How to create a mycofiltration system

Part of the South East Rivers Trust, Reg. Charity No. 1091000

Mycofiltration is the pioneering technique of using fungi to filter out pollutants from water. First developed in the USA by Paul Stamets, we are trialling it here along the River Wandle for the first time in the UK! We have put several ‘mycofilters’ around surface water outfalls that drain into the river to capture pollutants such as heavy metals, hydrocarbons, bacteria and excess nutrients and will be monitoring their effectiveness over the coming year.

A mycofilter is basically a hessian sack filled with wet straw and wood chip and mycelium (the non-fruiting part of fungi). They look a bit like slightly mouldy sandbags, but don’t let that put you off!! They are doing important work.

Getting to the point of being able to install mycofilters along carefully selected study sites by the Wandle took several stages…here’s what we did in a quick run-through:

Stage 1: preparing materials

How to create a mycofiltration system

40 kg of mushroom spawn was ordered from a specialist UK supplier and carefully weighed out to the correct portions needed per hessian sack.

How to create a mycofiltration system

Several locally sourced straw bales were acquired from Bushells Farm in Carshalton.

How to create a mycofiltration system

Freshly chipped wood sourc ed from native deciduous trees cut by Sutton Council was collected from Central Nursery Wood Station in Croydon.

Stage 2: building

Then the first of three workdays was held at Sutton Ecology Centre to make the mycofilters themselves.

How to create a mycofiltration system

How to create a mycofiltration system

All the materials needed: straw, wood chip, hessian sacks, mycelium spawn and a plentiful supply of fresh water were laid out as an attractive buffet (!) for volunteers to build

How to create a mycofiltration system

Volunteers worked in pairs – one to hold the bag open and the other to scoop in the materials.

How to create a mycofiltration system

The ingredients were layered like a special lasagne: first a good layer of wet straw…

How to create a mycofiltration system

Then a scoop or two of wood chip…

How to create a mycofiltration system

Then a generous sprinkling of mycelium was added and the layering process repeated, until the bags were tightly packed and full.

How to create a mycofiltration system

The finished sacks were put into rubble bags to protect them and volunteers took a bag or two each home with them to develop in their gardens over the next few weeks.

How to create a mycofiltration system

After five weeks typically, the mycelium had grown throughout the sacks and was visible on the outside as a white feathery network of filaments – they were ready to install!

Stage 3: installation

Three more workdays were held to invite the volunteers back with their sacks and to install them at the study sites by the river.

How to create a mycofiltration system

The first site tackled was Bennetts Hole Local Nature Reserve in Mitcham, where pollution was entering the site via pipes from a neighbouring Industrial Estate feed to a reedbed.

How to create a mycofiltration system

Despite a hailstorm during proceedings, no one’s ardour was dampened and three sets of installation were completed successfully.

How to create a mycofiltration system

Thanks to everyone who braved the inclement weather!

How to create a mycofiltration system

Despite the weather, there was no let up and installations were then carried out at the Mill Race in Grove Park

How to create a mycofiltration system

How to create a mycofiltration system

How to create a mycofiltration system

and Beddington Park!

The mycofilters will now be monitored regularly, with water and silt samples sent away for analysis. Watch this space for further updates!

If you notice the mycofilters have been disturbed or removed at any site, please let us know.

Thanks to everyone who has worked so hard to help Claire with this project; it has been great fun and you can feel proud of the fact that you are all conservation pioneers!

Photos by Claire Bedford, Mark McLellan, Bella Davies and Erica Evans.

6 thoughts on “ Mycofiltration: using mushrooms to clean the river! ”

I read your article: Mycofiltration: using mushrooms to clean the river!, and I am wondering if there are any updates. I have been studying mycofiltration, and stumbled on this article. When was it written? Have you been testing the outflow for pollutants? What types of pollutants do you test for? Thank you, Eric Slyter.

The lack of follow-up links is highly discouraging. Did this work or not?

Hi Justin, we tried to use this to address polluted outfalls and prevent road run-off from getting into the river. At our sites, the bags did not work. When the outfalls flowed, the volume of water was too large (with most of the surrounding area being paved, there is a lot of water entering the river following rain) and so the water simply overtopped the bags, missing the treatment. However, in a system where there is time for the bags to work their magic, this could well be successful and has in other places.

I just want to ask that after how many days there is need to replace these bags at the site itself

Thanks for setting out such a clear description of the work you’ve done. Also for your feedback that the bags over-topped during heavy rainfall. That’s all really useful for other projects that want to try this approach and learn from previous examples. I’ve been using wetland plants and willows for many years to treat sewage, stormwater and to improve natural habitats and have only just started to dig deeper into mycofiltration. Your page was a great help. Thanks!

Mycofiltration is using mycelium of fungi as a biological filter to clean contaminated water. This method has shown great promise in filtering out the following common types of water contamination:

-pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa)
-chemical toxins
-silt/heavy metals

Today, much of our lakes, rivers, and streams are contaminated with a number of different pesticides, fertilizers, pathogens, chemicals, and silts. This is largely due to unsustainable farming practices that are so prevalent in our society today. Fortunately for us, mushrooms have come to save the day. Mycofiltration was first implemented by Paul Stamets on his property on Skookum Inlet in Washington State. This was due to the large ammounts of fecal coliforms they were seeing in the runnoff of his Black Angus farm, and Paul wasn’t the only problem. Many of his neighbors were having the same problem. He installed a large bed of King Stropharia (Stropharia rugosoannulata) on the lower end of his pastures. Since there were many shellfish farms such as Taylor Shellfish Farms who raise shellfish in the inlet, this posed a large danger to their businesses. Water that trickled down his property was collected and forced through his bed of mushroom mycelium. After only one year, the water was tested only to find that the number of coliforms had had dropped significantly. So significant, in fact, that it attracted the attention of local officials. If you would like to read more about Paul Stamets Mycofiltration projects, check out his article entitled: A Novel Approach to Farm Waste Management.

Mycofiltration Links:

Paul Stamets article for Yes! Magazine Spring 2003
Mycofiltration at Mason County, Washington site
Mycofiltration picture
Alleviating Water Quality Impacts of Animal Waste Through Mycoremediation and Mycofiltration
Delivery Systems for Mycotechnologies, Mycofiltration and Mycoremediation- Paul Stamets Patent
Facebook: Mycofiltration
Wikipedia: Mycofiltration

Hi thanks for posting the information on this website. I’m looking for people who are using mycofiltration on the home level, specifically for drinking water.
do you know if there are particular types of mycelium that filter water more effectively than others?
margaret

WSU Team Tests Mycofiltration Biotechnology to Purify Water Supply

Posted by Jaimee Saliba on Fri, May 24, 2013

How to create a mycofiltration systemMycology is the branch of biology devoted to the study of fungi (mushrooms), which, we’re increasingly learning, are truly astonishing in what they can do. With the support of a grant from the EPA, a team of Washington State University scientists is developing a mycofiltration system to purify storm water of bacteria before it re-enters the urban water supply. Professor Marc Beutel is an environmental engineer who has joined forces with renowned mycologist Paul Stamets of Fungi Perfecti, a research laboratory and retail company also in Washington State. Together they have completed the first phase of a study titled Mycofiltration Biotechnology for Pathogen Management, wherein they have successfully used fungi to create a “living net” to filter effluent bacteria. The project was funded by an EPA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award.

[Water runoff filtered through mycobooms, courtesy of Fungi Perfecti]

Certain types of fungi eat things that we would rather not have in our water supply, like bacteria. Since earlier work had strongly suggested that mycelia (networks of fungi) could be purposed for filtration, this study chose to use a really threatening pathogen, E. coli, and to test filtration under storm water runoff conditions, which in Washington State are significant. The goal was to meet current industry standards for water purification under laboratory conditions. The mycofilter had to be durable, “not significantly impacted by excessive heat, cold, saturation, or dehydration,” as well as having a robust filtration capacity.

Of the 30 varieties of fungi the team started out testing, one in particular demonstrated the characteristics they required. The process of testing involved innoculating a clump of wood chips and straw with the mycelium and subjecting it to an effluent containing the bacteria in both sediment-bound and free-floating forms. Subsequent water quality testing showed that the E. coli was virtually entirely removed. Moreover, the mycofilters were just as successful at removing the pathogen when they were reused, demonstrating the resiliency of the mycostrain.

How to create a mycofiltration system

[Mycelium, or fungal network, under a microscope, courtesy of Wikipedia]

Water purification is a serious problem worldwide. While good filtration systems exist, they can be expensive to implement and maintain, particularly to stand up to stormwater conditions. Chemicals such as chlorine are regularly utilized to kill off pathogens, but then the chemicals typically need to be removed or neutralized. The elegance of mycofiltration is that performs its task naturally and adds no further contaminants to the water. In fact, the fungi actually neutralize the bacteria in the process of consuming it as food, so that the used mycofilters can be composted later without toxifying the soil. Finally, mycofiltration is inexpensive. Win-win.

Earlier successful uses of fungi for purification include bioremediation of petroleum in contaminated waters, such as after an oil spill. “Mycobooms” created by filling porous bags with mycelium-infused straw and floating them in oil-spill areas ate the floating petrol. The resulting fungi that grew from the booms were actually edible.

Mycological enthusiasts like Stamets have long sung the praises of fungi for environmental and health benefits. What is perhaps unique about this project with the Washington State University team is that it caught the attention and funding of the EPA, and that the testing was done to see if mycofilters could perform up to governmental standards for public water sources. Innovative, collaborative biotechnology research like this, with government, academic, and private sector participation is more than a little promising for a sustainable future, as well as business growth in Washington.

If you are a life science researcher or laboratory manager in need of new research tools, or a lab supply vendor in the Pullman area interested in the WSU research marketplace, plan on attending Biotechnology Calendar Inc.’s Pullman BioResearch Product Faire™ trade show at Washington State University on October 22, 2013 .

For more information on the WSU marketplace an on exhibiting, click the button below.

See our entire 2013 Show Schedule as well.

Biotechnology Calendar, Inc. is a full service event marketing and planning company producing on-campus, life science research tradeshows nationwide for the past 20 years. We plan and promote each event to bring the best products and services to the best research campuses across the country.

Regenerating Communities

January 10, 2014

How to create a mycofiltration systemIn a recent workshop the City of Portland, Oregon sponsored for its Willamette River Central Reach Plan , planners asked for habitat enhancement “projects that would have larger bang for the buck”. . . “projects that would have a multiplier effect in terms of watershed health.” Mycofiltration—the use of mycorrhizal mushrooms and their mycelia to filter pollutants would rank high on both of these criteria.

Mycofiltration will reduce harmful pollutants commonly found in urban stormwater runoff, such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs. It also eliminates E-coli and other bacteria from pet wastes and waterfowl. Because adding mushroom spores to remediation sites is very inexpensive and low-impact, it has the potential to be a sustainable option well into the future.

How to create a mycofiltration system

Courtesy of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Report: PNWD–4054-1

In most places, stormwater runoff goes directly into streams, rivers and oceans and recycles through the watershed carrying the pollutants with it. And that it is a big problem for salmon and wildlife survival. Mycofiltration should be added as a treatment to enhance the activity of existing stormwater management biofiltration cells such as the rain gardens, bioswales and green streets that are plentiful in Portland. By adding Garden Giant (Stropharia rugosoannulata) mycelium to the soil mix, harmful substances that come from heavily trafficked roads such as I-5, I-84 and the motor vehicle bridges in the Central Reach: Broadway, Steel, Burnside, Morrison, Hawthorne, Markham, Ross Island can be transformed into carbohydrates and nutrients — which are actually useful to surrounding soil and plants cheap cialis overnight delivery.

How to create a mycofiltration system

Mycobag w/Pleurotus -Courtesy Fungi Perfecti @Paul Stamets

By adding mycofilters to biofiltration cells installed in places where people walk their dogs such as South Waterfront, Riverplace, Waterfront Park, Eastbank Esplanade, etc., E-coli and other bacteria from pet wastes that were not properly disposed of can become a nutrient rather than a pollutant. Having these mushrooms in the mix can actually help the native plants we are planting in streambank restoration and biofiltration cell facilities grow more robustly. Instead of dealing with pollutants, their roots are getting more nutrients.

Paul Stamets TED Talk 2008

I was fortunate enough to meet inspirational mushroom guru, Paul Stamets (here he is giving a TED talk) when he was first starting his farm near Olympia, WA in the 1980s. He had just wowed the Washington Department of Ecology with the use of mushrooms to clean up the E-Coli and fecal coliform problem caused by his farm animals. In a single year he had achieved a 99% reduction in pollutants despite doubling the number of animals on the farm.

Since that time, I have gone on to found my business PlanGreen around using ecosystem services to deal with urban stormwater and other environmental problems/opportunities. I believe, as Stamets does, that the Earth has its own immune system and that we need to learn to better work with that immune system. Although I have been excited about the efforts that Portland and other communities throughout the nation are making in biofiltration—using plants and soil to filter stormwater–I have long wondered why we were not utilizing mushrooms as well.

How to create a mycofiltration system

Fungi Perfecti Phase 1 Report

So, I was thrilled to see “Can Mushrooms Help Fight Stormwater Pollution?” as a link on the Oregon Environmental Council’s “Oregon Stormwater” listserve. The story (first published on Sightline’s blog on Nov. 13, 2013 , then picked up by Public Broadcasting’s Earthfix) indicates that Fungi Perfecti is looking for partners to help further the research it did under a grant from EPA. The study itself, Fungi Perfecti, LLC.: EPA Phase I, Mycofiltration Biotechnology Research Summary, concludes that additional research is needed to clearly define treatment design and operating parameters.

That sounds like a challenge that Portland area jurisdictions would relish. So PlanGreen is seeking to broker partnerships between Fungi Perfecti and receptive jurisdictions. Beyond treatment design and operating parameters, some of the issues to be resolved by those partnerships might be[i]:

  • Whether or not the mushrooms grown on decomposing toxic wastes are safe to eat.
  • To what degree of decomposition by mycelium of toxic soils makes the soils safe for food crops [including food for wildlife]
  • How economically practical will it be to remove mushrooms that have hyper-accumulated heavy metals. . .? Which species are best for hyper accumulating specific metals?
  • How to finance/design composting centers around population centers near pollution threats.

How to create a mycofiltration system

Subtitle: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World

However, whether or not our cities, ports and other transportation agencies can qualify for the robust monitoring needed for the Fungi Perfecti research, we have enough anecdotal evidence (and PlanGreen and its partners have enough knowledge and materials) to get to the starting gate right now. As Stamets says in his book, Mycelium Running, “Now is the time to ensure the future of our planet and our species by partnering, or running, with mycelium.”

[i] These issues were borrowed from Stamets’ The Petroleum Problem, on the Fungi Perfecti website.

Please see May 6, 2015 post titled Mycoremediation: Mushrooms Cleaning Soils and Water in Portland for further information on this topic.

How to create a mycofiltration system

For many people, mushrooms can be a healthy, tasty addition at mealtime. But along the Lake Erie shoreline south of Buffalo, the science of mushrooms is being used in an innovative way – as an environmentally-safe method to reduce harmful bacteria in a stream near the beach at Lake Erie State Park.

At the beginning of this decade, tests of the stream and water at the beach by the State Parks Water Quality Unit were showing consistently high levels of e. coli, a bacteria found in fecal matter which can severely sicken those who have been exposed.

The sand and cobble beach in Chautauqua County had been closed to swimming for several years due to a combination of high bacterial levels and fiscal constraints. Testing indicated that the problem likely was being caused by faulty septic systems or unsewered properties upstream, although additional contamination from animals could not be ruled out as another potential source.

While there are mechanical and chemical techniques to filter such harmful bacteria from water, in 2014 Water Quality staff decided to test an innovative mushroom-based system developed by Fungi Perfecti, a Washington-state based company with a long research history into fungus and mushrooms, a scientific field known as mycology.

Company founder and owner Paul Stamets is a nationally- and internationally-recognized expert and promotes innovative uses for mushrooms in bioremediation and medical therapies. He even entered the realm of popular culture when creators of the latest Star Trek franchise, which started in 2017 on CBS All Access, named the ship’s science officer after him as part of the use of a a mushroom-based propulsion system for the Starship Enterprise.

Meanwhile, back here in New York State and with funding support from the federal Great Lake Restoration Initiative, water quality staffers at State Parks installed a Stamets-designed mycofiltration system into this small creek at the Park.

The filtration system uses large plastic containers called totes that contain a mixture of wood chips and mycelium (the tiny threadlike vegetative part of fungi that fruits as mushrooms) that allow water to pass through. This allows the mycelium mixture to absorb bacteria from contaminated water as it flows past.

So far, the test results seem promising. E. coli levels downstream of the filtration system have dropped and water quality at the beach has improved, although outside factors, including improvements in the surrounding watershed, may have contributed.

The mycelium in the totes were reinoculated – another way of saying reimplanted and reinvigorated – in 2016 and 2019. Data from this project is being shared with Fungi Perfecti to assist in their research and development of their system.

Said Renee Davis, director of research and development at Fungi Perfecti, “We are proud of the contributions that fungal mycelium has been able to make for Lake Erie State Park and the surrounding ecosystems. Though we still face challenges with scalability of this technology, the applications are promising. We are closely studying the aspects of fungal metabolism that drive these effects, particularly the secretion of specialized compounds from mycelium into the environment.”

She added, “New potential applications have also arisen for bioretention and stormwater. For us, this project is an example of the possibilities that emerge when we look at nature—particularly fungi—in a new, creative, and innovative way. We hope this is the first of many projects to come using mushroom mycelium for water quality.”

How to create a mycofiltration systemMycelium and wood chips are mixed together in the totes. (Photo Credit- State Parks) How to create a mycofiltration systemTotes rest within the concrete channel of the stream. (Photo Credit- State Parks)

Currently, this is the only State Park where this chemical-free, ecologically-safe method is being tested, although it could be introduced into the Finger Lakes region if a suitable location can be found.

Cover Shot: NYS Parks crews service the mycofiltration unit in Lake Erie State Park in 2016.

More Resources

See a technical display of the project here

Hear Fungi Perfecti Founder Paul Stamets give a TED lecture on the potential uses of mushrooms.

Stamets’ awards include Invention Ambassador (2014-2015) for the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the National Mycologist Award (2014) from the North American Mycological Association (NAMA), and the Gordon & Tina Wasson Award (2015) from the Mycological Society of America (MSA).

Currently, Stamets is testing extracts of rare mushroom strains at the NIH (National Institutes of Health/Virology) and with Washington State University/United States Department of Agriculture against a wide panel of viruses pathogenic to humans, animals and bees.

Read what local Capital Region entrepreneur Eben Bayer, owner of Ecovative Design, a mushroom-based packaging and development business based in Green Island, has to say about the scientific potential of mycelium.

Check out the Mushroom Blog at Cornell University.

Post by April Brun and Gabriella Cebada Mora, NYS Parks Water Quality Unit

Bio Research Win: Supreme Court Rules Against Gene Patenting

Posted by Jaimee Saliba on Fri, Jun 14, 2013

How to create a mycofiltration systemIn what is being hailed as a victory for both scientific research and patients’ rights, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously yesterday that human genetic material cannot be patented. The case, Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, has been working its way through the court system for a number of years now, led by plaintiffs including the ACLU, the American College of Medical Genetics, the American Society for Clinical Pathology, and numerous prominent genetic research scientists. The verdict invalidates the patents Myriad Genetics has held on breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 since the 1990’s and allows other labs besides theirs to test for mutations in those genes which, when present, strongly indicate a genetic predisposition to cancer. It also means that scientists can move forward in their genetic research without threat of being sued for copyright infringement. While the case was brought against Myriad specifically, the decision to disallow human gene patenting has profound implications for both scientific discovery and individual rights of ownership over our own genetic material.

WSU Team Tests Mycofiltration Biotechnology to Purify Water Supply

Posted by Jaimee Saliba on Fri, May 24, 2013

How to create a mycofiltration systemMycology is the branch of biology devoted to the study of fungi (mushrooms), which, we’re increasingly learning, are truly astonishing in what they can do. With the support of a grant from the EPA, a team of Washington State University scientists is developing a mycofiltration system to purify storm water of bacteria before it re-enters the urban water supply. Professor Marc Beutel is an environmental engineer who has joined forces with renowned mycologist Paul Stamets of Fungi Perfecti, a research laboratory and retail company also in Washington State. Together they have completed the first phase of a study titled Mycofiltration Biotechnology for Pathogen Management, wherein they have successfully used fungi to create a “living net” to filter effluent bacteria. The project was funded by an EPA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award.

New Boulder Biotechnology Building and JILA X-Wing Research Labs Now Open on CU Campus

Posted by Jaimee Saliba on Mon, Apr 16, 2012

The Jennie Smoly Caruthers Biotechnology Building on the East Campus of the University of Colorado Boulder is already welcoming researchers to their new labs and offices, and on April 26 there will be an official dedication ceremony for the 330,000sf innovative life science facility. While the university is still waiting for state funding to construct a fifth wing for teaching space, the current building is scheduled to be fully occupied by June. As we reported in a widely-read earlier blog on this much-anticipated research complex, one of the key tenants will be the Biofrontiers Institute, formerly the CIMB. Joining them are the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and the Division of Biochemistry.

Duke Research Funding Strong + Biotech Hub Success in Recent Studies

Posted by Jaimee Saliba on Thu, Jan 05, 2012

In two recent articles published on business websites, Duke University emerges as being especially strong in both industry research funding (as it matches public funding) and its position within a growing biotech hub (the Research Triangle formed by Durham, Raleigh, and Chapel Hill, North Carolina). What these studies indicate is that Duke is succeeding as a research university in ways that its rivals may not be able to match and that bode well for its growth in the future. Both articles suggest that one of Duke’s strengths is its relationship to industry in the region, for developing its technology as well as bringing in new funding for its research.

writing about the environmental issues nobody is writing about.

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Mycrofiltration (not to be confused with microfiltration) is a biological water filtration method that puts mushrooms to use. The variety of research on beneficial aspects of mushrooms shows that there are many ways to apply them – in both water filtration and medicine. The EPA saw enough potential in the method that they funded research at Washington State University aimed at filtering bacteria from storm water runoff using the web-like tissue of fungi to capture and degrade particles. Another study found that a certain type of oyster mushroom could filter environmentally hazardous PCP-contaminated water. The problem is, you can’t just stick a mushroom in a tub full of water and expect it to do its thing. Mushroom spawn are mixed with other substrates, other times they are ground up, and still other methods involve extracting metabolites from the fungi.

Photo by hermaion on Pexels.com

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One article on mushrooms from 1972 sought to explain the antimicrobial properties of the fungus basidiomycetes, which scientists suspected were due to metabolites discovered in similar studies from the 1940’s. Eleven different solutions of mushroom-related metabolites were tested for antimicrobial characteristics by being introduced to various bacteria. This included Bacillus subtilis, Stuphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmuiis, Etrterobucter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonirs fluorescens, and Candidu ulbicans. The authors of the study found the metabolite solutions of hispidin, bisnoryanyonin, and vulpinic acid to be the most useful against the introduced bacteria. However, the metabolites were deemed to be less clinically useful than pre-existing antibiotic alternatives such as penicillins and tetracyclines.

How to create a mycofiltration system“Fungi” by troutcolor is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Mushroom filtration is something I’ve never researched before, and even though it is praised as an efficient and eco-friendly method, the results of the EPA-funded study are yet to be released. Do you think there are health benefits to using mushrooms – for filtration, medicine, or otherwise?

How to create a mycofiltration system

For many people, mushrooms can be a healthy, tasty addition at mealtime. But along the Lake Erie shoreline south of Buffalo, the science of mushrooms is being used in an innovative way – as an environmentally-safe method to reduce harmful bacteria in a stream near the beach at Lake Erie State Park.

At the beginning of this decade, tests of the stream and water at the beach by the State Parks Water Quality Unit were showing consistently high levels of e. coli, a bacteria found in fecal matter which can severely sicken those who have been exposed.

The sand and cobble beach in Chautauqua County had been closed to swimming for several years due to a combination of high bacterial levels and fiscal constraints. Testing indicated that the problem likely was being caused by faulty septic systems or unsewered properties upstream, although additional contamination from animals could not be ruled out as another potential source.

While there are mechanical and chemical techniques to filter such harmful bacteria from water, in 2014 Water Quality staff decided to test an innovative mushroom-based system developed by Fungi Perfecti, a Washington-state based company with a long research history into fungus and mushrooms, a scientific field known as mycology.

Company founder and owner Paul Stamets is a nationally- and internationally-recognized expert and promotes innovative uses for mushrooms in bioremediation and medical therapies. He even entered the realm of popular culture when creators of the latest Star Trek franchise, which started in 2017 on CBS All Access, named the ship’s science officer after him as part of the use of a a mushroom-based propulsion system for the Starship Enterprise.

Meanwhile, back here in New York State and with funding support from the federal Great Lake Restoration Initiative, water quality staffers at State Parks installed a Stamets-designed mycofiltration system into this small creek at the Park.

The filtration system uses large plastic containers called totes that contain a mixture of wood chips and mycelium (the tiny threadlike vegetative part of fungi that fruits as mushrooms) that allow water to pass through. This allows the mycelium mixture to absorb bacteria from contaminated water as it flows past.

So far, the test results seem promising. E. coli levels downstream of the filtration system have dropped and water quality at the beach has improved, although outside factors, including improvements in the surrounding watershed, may have contributed.

The mycelium in the totes were reinoculated – another way of saying reimplanted and reinvigorated – in 2016 and 2019. Data from this project is being shared with Fungi Perfecti to assist in their research and development of their system.

Said Renee Davis, director of research and development at Fungi Perfecti, “We are proud of the contributions that fungal mycelium has been able to make for Lake Erie State Park and the surrounding ecosystems. Though we still face challenges with scalability of this technology, the applications are promising. We are closely studying the aspects of fungal metabolism that drive these effects, particularly the secretion of specialized compounds from mycelium into the environment.”

She added, “New potential applications have also arisen for bioretention and stormwater. For us, this project is an example of the possibilities that emerge when we look at nature—particularly fungi—in a new, creative, and innovative way. We hope this is the first of many projects to come using mushroom mycelium for water quality.”

How to create a mycofiltration systemMycelium and wood chips are mixed together in the totes. (Photo Credit- State Parks) How to create a mycofiltration systemTotes rest within the concrete channel of the stream. (Photo Credit- State Parks)

Currently, this is the only State Park where this chemical-free, ecologically-safe method is being tested, although it could be introduced into the Finger Lakes region if a suitable location can be found.

Cover Shot: NYS Parks crews service the mycofiltration unit in Lake Erie State Park in 2016.

More Resources

See a technical display of the project here

Hear Fungi Perfecti Founder Paul Stamets give a TED lecture on the potential uses of mushrooms.

Stamets’ awards include Invention Ambassador (2014-2015) for the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the National Mycologist Award (2014) from the North American Mycological Association (NAMA), and the Gordon & Tina Wasson Award (2015) from the Mycological Society of America (MSA).

Currently, Stamets is testing extracts of rare mushroom strains at the NIH (National Institutes of Health/Virology) and with Washington State University/United States Department of Agriculture against a wide panel of viruses pathogenic to humans, animals and bees.

Read what local Capital Region entrepreneur Eben Bayer, owner of Ecovative Design, a mushroom-based packaging and development business based in Green Island, has to say about the scientific potential of mycelium.

Check out the Mushroom Blog at Cornell University.

Post by April Brun and Gabriella Cebada Mora, NYS Parks Water Quality Unit

Shiitake mushrooms are a bit more difficult to grow since their mycelium is not as aggressive, and requires a longer incubation time. But the extra work can be well worth it.

Shiitake produces more flushes of fresh mushrooms for you to harvest. Sometimes for years under the right conditions!

How to create a mycofiltration system

Why Grow Shiitake Mushrooms?

They’re Good For You

Shiitake mushrooms contain compounds that support heart health, boost your immune system, and may even be able to help fight cancer and tumors.

They’re low in sodium and calories, but offer good amounts of fiber, B vitamins, and some minerals.

Plus they’re delicious!

How to create a mycofiltration system

The Gift That Keeps On Giving

Shiitake mushrooms produce 3 to 5 flushes of fresh mushrooms on average when grown on sawdust or grain. If you grow them on logs, they can provide you with fresh mushrooms every 5 weeks for 4 to 6 years!

The upfront time and monetary investment of growing your own shiitake mushrooms will more than pay for itself. Just think about what the amount of mushrooms you’ll be harvesting would cost to buy from the supermarket.

Plus you can’t beat the level of freshness that comes from harvesting mushrooms at home! Growing your own mushrooms is a great hobby and is also an excellent learning experience to teach kids about nature.

How to create a mycofiltration system

How To Grow Shiitake Mushrooms At Home

Step 1: Getting Prepared

Before you can start growing shiitake mushrooms, you’ll need to decide what substrate you plan to grow your mushrooms on and buy the supplies needed.

Picking A Substrate

A substrate is the growing medium where your mushrooms will first establish themselves as mycelium and use it as a food source to produce their fruiting bodies (aka the mushrooms we eat.)

Shiitake mushrooms are a bit more picky about what they will eat when compared to oyster mushrooms, which will grow on coffee grounds, cardboard, or pretty much anything.

Shiitake really need a wood-based growing medium to thrive and get the nutrients they need. So your options are usually limited to either growing them on logs or blocks of sawdust.

Sawdust or sawdust pellets are likely easier for you to source than fresh logs, especially if you live in a city.

Regardless of what wood-based substrate you choose, pick one made from deciduous hardwoods. Shiitakes do best on oak, but maple, beech, and ironwood will all work as well.

If you’re using logs to grow your shiitake mushrooms, then the fresher they are, the better.

If you could cut logs off a tree and then inoculate them the same day, that would be optimal.

That’s because if logs are left to sit around, other types of fungi could start to grow inside of them first.

You don’t want to grow using logs that have been sitting around for more than a few weeks.

Avoid any logs covered in moss or lichen, or that show any other signs of mold or fungi that may already be inhabiting the wood.

Logs for inoculating with shiitake should ideally be about 3 to 6 inches (7.6- 15.2 cm) in diameter and about 3 to 4 feet ( 91-122 cm) long.

If you are growing using sawdust or pellets, you’ll want to either buy or make some form of containers or growing bags to hold your substrate as well.

How to create a mycofiltration system

Getting Spawn

Spawn is live mycelium culture, and is what you use to grow mushrooms. Much like you use seeds to grow fruits or vegetables.

Shiitake mushroom strains don’t have the same pronounced differences that you can see in different oyster mushroom strains and subspecies.

The color, shape, and size of shiitake are mostly the same. Strain mostly affects the conditions that the mushrooms prefer.

There are cold weather, warm weather, and wide range strains. Wide range is best for beginners and what is most used for year-round commercial cultivation.

Many sellers don’t even list what strain of shiitake spawn they’re selling. But if you do have a choice of different strains, WR46 is a good beginner-friendly strain to pick.

Shiitake spawn comes in several different forms depending on how you’re planning on growing your shiitake mushrooms.

Hobbyist growers tend to use inoculated wooden dowels, which are also called plug spawn. If you’re using logs, these dowels can be hammered into holes that you drill to give your shiitake mushrooms a place to grow.

More serious growers tend to prefer sawdust spawn. Sawdust spawn can either be used to inoculate blocks of sawdust or inserted into logs using a special spring-loaded inoculation tool.

If you want a really simple and almost foolproof solution, you can even buy pre-inoculated logs or kits with all of the initial work done for you.

How to create a mycofiltration system

Step 2: Prepare Your Shiitake Mushroom Substrate

Some of the substrates that shiitake mushrooms grow on will already be pasteurized and won’t need sterilization.

  • If you’re using sawdust pellets, they’ve already been pasteurized during the pellet production process where they’re put under extreme heat and pressure.
  • If you’re using sawdust pellets, all you need to do is soak them for 30 minutes and break the pellets apart into sawdust.
  • If you’re using fresh logs, pasteurization isn’t necessary.
  • If you’re using straw or fresh sawdust, you’ll want to pasteurize your substrate. You can do this by soaking your sawdust or straw in hot water (149 – 176 degrees F or 65 – 80 degrees C) for 1-2 hours. You can also use a high-pH lime bath for 12-18 hours if preferred.
  • For commercial shiitake growing operations, substrate is often enriched with nitrogen supplements as it’s being prepared. If you’re growing as a hobby this isn’t necessary.

You may want to consider adding supplements it if you’re growing on straw or grain, which provides less nutrients for the mycelium than wood-based growing.

Enriching your substrate isn’t an option when growing on logs, but there are other tips we share about how to successfully grow Shiitake on logs in this video:

Introduction: Hydroponic Bog Garden (Water Recycling)

This idea came from the work that we do with sewage. Our systems produce a clean water effluent that is clean enough to discharge to ditches ponds etc. we wanted to develop a tertiary treatment system that would allow us to re-use the water for irrigation purposes. Hence the idea formed to create a hydroponic bog garden.

It essentially uses the same techniques employed in aquaculture. Use bacteria that are attached to biomedia to clean the highly oxygenated water passing through the media. We use alfagrog media for this. It has a high surface area and good void capacity. The added bonus to this system is that by placing a gravel bed over the top of the media we have been able to produce an ideal environment for growing those difficult to propagate plants. The moisture loving ones that fail at the first sign of drought.

You can find out more about us and our other projects on our site:Biotank

Step 1: Dig a Hole

The bog garden starts life as a square hole with a level base and square sides. The shape was determined by the sleepers that we are using around the outside in the finished bog garden.

Step 2: Line the Bottom

Once the base is levelled out, it is time to line the bottom of the bog garden with a cushion to stop stones rising up and making holes in the liner.

Step 3: Level the Bottom With Sand

First of all a sharp sand coating is added to level the bottom completely. Not that the digger driver was not able to get it completely level!

Step 4: Cushion the Bog

The lining cushion is laid out in sheets and comes right up the side of the bog garden. It has to protect the liner, which is 0.75mm butyl from harm. This is the same liner as would be used in a garden pond.

Step 5: Line the Bog

The liner is laid out and pushed all the way to the side of the hole. The liner is preformed to the size of the bog garden on purchase. It was made to measure for us.

Step 6: Add Second Cushion

Once the liner is in place it too is lined with cushion in order to protect it from the alfagrog that we will be putting on the top. The solid oak sleepers are put in the tank to separate off the aeration pond and the final settlement pond from the actual bog garden itself.

In the background you can see our experimental sewage system. This is a see-through Biotank 6 on which we do all of our experimentation.

Step 7: Separate Garden From Aeration Chamber

The oak sleepers, green untreated oak, have small holes routed in the bottom to allow the water to flow through into the bog garden from the aeration chamber. As with most things we where unsure how many were required so it is really guesswork!

Step 8: Add the Alfagrog

Having completed the basic design we fill the actual bog garden part with alfagrog. This is a ceramic filter media used in Koi fish ponds to filter the water. It contains a huge amount of surface area in which our bacteria will live and clean up the water.

Step 9: Add Water

Once we have completely filled the centre section of the hydroponic bog garden we then start filling it with water and adding the rest of the sleepers around the outside of the system. This size of tank takes around 6 cubic metres of water to fill it to a level just above the Alfagrog. Filling it with water allows us to level the Alfagrog and ensure that when we add the gravel to it that it is all immersed in water.

Step 10: Support the Center Section

The finished wood work looks like this. Full of water and Alfagrog and awaiting the gravel to fill the middle. The cross section wood is to stop the centre section moving when the gravel is added.

Step 11: Add Gravel

Once filled with gravel the finished bog garden looks like this. The water level is raised so that at least an inch of the gravel is under water to provide the plants with moisture. The whole purpose of this is not only to filter the water but to provide constant water for herbaceous water loving plants such as Hostas and Astibes.

Step 12: Get Ready to Aerate

The section of the tank that will receive the water from the Biotank needs to be aerated. A small compressor provides this aeration via a rubber aerator. The dissolved oxygen level needs to be as high as possible if the bacteria in the Alfagrog are going to survive.

Step 13: Put in Some Plants

Once finished the final touch is to add plants. All of these are moisture loving plants provided by our local nursery.

Step 14: Enjoy the Bog Garden

The water from the Bog Garden is used to feed our ponds and to water the lawns.

Full results from testing of the water from the Bog Garden can be found on ourBiotank effluent standard page.

You can find out more about us and our other projects on our site:Biotank

Be the First to Share

Did you make this project? Share it with us!

Researchers evaluated the potential capabilities of six white rot fungi to break down oil in contaminated canal waters.

Though white rot fungi are known for their capabilities in breaking down components of plant cell walls, their gene families suggest they have the capability to degrade oil on a wide variety of substrates. Researchers are investigating white rot fungal gene functions for a wide range of applications from bioenergy to bioremediation.

Fungi play many roles that address Department of Energy mission areas, particularly in bioenergy and environment applications. Their capabilities in breaking down wood and leaf litter are being studied by researchers at several institutions including the DOE Joint Genome Institute, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, for optimizing the production of advanced biofuels from sustainable plant sources. Fungal interactions with their ecosystems offer clues to their contributions not just to the global carbon cycle, but also to their effects on plant health (e.g., protection from or susceptibility to disease).

One area in which metabolically versatile fungi have received less attention is their ability to clean up contaminated sites. The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), for example, is known for its taste and its ability to decompose leaves and wood in forests, while related species have been shown to help remove in heavy metals from contaminated areas. This capability is what researchers in Massachusetts want to harness to remove the dense, viscous Bunker C fuel oil from the waters of Blackstone Canal after they were contaminated during a 1999 fire at the Fisherville Mill. In a report published June 25, 2015 in Plos One, a team including DOE JGI scientists assessed the hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities of six white rot fungi—known for their ability to break down both lignin and cellulose in plant matter—for potential use in a mycofiltration system that would cleanse the contaminated canal water.

All told, the team evaluated six white rot fungi: Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, (the latter three of which had been sequenced and analyzed at the DOE JGI through various Community Science Program projects). The sixth white rot, Punctularia strigosozonata, which was sequenced and analyzed at the DOE JGI to see how the oil affected its gene expression, was studied separately.

The fungal strains were inoculated onto white pine sawdust, the primary wood being considered for use in the mycofiltration unit. Researchers then added the cultures to Petri dishes along with some Bunker C oil and incubated for six months to see how well the fungi broke down the hydrocarbons.

The team found that after six months, most of the 10-carbon and 14-carbon alkane chains in the oil samples had indeed been broken down by five strains of white rot fungi. Additionally, in a 20-day test, the sixth strain, P. strigosozonata, degraded a C10 alkane in the oil sample to 99 percent. “The degradation of these compounds demonstrates the promise that white-rot fungi hold as agents of bioremediation for similar oil compounds,” the team wrote. Though the processes by which the white rot fungi can break down hydrocarbons have not yet been determined, they recommend that the tests be repeated using the actual bioremediation system being developed to see how these conditions would affect the results seen in the laboratory.

These findings build upon the surprising and potentially useful capabilities that fungi possess—beyond degrading plant cell wall components to improve the production of fuels from biomass, to include degrading organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), explosives, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides.

Land Seeker Description

Hi, I’m a young small time seasonal mushroom farmer looking to expand my operation. I have been farming fungi seasonally for three years growing lion’s mane, shiitake, reishi, turkey tail, enoki and oyster mushrooms. I originally had a background in culinary being a cook/chef for six years in fine dining, while also being an adamant gardener. I have always had a passion for food, and that passion has lead me on a journey to a number of interests ranging from how it is grown, to nutrition, botany, herbology and foraging. I wish to expand my relationship and knowledge of plants and food, with the hope of understanding nature and how to coexist within its systems. Food has led me to learn the importance in nurturing of our topsoil, and the vital role fungi and soil microbes plays in the health of the plant, the nutritional makeup of the crop and the structure it plays in our ecosystems. I was naturally attracted to fungi, with its mystique and rarity in house hold kitchens, to being looked at as a prized delicacy in the culinary world, to its long list of medicinal properties and uses throughout history, while also being used to repair and improve damaged soils, clean water runoff, while having the ability to breakdown plastics and can potentially be a solution to a lot of the problems we face.

I wish to be a part of a change, by practicing permaculture/regenerative holistic techniques and focus on the production of fungi. Fungi plays a vital role on earth for our existence, because mycelium connects almost all plant life together, creating a symbiotic relationship by trading vital nutrients with one another, and without the colonization of fungi on the planet, plant life would cease to exist. Mycology is basically an untouched field, hidden and waiting to be explored, leaving plenty of room to be innovative and discovered. The older generation of farmers are in need for the younger generation to take the reins into a promising future, fungi could be the key that ties all the systems together, to make us better stewards.

I’m looking for 10 acres+ with access to water and electricity, to build mushroom facility and residency while using permaculture practices to plant a food forest, consisting of orchards of nuts and fruits, with vegetables, herbs and flowers, while incorporating mushrooms throughout the framework of the area.

What features of the property are essential?

Willing to negotiate terms, water rights, on-site sewer, on-site private well, irrigation structures, barns/structures, pasture, woodland, soil type, electricity, land that has been certified organic, all would be ideal but would be flexible on what is and isn’t included. No chemicals used in five years doesn’t have to be certified organic.

Describe your farming experience

I have been farming mushrooms seasonally for three years now, selling to clients and the occasional farmers market. I grow lion’s mane, shiitake, reishi, turkey tail, enoki and oyster mushrooms. Some mushrooms are too woody to consume but are highly nutritious and I turn that into dried powder and veggie capsules, and sell to customers. I have a culinary background as a cook/chef in fine dining, so I also make mushroom jerky and seasoning salt, while creating recipes. The spent mushroom blocks I dry then chip and turn into mushroom compost. My operation is small and I want to upscale my operation. Outside of mushrooms, I have gardened for about 5 years doing companion planting of different vegetables and herbs. No chemicals. No till.
I also have a little background in construction, doing trim work in my late teens early twenties before becoming a cook. I recently helped frame a garage with my father who is an independent contractor and have built my own greenhouse with a foundation for mushroom production.

Are you currently farming?

What are your short term goals for the land

Build up mushroom production sell to farmers markets and chefs. Build a building for a lab and storage space for mushroom blocks and product that can sustain up at least 100 pounds of mushroom production weekly. Start design for a permaculture food forest by planting fruit and nut trees and berry shrubs. With this, I plan on planting vegetables and herbs, flowers while incorporating mushrooms and cover crops throughout the framework of the area. Work on mushroom compost production and find ways to build up fungi and soil microbes in the soil and forests. Build a mycofiltration system using fungi to clean water entering the property and use mycoremediation throughout the property and community. Build bee hives and give them mushroom extracts to build up their immunity. Make plant teas like KNF and IMO used in Korean farming practices to help them grow and build up a healthy microbiome. Work on creating a mushroom cookbook. Experiment with breaking down plastics using a certain type of mushroom. Work on self-sustainment and expand my knowledge of sustainable farming practices.

What are your long term goals

Sustain the permaculture farm by incorporating animals to help diversify the farm and provide a balance to the ecosystem. Build a house or some sort of living space and more structures for farming production. Have mushroom facility be the main contributor of income by not only selling to farmer markets and chefs but to distribute mushroom powder and products throughout the country. Build a team and start to do research trials on the benefits of mushrooms and collect data, while finding creative and innovative ways to use fungi mycelium. Educate communities of the importance of fungi, plants and food.

Describe your housing needs

Would prefer to live on the land, if housing and other buildings are available that would be ideal but would be willing to live in a trailer or yurt, with a potential to build a house and structures, willing to negotiate and come to terms.

Additional Land Seeker Details

Regions interested in farming:
Coastal, 5, South Willamette Valley, North Willamette Valley, Portland Area, Southern

Acreage desired:
5 – 10 acres

Seeking land access by:
September 30, 2021

Interested in raising the following crops / livestock:
Beans, Bees, Berries, Flowers, Herbs, Mushrooms, Nuts, Orchard/Fruit, Vegetables, Vineyard

Interested in these business arrangements:
Sale of Land, Lease-to-own, Lease for cash, Partnership, Other

Interested in these growing practices:
Certified Organic, Organic, Not Certified, Biodynamic, Dry Farming

Date when this profile was last modified or created:
October 19, 2021

To contact a land seeker, you must first create a land listing and have it approved by our staff. Thank you.

Sharing my learning experiences with aquaponic gardening

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Thursday, May 29, 2014

Notes from Paul Stamets’ Talk in Philadelphia on May 2nd

  • Fomes fomentarius (a Hoof Polypore mushroom) aka Tinder mushroom – used to make Amadou (a spongy, flammable substance)
  • Critical to our survival – used to carry fire
  • Boil the Mushroom, it delaminates and is very flamable
  • Hypocrates used as a medicine – A styptic (also spelled stiptic) is a specific type of antihemorrhagic agent that works by contracting tissue to seal injured blood vessels. Styptic pencils containastringents.

  • Produces faster growing trees
  • Stores carbon rather than releasing it
  • CO2 exposure determines length of stem
  • Light exposure determines width of the cap

300 miles of mycelium (may be inaccurate, I didn’t catch the number)

  • Subway design optimization using slime mold

2 feet. Fossil of prototaxites was found in Saudi Arabia? (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XI5frPV58tY#t=362)

  • parasitic, kills trees
  • can create huge swirl patterns in trees
  • Farmers growing these mushrooms showed significantly lower cancer rates
  • Contain Nerve Growth Factors that promote nerve cell growth
  • Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.
    • By Mori K1, Inatomi S, Ouchi K, Azumi Y, Tuchida T.
    • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18844328
  • Effects of Hericium erinaceus on amyloid β(25-35) peptide-induced learning and memory deficits in mice.
    • By Mori K1, Obara Y, Moriya T, Inatomi S, Nakahata N.
    • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21383512
    • Mice given amyloid plaque causing polypeptide
      • Control mice react to new object, mice with amyloid plaques lose curiosity and problem-solving ability (navigating a maze)
      • After

        21 days eating Lion’s Mane, the mice regained curiosity and maze-solving ability

How to create a mycofiltration system

C# is a language for professional programming. C# (pronounced C sharp) is a programming language designed for building a wide range of enterprise applications that run on the .NET Framework. The goal of C# is to provide a simple, safe, modern, object-oriented, highperformance , robust and durable language for .NET development. Also it enables developers to build solutions for the broadest range of clients, including Web applications, Microsoft Windows Forms-based applications, and thin- and smart-client devices.

Visual C# developers can leverage their existing C, C++ , Java skills and knowledge to be successful in the Microsoft .NET development environment. So many C, Java, and C++ development will move to C# to take advantage of .NET features. In cooperation with the .NET CLR (Common Language Runtime), it provides a language to use for ComponentOriented software, without forcing programmers to abandon their existing knowledge in C, C++, or COM code.

How to create a mycofiltration system

The following C# lessons provide an overview of the basics of the language and identify important language features. Each lessons includes one or more sample programs. I hope this website will help you to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to develop Windows applications in Visual C# in a simplified manner rather than in a complex way.

It’s a daunting task for a non-scientist to review a book steeped in science, history, evolution, and philosophy. Author and mycologist Merlin Sheldrake, whose very name conjures images of hobbits, Harry Potter characters, or more closely, Borrowers, since much of his research is based on underground mycelial networks, holds a PhD from Cambridge University where he studied tropical ecology. Throughout the book, he leads the reader through a wonderous world of mycelial networks and many kinds of fungi, and takes you on around the world explorations. Indeed, the first page of the prologue has you lying with Sheldrake on the floor of a Panamanian jungle tracing the root of a tree. When he reaches the root tips, the point where the roots end in leaves and twigs, the story has just begun. He is searching for the sticky casings surrounding the root tips, the mycelial network.

How to create a mycofiltration system

First, some of the mechanics of this book. It is only 225 pages and illustrated with drawings made with Coprinus ink derived from shaggy ink cap mushrooms. There are an additional 94 pages of notes and bibliography, and an index. Unless you are a mycologist or botanist, it is likely there are many words, terms, fungi and science hypotheses you’ve not heard before–hyphae, holobiont, mycofiltration, microbiomes, enthogens, plant infochemicals, astrobiology, mycophilia, and root-brain hypothesis, by way of examples, on almost every page of the book. You will not need a dictionary by your side. Sheldrake explains words and concepts in layman’s terms, and often adds the history of the word or concept, and brings it to life with vivid storytelling

Similar to learning algebra, you must learn the rules, and in this case, you must learn the basics of hyphae (pronounced HY fee, networks of fungi cells) and mycelium (a process of “anarchic” cells going everywhere) that are used for communication, nutrition, and defense for their own good and often in support of other plants. Is it cooperation or competition, or both, or sometimes cooperation and sometimes competition?

Sheldrake teases the reader into the book with a chapter, appropriately titled “A Lure,” on truffles. Truffles are the highly-prized and expensive underground fruiting body of mycorrhizal fungi and spend most of the year as mycelial networks. How does a subterranean spore-producing fungi reproduce? Sheldrake will tell you. For generations, truffles have lured humans and their trained animals into hunting them, and have spawned amateur mycologists.

If you’ve not considered that yeast and lichens are classified as fungi, you are not alone. Sheldrake explains the shortfalls of the taxonomic system created by Carl Linneaus. Linneaus understood there were limitations in the fungi classification, and wrote, “The Order of Fungi is still Chaos, a scandal of art, no botanist knowing what is a Species and what is a Variety.” Yeast, lichens and algae are featured in Sheldrake’s book. Green algae, the genesis of plants, moved from sea to land about 600 million years ago, when it partnered with fungi…most likely, by striking up “mycorrhizal relationships.” Plants comprise 80% of earth’s life mass, are the food basis for most terrestrial organisms, and about 90% of plants depend on mycorrhizal relationships. We can then begin to recognize the importance of mycorrhizae, its relationship to life on earth, and the desire to further study what it is and how it works.

Can fungi be used to filter runoff from fire devastated housing areas in California? A mycoremediation study is underway. Fungi is already used to help clean up oil spills. Can fungi be used to biodegrade polyurethane plastic? A novel fungal strain was found in Islamabad that does just that. Can fungi be used to build housing and clothing? Yes, it can. Fungi was used to create penicillin. What other fungi-based medical applications remain undiscovered? Mycology is in its infancy.

What does it mean? There are more questions than answers. Under a shaded arbor early one relatively cool August morning, a dozen Master Gardeners met to discuss “Entangled Life.” They puzzled over and discussed the minutiae and fantastical included in this short, dense and engrossing book and unanimously agreed this book was worthy of a book review and by extension, a worthwhile read.

Selected Topics Highlighted by Clips of Notable Sites

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2010-03-07

Mycoremediation — Using Fungi to Improve the Environment

Clipped from: Mycroremediation | How Fungi Can Restore Our Habitats – D.U.S. – Design Under Sky

Mycroremediation | How Fungi Can Restore Our Habitats

Mycelium, as Stamets says in his 2008 TED talk are the ultimate soil builders. The mother of trees. We are more closely related to fungi then any other kingdom. They are external neurological membranes, and this microbial universe gives rise to a plurality of other organisms. It is earth’s natural internet, highly branched with alternative paths that cling to soil, decomposing matter and creating stability.

Clipped from: YouTube – Paul Stamets: 6 ways mushrooms can save the world
Clipped from: Mycoremediation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mycoremediation is a form of bioremediation, the process of using fungi to return an environment (usually soil) contaminated by pollutants to a less contaminated state. The term mycoremediation was coined by Paul Stamets and refers specifically to the use of fungal mycelia in bioremediation.
[. ]

Mycofiltration is a similar or same process, using fungal mycelia to filter toxic waste and microorganisms from water in soil.

Clipped from: Fungi Perfecti: Mushrooms and the ecosystem

Helping the Ecosystem
through Mushroom Cultivation

Clipped from: Mycoremediation Technologies

Mushrooms:
Higher Macrofungi to Clean Up the Environment

Potential applications for mycoremediation technologies include:

  • Agricultural waste reduction
  • Creation of buffer zones
  • Nonpoint source pollution reduction in watersheds
  • Contaminated sediment cleanup
  • Reduction of material relegated to confined disposal facilities
  • Decontamination
  • Minimization of contaminants from road runoff

Clipped from: Fungi Perfecti: road restoration and mushrooms

MYCOFILTRATION:
A NOVEL APPROACH FOR THE BIO-TRANSFORMATION
OF ABANDONED LOGGING ROADS

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    1 out of 3 bites of food you eat is thanks to pollination by honey bees…but bees are under threat!

    In 2014, Paul Stamets (leading mycologist, visionary and TED Talk presenter), Dr. Steve Sheppard (Chair, Department of Entomology, Washington State University) and the Washington State Beekeepers Association teamed up in a research initiative called BeeFriendly™ to help reverse devastating declines in the global bee population that are critically threatening the world’s food security.

    In 2015, experiments began where honey bees drank different mushroom mycelium extracts. Research is indicating that mushroom mycelium extracts provide essential nutrition that confers an immune benefit to bees. This nutritional support then translates into improved hive health.

    “As an entomologist with 40+ years of experience studying bees, I am unaware of any reports of materials that extend the life of worker bees more than this.”

    –Dr. Steve Sheppard

    How to create a mycofiltration system

    Designed by Paul Stamets and Paul Taylor, the patent-pending BeeMushroomed Feeder™ (BMF™) is a delivery system for mushroom mycelium extract, making this nutritive food easily available to bees to sustain their natural health in this time of crisis.

    The BeeMushroomed Feeder is currently in the development phase, and work is underway to address the regulatory context for this innovative mycotechnology.

    While BeeMushroomed Feeders and BeeMushroomed Extract are not currently available for sale, we do encourage you to join our mailing list so you can be among the first notified once the product is ready for distribution.

    If you’d like to donate directly to research at Washington State University, please use the button below.

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    Thursday, August 25, 2011

    List of Permaculture Videos and Books

    • How he sets up a permaculture system
    • The fruit varieties he has found best for permaculture growing
    • How to construct terraces, ponds, and waterways
    • How to build shelters for animals and how to work with them on the land
    • How to cultivate edible mushrooms in the garden and on the farm
    • System location considerations and hardware components
    • The living elements—fish, plants, bacteria, and worms
    • Putting it all together—starting and maintaining a healthy system

    Mycelium Running is a manual for the mycological rescue of the planet. That’s right: growing more mushrooms may be the best thing we can do to save the environment, and in this groundbreaking text from mushroom expert Paul Stamets, you’ll find out how.

    The basic science goes like this: Microscopic cells called “mycelium”–the fruit of which are mushrooms–recycle carbon, nitrogen, and other essential elements as they break down plant and animal debris in the creation of rich new soil. What Stamets has discovered is that we can capitalize on mycelium’s digestive power and target it to decompose toxic wastes and pollutants (mycoremediation), catch and reduce silt from streambeds and pathogens from agricultural watersheds (mycofiltration), control insect populations (mycopesticides), and generally enhance the health of our forests and gardens (mycoforestry and myco-gardening).

    Piptoporus or the bracket fungus is a type of saprophytic fungi, which belongs to the family Fomitopsidaceae. You may also know this mushroom by other names such as Birch Bracket, Razor Strop or Birch Polypore.

    Within its family, Piptoporus Betulinus is the most common. The mushroom is obviously a polypore and its reference as ‘Birch’ emanates from the fact that it usually hitches on this type of tree. Its life span is usually beyond twelve months. It is known to be an ancient fungus because a mummy that was discovered in the Alps in 1991 and thought to be more than 5000 years old showed evidence that the ‘Iceman’ had been buried together with this mushroom. In the ancient days, it was also used as tinder since its embers can hold a flame for quite a while.

    The Piptoporus Betulinus grows well in cold climates just like its host, the Birch tree. The Birch is very common in the arctic and North European countries. Finland, for instance, has exalted the Birch as its national tree. In short wherever there is extreme cold and the Birch tree, you can expect to find the Piptoporus Betulinus fungus.

    And it has not been ignored either; rather, the people have started growing it commercially due to its numerous medicinal benefits. Apart from Northern Europe, the Birch Bracket Mushroom is also found in Asia and America. In Canada, one will find it in the British Columbia. It can also be traced to Quebec, Nova Scotia and Manitoba. It also grows well in Alberta and Ontario too. Down in the United States, it flourishes in the states of Massachusetts, Washington, New Hampshire, Virginia, Maine, New York, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Tennessee, Vermont, Minnesota, New Jersey, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and North West Carolina.

    The caps of the Piptoporus Betulinus range in colour between white and brown. The surface of its pore area also ranges in colour between white and greyish brown. When growing, this mushroom begins as a tiny swelling on its host. The mushroom is not harmful to eat but its bitter taste does not attract many people. It’s just as well because then it is spared and made precious use of as a source of medicine. Still, it is not entirely safe from insects.

    In the ancient days, people used it to clear parasitic worms from the stomach and the digestive system. It was mainly added to tea where it acted as a laxative. Tea brewed with this mushroom is still taken today to soothe the nerves or eliminate fatigue.

    One of its most important health benefits is boosting the immune system. This is particularly important because a body with a strong immune system does not suffer ill health easily. The fungus also boasts antiseptic properties. It prevents infections when used as bandage. In fact, some testimonies by people who have used it are interesting and fascinating. Users have said that not only does the mushroom heal the wound, but that it also leaves no scar even when the wound was deep.

    The Birch Bracket Mushroom is anti-inflammatory. This means that it is capable of reducing or entirely numbing pain without touching on the Central Nervous System. Such natural products are in great demand because many ailments cause inflammation at some stage, and often synthetic medications trigger unwanted side effects. In other instances, medications themselves cause inflammation and products from this mushroom can be taken alongside such medications to neutralise inflammation.

    Research done referencing Roseckeet al, 2000, identified chemicals from the Birch Bracket Mushroom including ketones and terpenes. There are also aliphatic alcohols. There are Aldehydes and some nice smelling compounds present too. Further analysis in (Kamo et al, 2003) identified polyporenic acids i.e. acids A and C. All these contribute in making the mushroom the anti-inflammatory agent that it is.

    Other reports (Keller et al, 2002) mentioned Piptamine as an antibiotic in Piptoporus Betulinus. In the studies, the extracts successfully wiped out the bacterium Escherichia coli. It also killed other harmful bacteria mainly Bacillussubtilis andBiomphalariaglabrata which was not spared either. This confirms that this mushroom is extremely important in the field of medicine.

    Research done earlier on had confirmed the presence of nucleic acid in the mushroom that was able to attack and incapacitate the virus encephalitis (Kandefer-Szerszen et al, 1979). The mushroom therefore can claim to have anti-viral properties.

    The mushroom, Piptoporus Betulinus, is hailed as being able to fight tumours. Research done based on white mice proved that the Polysaccharides in the mushroom are were to curb the advancement of Ehrlich solid cancers by 90%. They were also able to restrict the advancement of Sarcoma 180 by the same percentage. (Ohtsukaet al, 1973).

    Here’s a great video explaining the androgenic properties of Piptoporus Betulinus.

    Book Review

    Entangled Life : How Fungi Make Our Worlds, Change Our Minds & Shape Our Futures by Merlin Sheldrake, 2020

    Reviewed by: Rebecca Alexander on June 6, 2020
    Catalog record

    Only a few pages into Merlin Sheldrake’s Entangled Life, my mind expanded like a puffball, fit to burst from the wildly proliferating spores of ideas. This is so much more than a book about mushrooms, the showy fruiting bodies that tend to dominate our attention to the fungal world. Merlin Sheldrake, son of biologist Rupert Sheldrake, holds a Ph.D. in tropical ecology for research on mycorrhizal relationships. The book should appeal to scientist and layperson alike, as the author excels at communicating complex concepts in lucid and literary prose, while retaining a sense of humor, wonder, and above all, hope. What role does hope play? Reading the book at this time of pandemic and social inequity, the notions of mutualism, symbiosis, and involution (involution—distinct from evolution’s focus on competition–attends to patterns and strategies of cooperation) ramify beyond the realm of mycelial networks, their implications readily extendable to human interaction.

    Sheldrake wholeheartedly embraces imagination and creativity in the realm of scientific research. He does not shy away from describing fungal ‘communication,’ and the ability of organisms that do not possess brains to make ‘decisions.’ Conventional science may frown upon anthropomorphism as soft thinking, but if we eschew it entirely, we might close our minds and dismiss observable phenomena. Biologist Robin Wall Kimmerer points out that the Potawatomi language “is rich in verbs that attribute aliveness to the more-than-human-world,” while English offers no alternative way to talk about other living organisms without reducing them to an inanimate ‘it.’ Kimmerer says, “Biological realities are never black and white. Why should the stories and metaphors we use to make sense of the world—our investigative tools—be so?”

    The book calls attention to the groundbreaking research of scientists, many of them women (Suzanne Simard’s work on carbon transfer between plants; Katie Field on mycorrhizal solutions to agricultural problems; Lynne Boddy on mycelial networks; Lynn Margulis’s endosymbiotic theory once dismissed as “evolutionary speculation”). Sheldrake describes his meetings with Pacific Northwest innovator and fungal theorist Paul Stamets (who has recently been working on fungal antiviral compounds), and mycoenthusiasts and entrepreneurs like Peter McCoy (founder of Radical Mycology, a group that promotes citizen scientist education on things fungal, such as mycoremediation and mycofiltration). Farther afield, in New York, the versatility of fungi is being harnessed to make biodegradable packing and building materials and furnishings as alternatives to plastic. Imagine ordering a grow-your-own-lampshade kit, or sitting on a fungal stool!

    Each chapter presents surprising observations that may dismantle and rearrange the reader’s preconceptions. We humans tend to think of ourselves as discrete, separate individuals, but each of us is actually an ecosystem “composed of—and decomposed by—an ecology of microbes” that make it possible for us to function (to digest our food and reap nutrients from it, for example). We are not unique in this. Symbiosis is widespread.

    An example that reveals the decision-making abilities of organisms without brains is an experiment done in Japan. Scientists set slime mold in petri dishes that replicated the layout of Greater Tokyo, with obstacles represented by bright light. The path the slime mold took was a close match for Tokyo’s rail system. Mycelial networks, too, can function in a brain-like way, responding to electrical, chemical, or other sensory impulses to communicate about surrounding conditions, directing growth accordingly.

    Why should truffles (the subterranean fruiting bodies of certain kinds of mycorrhizal fungi) attract humans and other animals with their smell? Because they are underground, they cannot disperse spores without a partner. Their odor coaxes us to dig for and consume them, thereby dispersing their spores above ground. This is an example of mutualism which is beneficial to both partners.

    Until reading this book, I did not know that the term ecology, coined by artist and biologist Ernst Haeckel in 1866, was influenced by observations about lichen. Ecology is the interrelationship of organisms in their environment, and points to nature as an interconnected whole, “a system of active forces.” In 1869, Swiss botanist Simon Schwendener presented a “dual hypothesis of lichens,” showing that lichen is composed of two different entities, a fungus (to offer physical protection and nutrients) and an alga (to harvest light and carbon dioxide). By 1877, German botanist Albert Frank coined the word symbiosis to describe this fungal-algal partnership.

    The idea that one organism originates from two different lineages defies the tidy categorization that taxonomy prefers. Trevor Howard, curator of University of British Columbia’s lichen collection, refers to the “lichening rod effect,” whereby lichens strike and splinter apart familiar concepts into new forms. It gives us a new way of thinking about life. Sheldrake points to biologist Lynn Margulis and her visionary theories on the coming together of different organisms, the “intimacy of strangers.” Margulis says: “Lichens are remarkable examples of innovation emerging from partnership. The association is far more than the sum of its parts.” It turns out that lichens may be made up of more than two partners. Lichenologist Toby Spribille discovered by chance that lichen DNA contained several fungal and bacterial partners, so a lichen might be seen both as an individual, and/or as a microbiome. We need perspectives that transcend rigid categories in other spheres of existence, too. Cultural theorist David Griffiths was inspired by lichen symbiosis to write a paper entitled “Queer Theory for Lichens.”

    This book is the work of an adult who has retained the his childhood curiosity about the world, who built piles of leaves and embedded himself in them to see if he could experience their decomposition. He continues to be a fungal experimenter, brewing and fermenting, and exploring the many possibilities of partnering with fungi to mend the planet. I highly recommend immersing yourself in this book. Merlin Sheldrake’s enthusiasm is contagious.

    Today on Mushroom Hour we are graced by the presence of Tradd Cotter, coming to us from Mushroom Mountain. Tradd Cotter is a microbiologist, professional mycologist, and organic gardener, who has been tissue culturing, collecting native fungi in the Southeast, and cultivating both commercially and experimentally for more than twenty-five years. In 1996 he founded Mushroom Mountain, which he owns and operates with his wife, Olga, to explore applications for mushrooms in various industries and currently maintains over 200 species of fungi for food production, mycoremediation of environmental pollutants, and natural alternatives to chemical pesticides. His primary interest is in low-tech and no- tech cultivation strategies so that anyone can grow mushrooms on just about anything, anywhere in the world. Mushroom Mountain is currently expanding to 42,000 square feet of laboratory and research space near Greenville, South Carolina, to accommodate commercial production, as well as mycoremediation projects. His masterwork and must-own mycology reference – “Organic Mushroom Farming and Mycoremediation” had a huge impact on my own relationship with mycology.

    Topics Covered:

    • The Journey to Founding “Mushroom Mountain”
    • Applied Mycology as a Multi-Generational Project of Discovery
    • Pillars of Mushroom Mountain’s Business and Research
    • Mushroom-Based Solutions in the Developing World
    • Putting Myco-remediation Theory into Action
    • The Key Concepts of Mycofiltration
    • Future of Fungi in Medicine & Truly Personalized Treatments
    • Reducing Pesticide Use with Fungal Solutions
    • Patenting Ideas to Defend from the Dark Side
    • Educating the Next Generation
    • Disrupting the System, Waking People Up!
    • Power of Growing Your Own Mushrooms
    • “Blue Portal” Psilocybin Therapy in Jamaica
    • Future of Mushroom Mountain

    Book Review

    Entangled Life : How Fungi Make Our Worlds, Change Our Minds & Shape Our Futures by Merlin Sheldrake, 2020

    Reviewed by: Rebecca Alexander on June 6, 2020
    Catalog record

    Only a few pages into Merlin Sheldrake’s Entangled Life, my mind expanded like a puffball, fit to burst from the wildly proliferating spores of ideas. This is so much more than a book about mushrooms, the showy fruiting bodies that tend to dominate our attention to the fungal world. Merlin Sheldrake, son of biologist Rupert Sheldrake, holds a Ph.D. in tropical ecology for research on mycorrhizal relationships. The book should appeal to scientist and layperson alike, as the author excels at communicating complex concepts in lucid and literary prose, while retaining a sense of humor, wonder, and above all, hope. What role does hope play? Reading the book at this time of pandemic and social inequity, the notions of mutualism, symbiosis, and involution (involution—distinct from evolution’s focus on competition–attends to patterns and strategies of cooperation) ramify beyond the realm of mycelial networks, their implications readily extendable to human interaction.

    Sheldrake wholeheartedly embraces imagination and creativity in the realm of scientific research. He does not shy away from describing fungal ‘communication,’ and the ability of organisms that do not possess brains to make ‘decisions.’ Conventional science may frown upon anthropomorphism as soft thinking, but if we eschew it entirely, we might close our minds and dismiss observable phenomena. Biologist Robin Wall Kimmerer points out that the Potawatomi language “is rich in verbs that attribute aliveness to the more-than-human-world,” while English offers no alternative way to talk about other living organisms without reducing them to an inanimate ‘it.’ Kimmerer says, “Biological realities are never black and white. Why should the stories and metaphors we use to make sense of the world—our investigative tools—be so?”

    The book calls attention to the groundbreaking research of scientists, many of them women (Suzanne Simard’s work on carbon transfer between plants; Katie Field on mycorrhizal solutions to agricultural problems; Lynne Boddy on mycelial networks; Lynn Margulis’s endosymbiotic theory once dismissed as “evolutionary speculation”). Sheldrake describes his meetings with Pacific Northwest innovator and fungal theorist Paul Stamets (who has recently been working on fungal antiviral compounds), and mycoenthusiasts and entrepreneurs like Peter McCoy (founder of Radical Mycology, a group that promotes citizen scientist education on things fungal, such as mycoremediation and mycofiltration). Farther afield, in New York, the versatility of fungi is being harnessed to make biodegradable packing and building materials and furnishings as alternatives to plastic. Imagine ordering a grow-your-own-lampshade kit, or sitting on a fungal stool!

    Each chapter presents surprising observations that may dismantle and rearrange the reader’s preconceptions. We humans tend to think of ourselves as discrete, separate individuals, but each of us is actually an ecosystem “composed of—and decomposed by—an ecology of microbes” that make it possible for us to function (to digest our food and reap nutrients from it, for example). We are not unique in this. Symbiosis is widespread.

    An example that reveals the decision-making abilities of organisms without brains is an experiment done in Japan. Scientists set slime mold in petri dishes that replicated the layout of Greater Tokyo, with obstacles represented by bright light. The path the slime mold took was a close match for Tokyo’s rail system. Mycelial networks, too, can function in a brain-like way, responding to electrical, chemical, or other sensory impulses to communicate about surrounding conditions, directing growth accordingly.

    Why should truffles (the subterranean fruiting bodies of certain kinds of mycorrhizal fungi) attract humans and other animals with their smell? Because they are underground, they cannot disperse spores without a partner. Their odor coaxes us to dig for and consume them, thereby dispersing their spores above ground. This is an example of mutualism which is beneficial to both partners.

    Until reading this book, I did not know that the term ecology, coined by artist and biologist Ernst Haeckel in 1866, was influenced by observations about lichen. Ecology is the interrelationship of organisms in their environment, and points to nature as an interconnected whole, “a system of active forces.” In 1869, Swiss botanist Simon Schwendener presented a “dual hypothesis of lichens,” showing that lichen is composed of two different entities, a fungus (to offer physical protection and nutrients) and an alga (to harvest light and carbon dioxide). By 1877, German botanist Albert Frank coined the word symbiosis to describe this fungal-algal partnership.

    The idea that one organism originates from two different lineages defies the tidy categorization that taxonomy prefers. Trevor Howard, curator of University of British Columbia’s lichen collection, refers to the “lichening rod effect,” whereby lichens strike and splinter apart familiar concepts into new forms. It gives us a new way of thinking about life. Sheldrake points to biologist Lynn Margulis and her visionary theories on the coming together of different organisms, the “intimacy of strangers.” Margulis says: “Lichens are remarkable examples of innovation emerging from partnership. The association is far more than the sum of its parts.” It turns out that lichens may be made up of more than two partners. Lichenologist Toby Spribille discovered by chance that lichen DNA contained several fungal and bacterial partners, so a lichen might be seen both as an individual, and/or as a microbiome. We need perspectives that transcend rigid categories in other spheres of existence, too. Cultural theorist David Griffiths was inspired by lichen symbiosis to write a paper entitled “Queer Theory for Lichens.”

    This book is the work of an adult who has retained the his childhood curiosity about the world, who built piles of leaves and embedded himself in them to see if he could experience their decomposition. He continues to be a fungal experimenter, brewing and fermenting, and exploring the many possibilities of partnering with fungi to mend the planet. I highly recommend immersing yourself in this book. Merlin Sheldrake’s enthusiasm is contagious.

    How to create a mycofiltration system

    Paul Stamets’ mushroom products help people and the planet live long and prosper.

    By Paul Conrad, Member-Owner

    Since Captain Kirk and Mr. Spock first boldly went in the 1960’s, the many iterations of Star Trek have been part of popular culture. Countless viewers mentally time traveled to a future where humanity thrives and spreads to the stars. The current Star Trek Discovery has its own unique time-travel twist. One of the lead characters, astromycologist Lieutenant Commander Paul Stamets, is the 23rd-century version of a genuine 21st-century namesake, the legendary mycologist Paul Stamets. The contemporary Paul Stamets is the founder and president of Fungi Perfecti, makers of the Host Defense line of mushroom-based nutritional supplements sold here at People’s Food Co-op.

    23rd-century Lt. Stamets harnesses fungal power to create a “spore drive” that can instantaneously transport the Discovery across vast reaches of space. 21st-century Paul Stamets is the author of half a dozen books on mushroom cultivation, mushroom identification and the use of fungi to improve human and planetary health. He is also the holder of a dozen fungal-related patents. Stamets is dedicated to utilizing the power of mushroom-bearing fungi to help reverse the damage humankind has wreaked on our ecosystem so we can survive until the 23rd century. Host Defense is part of that effort.

    How to create a mycofiltration system

    The mushrooms we are familiar with are the visible parts of larger organisms. They are “fruiting bodies,” the reproductive organs of subterranean fungal beings comprised of mycelium – cobweb-like networks of cells that extend beneath the surface, exchanging nutrients and engaging in symbiotic relationships with the myriad plants, bacteria and other beings that make up living soils.

    Found in soils, and decomposing vegetal matter from forest floors to compost piles, mycelium networks are ubiquitous upon the Earth. Stamets believes that mycelium networks embody a planetary intelligence.

    “ “The mycelium is an exposed sentient membrane, aware and responsive to changes in its environment. A complex and resourceful structure for sharing information, mycelium can adapt and evolve through the ever-changing forces of nature. like a matrix, a biomolecular superhighway, the mycelium is in constant dialogue with its environment, reacting to and governing the flow of essential nutrients cycling through the food chain. I see the mycelium as the Earth’s natural Internet.” ”

    Stamets has made it his life’s mission to partner with fungal intelligence to create solutions to some of the existential environmental challenges we humans have created. He is the originator of the emerging field of mycorestoration, the applied use of fungi to repair and restore weakened and compromised ecosystems. This includes mycofiltration (using mycelial mats to remove pathogens and chemical pollutants from water), mycoremediation (using fungi to degrade or remove toxins from contaminated soils), and mycopesticides (using fungi to both attract and kill insect pests including termites, carpenter ants, and disease vectors like mosquitos and flies).

    The Host Defense line of supplements is all about the protection and restoration of our internal ecosystems. Since our hunter-gatherer days, humans have known about the beneficial properties of particular mushrooms and contemporary scientific research bears traditional wisdom out. Paul Stamets and Host Defense take things to the next step by incorporating the rest of the fungal organism, the mycelium network, to create fungi-based nutritional formulas that:

    support stress and fatigue reduction;

    augment the body’s immune system;

    provide support for daily environmental assaults

    deliver enzymes to support digestion and absorption of nutrients;

    & provide polysaccharides to increase the activity & impact of natural killer cells and macrophages.*

    Host Defense harnesses mycelium power by taking pure fungal strains, inoculating them onto an organic brown rice substrate, and growing them under strictly controlled conditions at their Washington State production facility. During the growing process, enzymes in the mycelium break down starches and sugars in the brown rice substrate, forming complex substances with their own complimentary immune-enhancing benefits. Once harvested, the mycelium, the digested brown rice substrate and, in some cases, the fruiting bodies and/or primordia are then processed for maximum effectiveness. The mushroom products in Host Defense capsules are carefully heated to release their active compounds, then freeze dried. The mycelium in Host Defense extracts and sprays go through a two-step alcohol and cold water extraction process. Those containing fruiting bodies receive an additional hot-water extraction.

    How to create a mycofiltration system

    People’s sells a selection of Host Defense mushroom capsules, extracts, and sprays. They include single-variety products such as Chaga Extract (for anti-oxidant support), Lion’s Mane Extract (which promotes mental clarity, focus and attention), Cordyceps Capsules (for enhanced energy and stamina) and Turkey Tail Capsules (for immune system support). We also offer several Host Defense multi-mushroom formulas (MyCommunity Extract, MycoShield Spray and Stamets 7 Functional Food Mushroom Blend) for enhanced immune system support.*

    Host Defense mushroom products are certified organic. They use mushroom fruitbodies and mycelium that are sustainably cultivated, protecting wild species and their environments. A portion of proceeds from Host Defense sales are devoted to saving rare strains of mushrooms that dwell within old growth forests and supporting ongoing research initiatives, like the BeeFriendly Campaign to help preserve endangered pollinators. The processing, extractions, and formulations of Host Defense products are state of the art, drawing on Paul Stamets’ four decades of experience as a pioneering mycologist. Your purchase of Host Defense products helps Paul Stamets and Fungi Perfecti in their work to build a healthier world with the power of mushrooms.

    To learn more about Paul Stamets and his pioneering work on the environmental and health benefits of mushrooms and fungal mycelium, check out his TED Talks on YouTube. To meet Lt. Commander Paul Stamets of Starship Discovery, go here.

    *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

    How to create a mycofiltration system

    Features of Mycelium Running How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World PDF

    Mycelium Running How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World PDF-Mycelium Running is a manual for the mycological rescue of the planet. That’s right: growing more mushrooms may be the best thing we can do to save the environment, and in this groundbreaking text from mushroom expert Paul Stamets, you’ll find out how.

    The basic science goes like this: Microscopic cells called “mycelium”–the fruit of which are mushrooms–recycle carbon, nitrogen, and other essential elements as they break down plant and animal debris in the creation of rich new soil. What Stamets has discovered is that we can capitalize on mycelium’s digestive power and target it to decompose toxic wastes and pollutants (mycoremediation), catch and reduce silt from streambeds and pathogens from agricultural watersheds (mycofiltration), control insect populations (mycopesticides), and generally enhance the health of our forests and gardens (mycoforestry and myco-gardening).

    In this comprehensive guide, you’ll find chapters detailing each of these four exciting branches of what Stamets has coined “mycorestoration,” as well as chapters on the medicinal and nutritional properties of mushrooms, inoculation methods, log and stump culture, and species selection for various environmental purposes. Heavily referenced and beautifully illustrated, this book is destined to be a classic reference for bemushroomed generations to come.

    Recommended Books For You

    How to create a mycofiltration system

    How to create a mycofiltration system

    Description of Mycelium Running How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World PDF

    Mycelium Running How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World PDF is one of the best-known books on the subject of nursing and basic medicine. This book covers all the cases and phenomenon a student and professional nurse might be up against in their whole life. Master this book and you will be of prime aid in caring for patients that are difficult to treat. Make a difference. Download Now.

    How to create a mycofiltration system

    Paul Stamets has been a dedicated mycologist for over twenty years. Over this time, he has discovered and coauthored four new species of mushrooms, and pioneered countless techniques in the field of edible and medicinal mushroom cultivation. He received the 1998 “Bioneers Award” from The Collective Heritage Institute, and the 1999 “Founder of a New Northwest Award” from the Pacific Rim Association of Resource Conservation and Development Councils.

    Dimensions and Characters of Mycelium Running How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World PDF

    • Publisher ‏ : ‎ Ten Speed Press; Illustrated edition (October 1, 2005)
    • Language ‏ : ‎ English
    • Paperback ‏ : ‎ 356 pages
    • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1580085792
    • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1580085793
    • Item Weight ‏ : ‎ 2.25 pounds
    • Dimensions ‏ : ‎ 7.44 x 0.88 x 8.98 inches
    • Book Name : Mycelium Running How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World PDF

    Download Your Book Here

    Top reviews

    jesus capinpin “If you love about mushrooms then buy this book. It will tell you everything!

    Karen “This comprehensive and well written book provides a vast amount of information about mycelium: what it is, how it relates to other plants and what it does for them and for itself. Well worth reading, particularly if you want to recover a brown-field site or improve your own soil. Once you’ve read this book, do some research into biochar, volcanic rock dust and composting. Once you’ve done that you can create a nutrient rich soil that will allow you to grow healthy, nutritious edible plants indefinitely.”

    Amazon Customer “Mushrooms and mycelium can save the world, but people are not listening, and taking notice.
    Covid 19 originates from nature. Mother earth is telling us enough is enough, and its time to change.
    Humankind hasn’t survived for thousands of years, before the multi national drug companies were formed, without the help of nature. The book explains how most things can be helped or cured using the resourses nature provides, why is this not happening?, its because the the fat cats can’t make money out of something thats virtualy free.”

    You may send an email to [email protected].com for all DMCA / Removal Requests.

    Learn about the network of intelligence connecting our world.

    Mushrooms Fascinate Us

    Swipe through a journey below to learn more about mycelium.

    (swipe to learn more)

    What is Mycelium?

    Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus or fungal colony. Composed of tiny white thread-like hyphae, masses of mycelium are in decomposing organic matter and appear as white patches in soil, on rotting wood, and in decaying organic matter. One cubic inch of soil may contain more than 8 miles of mycelium cells.

    The mycelium network creates a mycelial mat. The largest organism in the world is a 2,000 year old 2,200 acre mycelial mat in Oregon. All ecosystems and agriculture around the world are dependent on mycelium to support healthy vegetation.

    Many fungi depend on plants for their nutrients: sugars, vitamins, and minerals.

    Three Types of Fungi

    Mycorrhizae fungi exchange nutrients from living plants in a symbiotic relationship. The fungus attaches to the plant’s roots and gives the plant access to nutrients in organic matter. In return, the plant, through photosynthesis, turns the sun’s energy into sugars that feed the fungus.

    Saprophytic fungi absorb nutrients from dead organic matter and turn it into rich fertile soil.

    Parasitic fungi survive by taking nutrients from living organisms, and can damage plants and trees. However, as they kill off older growth, they make way for new growth.

    Mushrooms grow out of Mycelium

    The life cycle of our mushrooms begins when an adult mushroom sporulates, releasing spores into the air. When a spore lands and the right conditions are present (moisture, organic material), it germinates and starts to produce mycelium. The spore creates a primordium, a tiny nodule on or within the mycelium, and begins to grow into an egg-like shape, the mushroom. As the fruit grows larger, it eventually ruptures to form the mushroom cap.

    In the fully developed mushroom, new spores are created within the gills of the mushroom cap, they are released, and the process begins anew.

    Decay and Regrowth in a Forest

    Doctoral research by Suzanne Simard many years ago yielded surprising information about the function of below-ground fungi in forests. All trees form a symbiotic relationship with mycorrhizae mycelium in the soil. The mycelium picks up nutrients and water, especially phosphorous and nitrogen, and delivers them to plants and trees through their root systems. In return, the plants and trees exchange those for sugar and other substances made through photosynthesis, thereby feeding the mycelium. Older trees, which have more highly developed root systems and therefore stronger connection with the mycelial mat, transmit nutrients through the mycelium to younger trees with root systems that are less well established, thereby ensuring the long-term health of the forest.

    Benefits to Agriculture

    Toxic Waste Remediation

    Mycelium shows promise in the treatment of toxic waste. Mycelium absorbs oil, for example, producing enzymes that break down the hydrocarbons into fungal sugars that become food for mushrooms, plants, trees, and other vegetation.

    In research experiments, mycelium mixed into sacks of debris placed in waterways has significantly reduced the level of coliform bacteria like E. coli and chemical toxins in the water.

    Mycelium has also demonstrated an ability to remove industrial toxins, including pesticides, chlorine, dioxin, and PCBs, from contaminated soil.

    Clean Water through BioFiltration

    Mycofiltration, the use of woody substrates infused with mycelial fungi, is a promising new technology for enhancing stormwater biofiltration, graywater, and agricultural runoff. Recent trials have documented that Escherichia coli can be selectively removed from contaminated water more effectively by mycofiltration than by wood mulch alone, even in harsh environmental conditions and temperature extremes.

    The potential of mycofiltration has implications for providing healthy drinking water in areas of the world where this is currently a challenge.

    Organic Manufacturing

    Companies such as MycoWorks produce sustainable products from fungi. MycoWorks’ technology uses mycelium to create alternatives to leather, plastic foams, furniture, and building materials. Their products are sustainable, versatile, animal-free, and cost-competitive. The leather is strong, flexible, durable, water-resistant, and breathes and feels like leather. The furniture and building materials are strong, sturdy, resilient, able to withstand extreme temperatures, and easily composted when discarded. Similar organizations are now producing fabrics, paper goods, and other materials.

    Because mycelium building block production requires only inexpensive tools, refuse and agricultural byproducts (usually free), and high temperature and humidity, the technology is easily transferable to the developing world where building materials are scarce and expensive.

    The Promise for Medicine

    Cordyceps mushrooms have played a role in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries for their medicinal and health benefits. More recently, a mushroom extract fed to honey bees in field trials was shown to reduce the virus levels in honey bee colonies, and may hold the key to halting the declining honey bee population. Agarikon mushrooms have a strong immune system that possesses both anti-viral and anti-bacterial properties, and the FDA and Department of Defense have been testing and screening compounds made from them as a possible future antidote to biological agents. In his research, Paul Stamets discovered that extracted mycelium from the Fomitopsis Officinalis mushroom can protect human blood cells from orthopox viruses and smallpox. Many other varieties of mushrooms possess antiviral characteristics as well. The future role of mycelium in medicine is full of potential.