Earth transparency
    • Book by Cole, Joanna (1989). The Magic School Bus Inside The Earth. Scholastic Trade; ISBN: 0590407600
    • Crayons and colored chalk
    • “Label the four layers of the earth” transparency
    • Science Horizons. (textbook) Morristown, NJ. Silver Burdett Ginn. 1993.

    Procedure: Extra note – the students will be seated in groups of four.

    Introduction:

    Begin by focusing on the globe and ask the students: Does anyone know what this is?
    *Expect a globe as the answer and discuss the globe as being a model of the earth.
    Then hold up the egg and ask if anyone knows what it is. Have the extra egg already split into the correct layers in case there may be a problem.
    *Most likely they will say an egg, but discuss how the egg will serve as a model of the earth.
    Split the egg, have the Layers of an Egg/layers of the Earth transparency on the overhead, inform the class that today we’re going to be discussing the layers of the earth, and then explain:

    *The shell represents the crust of the earth.
    *The egg white represents the mantle of the earth.
    *The outside of the yolk represents the outer core and the inside of the yolk represents the inner core.

    You can use a butter knife to cut a wedge out of the yolk to show the inner core.
    For a classroom with only one computer and a projection screen, the teacher can bring up the Layers of the Earth Web site to show the students another picture of the earth and other related information. Focus:

    Have the students sit in a circle and read The Magic School Bus Inside The Earth to the class. This explains the layers of the earth and the composition of each. (Since we’re dealing with a lower grade level, the composition of each layer shouldn’t be stressed as much as the size of each layer.)
    Briefly discuss the book and ask for questions.
    Draw a big circle on the board and use colored chalk to separate the layers inside of the big circle.
    Tell the students a little bit more about each layer and label them with four different colors of chalk on the board as:

    *Crust – approximately 6 to 40 miles in thickness.
    *Mantle – approximately 1,800 miles in thickness
    *Outer Core – approximately 1,375 miles in thickness.
    *Inner Core – Approximately 1,750 miles in thickness.

    You can have the link still on the projection screen for the students to look at.
    Then tell the students they are going to make their own little model of the earth.
    Give each student one styrofoam ball and explain that it represents the earth and the wedge is cut out so they can get an idea of where each layer fits inside the earth.
    The wedge should be pre-cut for the students to keep them from using a knife.
    Then have each student draw four circles on the inside of the styrofoam ball with any four different color crayons they choose to show the relative thickness for each of the four layers.
    Then use the four crayons of choice to color in the sections they divided up before.
    Finally, you can instruct the students to write the four layers on the outside of the styrofoam ball. Make sure to tell the students to label the layers the same color as they colored them on the inside. Closure:

    Have each student place their model of the earth on their desks.
    They can use their model as a reference during the final evaluation of the class.
    Put the “label the four layers of the earth” transparency on the overhead and as a class, ask for volunteers to raise their hand if they think they know the answer. Then ask for a class agreement for each answer by using Thumbs up/Thumbs down?
    Gather materials and congratulate them on the fine job they did today!

    Cole’s book talked a lot about the different rocks in the layers of the earth. Your next lesson could be about the different types of rocks found in each layer.
    You can discuss more in depth material on the layers of the earth once the basics are finished. You may include the details of what makes up each layer.
    You can have the students write a story about a journey they took to any of the four layers of the earth.
    Have an out of class assignment and have them make a clay model of the earth, including each layer.
    You can begin in depth units on volcanoes or earthquakes and how they relate to the four layers of the earth.
    Once the units are finished, you can play a Jeopardy game with questions generated from all the following areas: the layers of the earth, volcanoes, earthquakes, and any other important concepts learned during the unit.

    Adaptations:

    A visually impaired child can benefit from the discussion, the book being read aloud, and the styrofoam ball representation of the earth.
    The teacher can even make a model of the earth and use yarn or clay to separate the layers so the visually impaired student can feel the different layers.
    A hearing impaired child can benefit by having a written set of instructions to make their model. A second copy of the book can be given to the child to follow along as the story is being read aloud. They can also be placed next to a reliable student or even a gifted student for further help.
    The activity is rather simple. A child at a lower level should have no problem except possibly when it comes time to write the names of each layer on the model of the earth they made from the styrofoam balls. A gifted student can be of help. Also, a gifted student may find this activity too easy, so you can plan accordingly for them.

  • You can assess the participation of each student while they make the model of the earth from the styrofoam balls by walking around and observing.
  • Check to see if they labeled each part correctly on their model.
  • Assess the students when they label the four layers of the earth and check to see group agreement concerning the transparency at the end of the lesson.

    Earthquake Resistant Structures
    On Wednesday and Thursday you will build an earthquake-proof structure with your group. First, complete the following three steps in your notebooks:
    Step 1- Identify the Need or Problem
    1) What structure do I want to build?
    2) What are possible solutions to the problem of how to make a structure that can withstand an earthquake? How can I make our structure strong?
    3) What is the problem? What stresses do buildings face during an earthquake?
    4) What have others done? What do engineers do to make buildings strong during an earthquake?
    Step 2 – Research the Need or Problem and Image (brainstorm) a solution.
    We need to research how earthquake resistant buildings are built. Research links found on the school website. Fill a page of your notebook with information from these sources.
    Step 3 – Develop Possible Solutions or a Plan
    Now that you have seen what is available, what would you like to see in your design?
    Make a sketch of your idea for an earthquake-resistant structure.
    Steps 4-6 will be completed as a group:
    Steps 4-6 will be completed Thursday and Friday as a group:
    Step 4- Create
    Now build your earthquake resistant building using the materials found at the Materials Station.
    Building must be made out of the following materials:
    pasta $75 each
    straws $125 each
    mini marshmallows $40 each
    tape $20/3 cm
    Popsicle sticks $200 each
    black licorice $75 each
    The catch is that you only have $6000 to build the most stable building possible!
    Your building must be at least 40 cm tall
    Your goal is to have your building last a 15 second “earthquake” on the shake table but your grade for this project is not dependent on it staying up.
    Step 5 – Test and Improve the Prototype
    Improve- What can you do to your prototype to make it better?
    Step 6 – Communicate the Solutions: Prepare to share your model on Friday for final testing.
    Results: Due Friday, March 9
    As a group, turn in a piece of paper answering the following questions:
    1) How much money did you spend? What materials did you use?
    2) How did your design change from start to finish?
    3) How would you improve your design?
    4) Was your design successful?
    5) What did you learn about making an earthquake-resistant structure?
    Research Questions (Due Friday, March 9)
    Complete the following as a group: 10 sentences each!
    1. Review the four variables that contribute to the durability of a building: distribution of weight, variation in shape, variation in height, and the type of material used for the foundation. Discuss what is needed to create earthquake-proof buildings. For example, what would happen if a building was constructed properly but was built on a sandy foundation? What issues do builders face when constructing very tall buildings?
    2. Using the Internet or library resources, find out about a serious earthquake that occurred in the last 20 years. What caused the most damage? What strategies could be implemented so that the damage is not as great the next time?
    3. Based on what you have learned about earthquake-proof buildings, in what kind of building would you like to be during an earthquake? Describe its features and why you think it would be safe.
    4. One of the largest freestanding domed structures on Earth is the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. It has survived all magnitudes of earthquakes for nearly 1,500 years. Using the Internet or library for research, do a structural analysis of the Hagia Sophia. Then report on some of the theories proposed about why this structure appears to be earthquake proof.
    5. Discuss some of the structural features that are being incorporated into modern buildings to help them withstand earthquakes registering on the high end of the Richter scale. Use your library or the Internet to find resources to assist you in your research.
    6. Following are three different approaches for preparing for future earthquakes. Discuss the value of each approach. Is one better than the others? Would you be more likely to invest in one approach over the others? Give evidence to support your ideas.
    • Support and encourage engineers to design better buildings that have a greater chance of withstanding an earthquake.
    • Support and encourage engineers and scientists to learn more about earthquakes, enabling them to better predict when they will take place. This increased knowledge will help people be more prepared when the earthquake does hit.
    • Support public information campaigns that educate people about the safest places to build homes and discourage them from building in areas at the greatest risk for earthquakes.

    Earth’s atmosphere has a series of layers, each with its own specific traits. Moving upward from ground level, these layers are called the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. The exosphere gradually fades away into the realm of interplanetary space.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Layers of the atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere.

    Troposphere

    The troposphere is the lowest layer of our atmosphere. Starting at ground level, it extends upward to about 10 km (6.2 miles or about 33,000 feet) above sea level. We humans live in the troposphere, and nearly all weather occurs in this lowest layer. Most clouds appear here, mainly because 99% of the water vapor in the atmosphere is found in the troposphere. Air pressure drops, and temperatures get colder, as you climb higher in the troposphere.

    Stratosphere

    The next layer up is called the stratosphere. The stratosphere extends from the top of the troposphere to about 50 km (31 miles) above the ground. The infamous ozone layer is found within the stratosphere. Ozone molecules in this layer absorb high-energy ultraviolet (UV) light from the Sun, converting the UV energy into heat. Unlike the troposphere, the stratosphere actually gets warmer the higher you go! That trend of rising temperatures with altitude means that air in the stratosphere lacks the turbulence and updrafts of the troposphere beneath. Commercial passenger jets fly in the lower stratosphere, partly because this less-turbulent layer provides a smoother ride. The jet stream flows near the border between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

    Mesosphere

    Above the stratosphere is the mesosphere. It extends upward to a height of about 85 km (53 miles) above our planet. Most meteors burn up in the mesosphere. Unlike the stratosphere, temperatures once again grow colder as you rise up through the mesosphere. The coldest temperatures in Earth’s atmosphere, about -90° C (-130° F), are found near the top of this layer. The air in the mesosphere is far too thin to breathe (the air pressure at the bottom of the layer is well below 1% of the pressure at sea level and continues dropping as you go higher).

    Thermosphere

    The layer of very rare air above the mesosphere is called the thermosphere. High-energy X-rays and UV radiation from the Sun are absorbed in the thermosphere, raising its temperature to hundreds or at times thousands of degrees. However, the air in this layer is so thin that it would feel freezing cold to us! In many ways, the thermosphere is more like outer space than a part of the atmosphere. Many satellites actually orbit Earth within the thermosphere! Variations in the amount of energy coming from the Sun exert a powerful influence on both the height of the top of this layer and the temperature within it. Because of this, the top of the thermosphere can be found anywhere between 500 and 1,000 km (311 to 621 miles) above the ground. Temperatures in the upper thermosphere can range from about 500° C (932° F) to 2,000° C (3,632° F) or higher. The aurora, the Northern Lights and Southern Lights, occur in the thermosphere.

    Exosphere

    Although some experts consider the thermosphere to be the uppermost layer of our atmosphere, others consider the exosphere to be the actual “final frontier” of Earth’s gaseous envelope. As you might imagine, the “air” in the exosphere is very, very, very thin, making this layer even more space-like than the thermosphere. In fact, the air in the exosphere is constantly – though very gradually – “leaking” out of Earth’s atmosphere into outer space. There is no clear-cut upper boundary where the exosphere finally fades away into space. Different definitions place the top of the exosphere somewhere between 100,000 km (62,000 miles) and 190,000 km (120,000 miles) above the surface of Earth. The latter value is about halfway to the Moon!

    Ionosphere

    The ionosphere is not a distinct layer like the others mentioned above. Instead, the ionosphere is a series of regions in parts of the mesosphere and thermosphere where high-energy radiation from the Sun has knocked electrons loose from their parent atoms and molecules. The electrically charged atoms and molecules that are formed in this way are called ions, giving the ionosphere its name and endowing this region with some special properties.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    The Earth can be divided into four layers – crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core.

    • The earth is split into four major layers: the crust, the mantle, the outer core and the inner core
    • The crust is what humans live on, and it consists of only one percent of the Earth’s mass
    • The centre of the Earth is a solid ball of nickel and iron roughly 70% the size of the moon

    Geologists have come a long way in terms of the collective knowledge of the Earth and our solar system. Though it is not possible to see deep into the centre of the planet, various scientific tests and predictions such as geological samples and seismic analysis have helped to create a picture of what the Earth (and other planets) look like below the surface. In this way, the Earth has been separated into four distinct layers. These are:

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Layers of the earth. Image credit: OSweetNature/Shutterstock.com

    Crust

    The crust of the Earth is the area that is arguably best known by scientists, and certainly the one the general public is the most familiar with, as it is where we live. Human life all exists on the crust of the Earth, as does the rest of known organic life. The crust is the thinnest of the four layers on Earth, and is only 1 percent of the whole Earth. The crust’s thickness ranges in measurement from only 5 to 70 km thick, depending on location.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    Earth’s crust: Oceanic and Continental. Image credit: Javid Kheyrabadi/Shutterstock.com

    The crust can be further divided into two categories – the continental crust, and the oceanic crust. The continental crust is generally much thicker, less dense, and is composed mainly of rock, and this is the ‘dry land’ crust which includes all earth above sea level. The other type of crust is known as the oceanic crust, is considerably thinner, denser, and made up of rock basalt. This is anything below sea level, and the thinner layers hold the oceans, seas and gulfs.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    The major and minor tectonic plates of the Earth. Image credit: Peter Hermes Furian/Shutterstock.com

    The Earth’s crust is also broken up into various pieces, known as tectonic plates, which fit together in a puzzle-like manner to form what is collectively called the crust. These plates, which are large chunks of the crust, are free-floating in/on the liquid lower level known as the mantle. Tectonic plates exist in both oceanic and continental areas, and traverse country and continental borders. There are seven major plates: the Pacific, North American, Eurasian, African, Antarctic, Indo-Australian, and South American and 10 minor plates: Somali, Nazca, Phillipine Sea, Arabian, Caribbean, Cocos, Caroline, Scotia, Burma, and the New Hebrides plates.

    Mantle

    The mantle makes up 84 percent of the Earth’s volume, and consists of both solid and molten rock known as magma. When the Earth was young, the majority of the mantle would have been viscous melted rock, but this has cooled and solidified over millions of years to form the mantle we know today. The mantle is much thicker than the crust, and measures some 2,900 km in depth and is mainly composed of silicate rock such as olivine, garnet, and pyroxene; or the rock known as magnesium oxide. A number of other elements are common in the mantle layer, including iron, aluminum, calcium, sodium, and potassium.

    As you go deeper into the Earth, temperature and pressure increase. Within the mantle, there is a range of temperature, which rises depending on depth. Nearest the crust, the mantle registers temperatures around 1000° Celsius (1832° Fahrenheit). At its deepest, temperatures can read as high as 3700° Celsius (6692° Fahrenheit).

    As mentioned, the tectonic plates which form the mantle, are often described as ‘floating’ in the mantle. The mantle itself is most viscous at these plate borders and faults, allowing for mobility of the plates over large expanses of time.

    The mantle itself can be divided into several sub-layers which include the upper mantle, the transition zone, the lower mantle, and D or D double-prime layer. Additionally, the upper mantle contains both the lithosphere and the asthenosphere.

    How to create a school project on the layers of the earth

    The upper and lower mantle layers of the Earth. Image credit: Victor Josan/Shutterstock.com

    Outer Core

    Below the mantle lies the layer known as the Outer Core. This is a thick layer – some 2,200 km (1367 miles) thick – that consists of liquid iron and nickel. In order for the nickel and iron to be in liquid form, the core must sustain intensely high heat. The Outer Core is thought to be as hot as 6,100 degrees celsius (11000 Ferenhaiet) It has been determined that this layer is liquid, based on the extensive study of seismic waves, and the way in which they bounce off the center of the Earth. The waves move differently through solid or liquids, thus distinguishing the outer core from its solid inner counterpart. This layer is also not static. As the Earth rotates on its axis, the liquid metal of the outer core also spins, turning approximately 0.3 to 0.5 degrees per year relative to the rotation of the surface. The outer core is also thought to be the cause of the magnetic field on Earth. It is this field which allows for life to be sustained here, as the field helps form a protective layer around the Earth’s atmosphere, blocking harmful solar winds.

    Inner Core

    At the very centre of the Earth is what is known as the Inner Core. Protected by the liquid outer core, mantle, and crust, the inner core is a hot solid ball of highly pressurized nickel and iron, with a temperature of approximately 5,700 K (5,430 °C; 9,800 °F), which is roughly the same as that of the sun. The core makes up around 20 percent of the Earth’s mass, measuring 1,220 km (760 mi), and is roughly 70 percent of the size of the moon (including the outer core it would be twice the moon’s size). The core is an extremely dense and highly pressurized environment. The inner core is actually expanding very slowly as the outer core layer solidifies. This solidification can be attributed to the high density and pressure found in the Earth’s center. In theory, this means the whole core will eventually fully cool and become a purely solid mass over billions of years.