How to create a curve in excel

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A grade curve is a relative grading procedure that assigns grades for assignments based on the performance of the class as a whole. There are many reasons a teacher or professor may decide to curve a grade – for instance, if the majority of students performed below what was expected, which may imply that an assignment or test was out of range in either scope or difficulty. Some curving methods adjust grades mathematically, while others simply allow opportunities for students to recoup some of the points they lost on an assignment. Read on for detailed instructions.

How to create a curve in excel

How to create a curve in excel

How to create a curve in excel

How to create a curve in excel

How to create a curve in excel

Apply a linear scale grading curve. When you have a very specific idea of the grade distribution you want, but the actual grades in your class don’t fit, you may want to use a linear scale curve. This curve allows you to adjust the distribution of grades so as to get the mean score exactly where you want it. However, it’s also somewhat math-intensive and it technically uses a different grading curve for each student, which some may perceive to be unfair. [5] X Research source

    First, choose 2 raw scores (actual student scores) and determine what you want them to be after the curve. For instance, let’s say the actual mean score on an assignment is 70% and you want it to be 75%, while the actual lowest score is 40% and you want it to be 50%.

Next, create 2 x/y points: (x1, y1) and (x2, y2). Each x value will be one of the raw scores you chose, while each y value will be the corresponding score that you want the raw score to be. In our case, our points are (70, 75) and (40, 50).

    If you want a top score of 100% to stay as 100%, e.g. to avoid curving anyone’s score above 100%, you may choose your second point as (100, 100), even if no one earned a perfect 100%.

Plug your values into the following equation: f(x) = y1 + ((y2-y1)/(x2-x1)) (x-x1). Note the lone “x” without any subscripts – for this, plug in the score of each individual assignment. The final value you get for f(x) is the assignment’s new grade. To clarify – you have to do the equation once for each student’s score. You can evaluate everything but the lone “x” to simplify before substituting the “x” for each student.

  • In our case, let’s say we’re curving an assignment that got an 80%. We would simplify the equation one time, as follows:
    • f(x) = 75 + (((50 – 75)/(40-70))(x-70))
    • f(x) = 75 + (((-25)/(-30))(x-70))
    • f(x) = 75 + 0.83 (x-70)
  • Then substitute x for each student and evaluate:
    • f(x) = 75 + 0.83 (80-70)
    • f(x) = 75 + 0.83 (10)
    • f(x) = 75 + 8.3
    • f(x) = 83.3 . The 80% “raw” score on this assignment is now curved to 83.3%.

Alan Murray has worked as an Excel trainer and consultant for twenty years. On most days, he can be found teaching Excel in a classroom or seminar. Alan gets a buzz from helping people improve their productivity and working lives with Excel. Read more.

How to create a curve in excel

When you create a line graph in Excel, the lines are angled and have hard edges by default. You can easily change this to a curved graph with nice, smooth lines for a more polished look. We’ll walk you through the process step by step to convert your graph.

In this example, we want to create a curved line graph from this data on cookie sales.

Select and highlight the range A1:F2 and then click Insert > Line or Area Chart > Line.

How to create a curve in excel

The line graph is inserted with straight lines corresponding to each data point.

How to create a curve in excel

To edit this to a curved line, right-click the data series and then select the “Format Data Series” button from the pop-up menu.

How to create a curve in excel

Click the “Fill & Line” category and then check the box for “Smoothed Line.”

How to create a curve in excel

Using a smoothed line can help make your line graphs look smarter and more professional.

How to create a curve in excel

Smoothed lines can also be a clever way of distinguishing one data series from another. For example, targets from actuals or last year to this year.

Often you may want to find the equation that best fits some curve for a dataset in Excel.

How to create a curve in excel

Fortunately this is fairly easy to do using the Trendline function in Excel.

This tutorial provides a step-by-step example of how to fit an equation to a curve in Excel.

Step 1: Create the Data

First, let’s create a fake dataset to work with:

How to create a curve in excel

Step 2: Create a Scatterplot

Next, let’s create a scatterplot to visualize the dataset.

First, highlight cells A2:B16 as follows:

How to create a curve in excel

Next, click the Insert tab along the top ribbon, and then click the first plot option under Scatter:

How to create a curve in excel

This produces the following scatterplot:

How to create a curve in excel

Step 3: Add a Trendline

Next, click anywhere on the scatterplot. Then click the + sign in the top right corner. In the dropdown menu, click the arrow next to Trendline and then click More Options:

How to create a curve in excel

In the window that appears to the right, click the button next to Polynomial. Then check the boxes next to Display Equation on chart and Display R-squared value on chart.

How to create a curve in excel

This produces the following curve on the scatterplot:

How to create a curve in excel

The equation of the curve is as follows:

y = 0.3302x 2 – 3.6682x + 21.653

The R-squared tells us the percentage of the variation in the response variable that can be explained by the predictor variables. The R-squared for this particular curve is 0.5874.

Step 4: Choose the Best Trendline

We can also increase the order of the Polynomial that we use to see if a more flexible curve does a better job of fitting the dataset.

For example, we could choose to set the Polynomial Order to be 4:

How to create a curve in excel

This results in the following curve:

How to create a curve in excel

The equation of the curve is as follows:

y = -0.0192x 4 + 0.7081x 3 – 8.3649x 2 + 35.823x – 26.516

The R-squared for this particular curve is 0.9707.

This R-squared is considerably higher than that of the previous curve, which indicates that it fits the dataset much more closely.

We can also use this equation of the curve to predict the value of the response variable based on the predictor variable. For example if x = 4 then we would predict that y = 23.34:

y = -0.0192(4) 4 + 0.7081(4) 3 – 8.3649(4) 2 + 35.823(4) – 26.516 = 23.34

You can find more Excel tutorials on this page.

Summary

A bell curve is a plot of normal distribution of a given data set. This article describes how you can create a chart of a bell curve in Microsoft Excel.

More Information

n the following example you can create a bell curve of data generated by Excel using the Random Number Generation tool in the Analysis ToolPak. After Microsoft Excel generates a set of random numbers, you can create a histogram using those random numbers and the Histogram tool from the Analysis ToolPak. From the histogram, you can create a chart to represent a bell curve.

To create a sample bell curve, follow these steps:

Enter the following column headings in a new worksheet:

A1:Original B1:Average C1:Bin D1:Random E1:Histogram G1:Histogram

Enter the following data in the same worksheet:

Enter the following formulas in the same worksheet:

These formulas will generate the average (mean) and standard deviation of the original data, respectively.

Enter the following formulas to generate the bin range for the histogram:

This generates the lower limit of the bin range. This number represents three standard deviations less than the average.

This formula adds one standard deviation to the number calculated in the cell above.

Select Cell C3, grab the fill handle, and then fill the formula down from cell C3 to cell C8.

To generate the random data that will form the basis for the bell curve, follow these steps:

On the Tools menu, click Data Analysis.

In the Analysis Tools box, click Random Number Generation, and then click OK.

In the Number of Variables box, type 1.

In the Number of Random Numbers box, type 2000.

Note: Varying this number will increase or decrease the accuracy of the bell curve.

In the Distribution box, select Normal.

In the Parameters pane, enter the number calculated in cell B2 (29 in the example) in the Mean box.

In the Standard Deviation box enter the number calculated in cell B4 (14.68722).

Leave the Random Seed box blank.

In the Output Options pane, click Output Range.

Type D2 in the Output Range box.

This will generate 2,000 random numbers that fit in a normal distribution.

To create a histogram for the random data, follow these steps:

On the Tools menu, click Data Analysis.

In the Analysis Tools box, select Histogram, and then click OK.

In the Input Range box, type D2:D2001.

In the Bin Range box, type C2:C8.

In the Output Options pane, click Output Range.

Type E2 in the Output Range box.

To create a histogram for the original data, follow these steps:

On the Tools menu, click Data Analysis.

Click Histogram, and then click OK.

In the Input Range box, type A2:A9.

In the Bin Range box, type C2:C8.

In the Output Options pane, click Output Range.

Type G2 in the Output Range box.

Create labels for the legend in the chart by entering the following:

Select the range of cells, E2:H10, on the worksheet.

On the Insert menu, click Chart.

Under Chart type, click XY (Scatter).

Under Chart sub-type, in the middle row, click the chart on the right.

Note: Just below these 5 sub-types, the description will say “Scatter with data points connected by smoothed lines without markers.”

Click the Series tab.

In the Name box, delete the cell reference, and then select cell E15.

In the X Values box, delete the range reference, and then select the range E3:E10.

In the Y Values box, delete the range reference, and then select the range F3:F10.

Click Add to add another series.

Click the Name box, and then select cell E14.

Click the X Values box, and then select the range E3:E10.

In the Y Values box, delete the value that’s there, and then select the range G3:G10.

Click Add to add another series.

Click the Name box, and then select cell E16.

Click the X Values box, and then select the range E3:E10.

Click the Y Values box, delete the value that’s there, and then select the range H3:H10.

The chart will have two curved series and a flat series along the x-axis.

Double-click the second series; it should be labeled “- Bin” in the legend.

In the Format Data Series dialog box, click the Axis tab.

Click Secondary Axis, and then click OK.

You now have a chart that compares a given data set to a bell curve.

References

For more information about creating charts, click Microsoft Excel Help on the Help menu, type create a chart in the Office Assistant or the Answer Wizard, and then click Search to view the topic.

Logistic Regression is a statistical method that we use to fit a regression model when the response variable is binary. To assess how well a logistic regression model fits a dataset, we can look at the following two metrics:

  • Sensitivity: The probability that the model predicts a positive outcome for an observation when indeed the outcome is positive. This is also called the “true positive rate.”
  • Specificity: The probability that the model predicts a negative outcome for an observation when indeed the outcome is negative. This is also called the “true negative rate.”

One way to visualize these two metrics is by creating a ROC curve, which stands for “receiver operating characteristic” curve. This is a plot that displays the sensitivity and specificity of a logistic regression model.

The following step-by-step example shows how to create and interpret a ROC curve in Excel.

Step 1: Enter the Data

First, let’s enter some raw data:

How to create a curve in excel

Step 2: Calculate the Cumulative Data

Next, let’s use the following formula to calculate the cumulative values for the Pass and Fail categories:

  • Cumulative Pass values: =SUM($B$3:B3)
  • Cumulative Fail values: =SUM($C$3:C3)

We’ll then copy and paste these formulas down to every cell in column D and column E:

How to create a curve in excel

Step 3: Calculate False Positive Rate & True Positive Rate

Next, we’ll calculate the false positive rate (FPR), true positive rate (TPR), and the area under the curve AUC) using the following formulas:

  • FPR: =1-D3/$D$14
  • TPR: =1-E3/$E$14
  • AUC: =(F3-F4)*G3

We’ll then copy and paste these formulas down to every cell in columns F, G, and H:

How to create a curve in excel

Step 4: Create the ROC Curve

To create the ROC curve, we’ll highlight every value in the range F3:G14.

Then we’ll click the Insert tab along the top ribbon and then click Insert Scatter(X, Y) to create the following plot:

How to create a curve in excel

Step 5: Calculate the AUC

The more that the curve hugs the top left corner of the plot, the better the model does at classifying the data into categories.

As we can see from the plot above, this logistic regression model does a pretty good job of classifying the data into categories.

To quantify this, we can calculate the AUC (area under the curve) which tells us how much of the plot is located under the curve.

The closer AUC is to 1, the better the model. A model with an AUC equal to 0.5 is no better than a model that makes random classifications.

To calculate the AUC of the curve, we can simply take the sum of all of the values in column H:

How to create a curve in excel

The AUC turns out to be 0.802662. This value is fairly high, which indicates that the model does a good job of classifying the data into ‘Pass’ and ‘Fail’ categories.

Additional Resources

The following tutorials explain how to create other common plots in Excel:

How to create a curve in excel

How to create a curve in excel

S curve in excel is used to visualize a relation of two different variables, how one variable impacts another and how the value of both of the variable changes due to this impact, it is called as S curve because the curve is in S shape, it is used in two types of charts one is line chart and another is scattered chart.

S Curve in Excel

The S Curve is a curve which is included in two different charts in Microsoft Excel. They are

If we are using this type of chart, there should be data, i.e., two variables that are used should be matched with the same period of time. This curve can be used to plot the changes in one variable, which is related to another variable.

S Curve is a very important curve or tool which can be used in Projects to know the daily progress and to track the previous records of what has happened from day today. By seeing the curve, the complete inferences can be made from them, like how much profit or sales are drawn over a period, what is the starting point for the first time, progress from year to year by comparing with other years. The main thing is future inferences can also be drawn from these charts.

The Excel S Curve is represented in the below screenshot.

How to create a curve in excel

How to Make S Curve in Excel?

Below are the examples of the S Curve in Excel.

Example #1

How to create a curve in excel

In the above example, there is a slight S curve in the graph. The curve will be depending on the data we get.

How to create a curve in excel

Now go to the insert tab and select a line graph or scatter graph as per the requirement.

How to create a curve in excel

How to create a curve in excel

How to create a curve in excel

The first one is for a Line graph and the second screenshot is to select the scatter plot. There are again 2 D and 3 Dimensional charts present.

The moment we select the chart type, the chart will be displayed on the sheet. Now by looking at the graph, we can select the graph as per our requirement.

The final graph will be ready now and can be seen on the sheet.

How to create a curve in excel

In this graph, a slight s curve is present. As the name indicates an S curve, there is no compulsion that the graph should be completely looking in S shape. There can be a slight curve present in the graph. The shape of the curve will depend on the data we take.

S Curve Excel Example #2

In this example, we are taking a dual-axis graph with an S curve.

Step 1: Select the data.

How to create a curve in excel

How to create a curve in excel

Step 3: In this step, the graph will be ready. If there are 2 data columns to be displayed on one chart, then a dual chart can be used.

How to create a curve in excel

How to create a curve in excel

Step 5: On the Axis tab, the default option will be the primary axis, now change it to the secondary axis. The job is done. Now the selected data will be set for the secondary axis.

How to create a curve in excel

The final step is the dual-axis graph. This can be shown in the below screenshot.

How to create a curve in excel

S Curve Excel Example #3

Step 1: Fill the data correctly in the sheet with all the columns, as shown in the below screenshot.

How to create a curve in excel

Step 2: Select the data for which you want to draw the S curve, as shown in the below screenshot.

How to create a curve in excel

Step 3: Go to Insert Tab, select Line graphs, and choose the model of Line Graph which you want to use.

How to create a curve in excel

The graph looks like as given below:

How to create a curve in excel

Select the scatter plot from the insert tab in the same way, as shown below.

How to create a curve in excel

How to create a curve in excel

Usage of S Curve in Excel

  • The S curve is a very important Project management tool that can be used in projects by anyone as it is available free of cost.
  • It is mainly used in the data where we have data related to time. Over a period to analyze the data, this curve can be used
  • In financial data modeling and cash flow also, this curve can be very extensively used.
  • In the construction of a project and forecasting the model.
  • S curve in Excel can also be used for cumulative values.
  • The S-curve can also be used as a dual-axis curve. i.e., this curve can be used with the combination of any other chart.
  • Budget Comparisons can be done by using this Excel S curve.
  • Future predictions, i.e., forecasting, can also be made from these curves.
  • As this Excel S-Curve can be drawn from the scatter plot and Line graph, it is more useful for many purposes, as mentioned above.

There are some formulas also to calculate the S-curve manually, but the excel has made that very easy so that it can be done in no time. The manual method can be done by taking the X-axis and Y-axis points from the plot.

Things to Remember

  • To draw this S curve in excel, the main point to be remembered is time. There should be a time period in one axis so that something can be compared over a period of time very easily with this curve.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to S-Curve in Excel. Here we discuss how to make S-Curve Pattern in Excel using two different charts 1) Line chart, 2) Scatter Chart along with practical examples, and a downloadable excel template. You may learn more about excel from the following articles –

A bell curve (also known as normal distribution curve) is a way to plot and analyze data that looks like a bell curve.

In the bell curve, the highest point is the one that has the highest probability of occurring, and the probability of occurrences goes down on either side of the curve.

It is often used during employee performance appraisals or during evaluation in exams (ever heard – “You will be graded on the curve?”).

Now before I jump in on how to create a bell curve in Excel, let’s get a better understanding of the concept by taking an example.

Understanding the Bell Curve

Suppose you work in a team of 100 members and your manager tells you that your performance will be relative to others and will be evaluated on the bell curve.

This means that even if your team is the best team ever and you’re all superheroes, only a handful of you would get the top rating, most of the people in your team would get an average rating, and a handful will get the lowest rating.

How to create a curve in excel

But why do we need the bell curve?

Suppose you have a class of 100 students that appear for an exam. According to your grading system, anyone who gets above 80 out of 100 gets an A grade. But since you set a really easy paper, everyone scored above 80 and got the A grade.

Now there is nothing wrong in this kind of grading system. However, using it, you can not differentiate between someone who got 81 and someone who got 95 (as both would get the A grade).

To keep the comparison fair and keep the competitive spirit alive, a bell curve is often used to evaluate performances (at least that’s how it was when I was in college).

Using the bell curve approach, the marks of students are converted into percentiles that are then compared with each other.

Students getting higher marks are on the right side of the curve and students getting low marks are on the left of the curve (with most of the students being in the middle around mean score).

Now to understand bell curve, you need to know about two metrics:

  • Mean – the average value of all the data points
  • Standard Deviation – it shows how much the dataset deviates from the mean of the dataset. For example, suppose you have a group of 50 people, and you are recording their weight (in kgs). In this dataset, the average weight is 60 kg, and the standard deviation is 4 kg. It means that 68% of the people’s weight is within 1 standard deviation from the mean – which would be 56-64 kg. Similarly, 95% of the people are within 2 standard deviation – which would be 52-68 Kgs.

When you have a dataset that is normally distributed, your bell curve will follow the below rules:

  • The center of the bell curve is the mean of the data point (also the highest point in the bell curve).
  • 68.2% of the total data points lie in the range (Mean – Standard Deviation to Mean + Standard Deviation).
  • 95.5% of the total data points lie in the range (Mean – 2*Standard Deviation to Mean + 2*Standard Deviation)
  • 99.7% of the total data points lie in the range (Mean – 3*Standard Deviation to Mean + 3*Standard Deviation)

How to create a curve in excelImage Source: MIT News

Now let’s see how to create a bell curve in Excel.

Creating a Bell Curve in Excel

Let’s take an example of a class of students that have been scored in an exam.

The mean score of the class is 65 and the standard deviation is 10. (You can calculate the mean using the AVERAGE function in Excel and Standard Deviation using the STDEV.P function).

Here are the steps to create a bell curve for this dataset:

  • In cell A1 enter 35. This value can be calculated using Mean – 3* Standard Deviation (65-3*10).
  • In the cell below it enter 36 and create a series from 35 to 95 (where 95 is Mean + 3* Standard Deviation). You can do this quickly by using the autofill option, or use the fill handle and drag it down to fill the cells.How to create a curve in excel
  • In the cell adjacent to 35, enter the formula: =NORM.DIST(A1,65,10,FALSE)
    • Note that here I have hardcoded the value of mean and standard deviation. You can also have these in cells and use the cell references in the formula.How to create a curve in excel
  • Again use the fill handle to quickly copy and paste the formula for all the cells.
  • Select the data set and go to Insert tab.How to create a curve in excel
  • Insert the ‘Scatter with Smooth Lines’ chart.How to create a curve in excel

This will give you a bell curve in Excel.

How to create a curve in excel

Now you can change the chart title and adjust the axis if you need.

Note that when you have a low standard deviation, you get a packed slim bell curve, and when you have a high standard deviation, the bell curve is wide and covers more area on the chart.

This kind of bell curve can be used to identify where a data point lies in the chart. For example, in case a team is full of high performers, when evaluated on a curve, despite being a high performer, someone can get an average rating as he/she was in the middle of the curve.

Note: In this blog post, I have discussed the concept of a bell curve and how to create it in Excel. A statistician would be better suited to talk about the efficacy of the bell curve and limitations associated with it. I am more of an Excel guy and my involvement with Bell curve has been limited to the calculations I did when I worked as a Financial Analyst.

Hope you found this tutorial useful!

Let me know your thoughts in the comments section.

You May Also like the following Excel Tutorials:

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How to create a curve in excel

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Large chunks of data can be confusing to process for both experienced Excel users and newbies alike. It can be difficult to organize information and effectively express it in an Excel spreadsheet if you’re not sure what your options are. Fortunately, Excel provides the opportunity to create charts easily.

Read on for a step-by-step process on how to create a linear calibration curve in no time at all.

Prepare and Format Your Data

In order to make a linear calibration curve—or any chart, really—you need to have at least one column of data.

Here we have two columns with random indicators:

How to create a curve in excel

How to Make a Linear Calibration Curve in 8 Easy Steps

The following steps are fairly straightforward. Let’s do them together!

1. Highlight the data you need (A1:B8).

2. Click “Insert.”

3. Select “Insert Scatter (X, Y) or Bubble Chart.”

4. Choose “Scatter.”

How to create a curve in excel

5. Navigate to the Design tab.

6. Click “Add Chart Element.”

7. Pull up the Trendline option.

8. Choose “Linear.”

How to create a curve in excel

That’s all there is to it! You’ve successfully created a linear calibration curve.

How to Customize Your Linear Calibration Curve

Now that you have your linear calibration curve, let’s see what we need to do to customize the look of your chart. Here are some tips on how to make it more informative and professional using Excel’s customization tools.

Changing the Title of Your Linear Calibration Curve

Charts are given titles to help the reader understand the data they represent. In Excel, adding or modifying your chart title can be done with ease.

1. Click once on your linear calibration curve chart.

2. Navigate to the “Design” tab.

3. Open “Add Chart Elements.”

4. Select “Chart Title.”

5. Choose either “Above Chart” or “Centered Overlay” to set the position of your chart title.

6. Adjust the title text to reflect your chart’s data.

How to create a curve in excel

Just like that, your title is ready!

Adding a Legend to Your Linear Calibration Curve

If you need to display additional information in your chart, you can add a legend as well to help your reader understand your chart better. Here are five simple steps to add a legend to your chart:

1. Click on your linear calibration curve chart.

2. Pull up the “Design” tab.

3. Click “Add Chart Elements.”

4. Choose “Legend.”

5. Select “Right,” “Top,” “Left,” or “Bottom” to add the legend in the position that works best for you.

How to create a curve in excel

Adding Data Labels to Your Linear Calibration Curve

Data labels can be used to display important indicators and make your linear calibration curve more informative. Once again, Excel makes improving your chart simple and convenient.

1. Click once on your chart.

2. Go to the “Design” tab.

3. Open “Add Chart Elements.”

4. Choose “Data Labels.”

5. Select “Center,” “Left,” “Right,” “Above,” “Below,” or “Data Callout”—whatever makes your chart look amazing.

How to create a curve in excel

A piece of cake—and so helpful!

Applying a Different Style to Your Linear Calibration Curve

You can use some built-in Excel Chart Styles to complete the look of your chart. Follow this step-by-step guide to learn how to apply a different style:

1. Click once on your chart.

2. Select the “Design” tab.

3. Click the small arrow in the lower right corner of the Chart Styles to see all your options.

How to create a curve in excel

4. Choose the design you like the most.

How to create a curve in excel

Showing Equation and R-squared Value on a Chart

If you wish to display the equation and r-squared value of the linear calibration curve on your chart, just follow these extremely easy steps:

1. Click on your Linear Trendline twice. This will open the Format Trendline task pane.

2. Select the “Design Options” tab.

3. Tick the boxes beside “Display Equation on chart” and “Display R-squared value on chart.”

How to create a curve in excel

And there you go! If you need to move the equation and r-squared value to a different part of the chart, just select the Excel text box with that data and drag it to where you want it.

Excel Linear Calibration Curve – Free Template

If you lack the time to put a linear calibration curve together yourself, we’ve prepared a free template of the Excel Linear Calibration Curve for you to download.

How to create a curve in excel

S-Curves are a very important project management tool; they allow the progress of a project to be tracked visually over time and form a historical record of what has happened to date.

Table of Contents

What is S-Curve?

S-Curve in the construction project management industry is a display of cumulative costs, man-hours, or other quantities plotted against time. The name derives from the S-like shape of the curve, flatter at the beginning and at the end and steeper in the middle, which is typical of most projects. The beginning represents a slow, cautious but accelerating start, while the end represents a deceleration as the work runs out.

What is Cash Flow In Construction?

Cash flow (S-Curve) is very important for a main contractor or subcontractor, the cash flow graph of expenses and incomes for a construction project typically follows the work in progress for which the contractor will be paid periodically. The markup by the contractor above the estimated expenses is included in the total contract price and the terms of most contracts generally call for monthly reimbursements (Monthly Invoice) of work completed less retainage.

At the beginning of the construction contract , a considerable sum may have been spent in enabling works. The contractor’s cash-out which occurs more or less continuously for the project duration is depicted by a piecewise continuous curve while the receipts (such as progress invoices from the client) are represented by a step function as shown below in the graph.

The clients’ invoices for the work completed are assumed to lag one period behind expenses except that a withholding proportion or remainder is paid at the end of construction. This analysis method is applicable to realistic situations where a time period is represented by one month and the number of time periods is extended to cover delayed receipts as a result of retention.

How to create a curve in excel

How To Create an S-Curve Graph in Excel?

How to create a curve in excel

Step #1:

Add the Values for each month

Step #2:

Create an equation for “Cumulative Values”. (e.g. You can download the free excel s-curve template at the end of this article which contains the S Curve formula in the free excel template)

How to create a curve in excel

Step #3:

How to create a curve in excel

Step#4:

Right click on the chart and Click on ” Select Data” , then select the data from the table

How to create a curve in excel

After that you will finish creating the S Curve Excel Template (XLS)

Construction Project Cash Flow Template “XLS”

1. This s curve project management excel template can be used for creating a plan with activities linked together to form a critical path
2. This construction s curve excel template can be used to create activities with a resource and cost loaded
3. A baseline of the activities before the project starts.
4. Actual progress is assigned at regular intervals and optionally, actual costs and actual resource
usage is applied
5. The project is rescheduled to determine a new finish date.

alavenderlily

New Member
  • Oct 27, 2008
  • #1
  • Can anyone tell me the best way to build an industry cost curve in Excel or is this the type of chart that needs to be produced in a different program (and if so, any recommendations?)

    Here’s a link to a picture of the type of chart I am referring to:
    http://www.thejenson.com/icc.jpg

    However, here’s a description of the process, if more info is required:

    The industry cost curve is built by defining which product should be assessed. Next, discover the total market demand. List all existing facilities, their production capacities, their pre-unit costs, new facilities, and expansion of existing facilties.

    With the data, a curve is drawn, starting with the lowest-cost plant at the left and progressing through the higher costs plants. In well functioning plants, the lowest-cost plant will produce as much as it can, then the second, and then so on until capacity is reached. Higher costs plants will be forced out of the market.

    For new, unbuilt facilities:
    Cash cost of producing a product plus the per-unit costs of transportation of the product to their final locations as well as the opportunity costs of the plant

    For already built facilities:
    Only opportunity costs is the cost of the working capital to run plant. Per unit costs are equal to the cash cost of production plus transport costs and the opportunity cost of the plant’s working capital.

    How to create a curve in excel

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    The world in which your business operates is constantly changing. Capturing the state of your business once a month may not reflect the reality of your situation. Fortunately, in Microsoft Excel you can add fitted curves and trendlines to help you track gradual changes in your business conditions rather than only large shifts.

    Step 1

    Open an existing Microsoft Excel spreadsheet containing the data you wish to graph and fit to a curve, or create a new spreadsheet and enter your data.

    Step 2

    Open the “Insert” tab and select “Chart” to create a chart containing the individual data point on which you will plot the fitted curve. Common formats include the XY Scatterplot, Column and Area.

    Step 3

    Select the data columns in your spreadsheet corresponding to the X (dependent) and Y (independent) values of the data. The X-axis commonly corresponds to time and the Y-axis commonly corresponds to a value such as sales, cost, profit or revenue.

    Step 4

    Open the “Chart” menu and select “Add Trendline.” This will plot a line showing the trend of the data on the graph calculated using a moving average or similar algorithm. This helps you see how the data evolves over time without the effort and constraint required to fit the data to a statistical model. Select and then right-click on the trendline to change the format.

    Step 5

    Select the “Display equation on chart” option under the Fit Trendline dialog box to change the model used to calculate the trendline. You can choose from lineal, exponential, logarithmic and polynomial models to match your data. Least-squares curve fitting is used to calculate the optimal model fit to the data.

    • Microsoft Office: Create a Chart From Start to Finish
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    Chris Daniels covers advances in nutrition and fitness online. Daniels has numerous certifications and degrees covering human health, nutritional requirements and sports performance. An avid cyclist, weightlifter and swimmer, Daniels has experienced the journey of fitness in the role of both an athlete and coach.

    How to create a curve in excel

    A bell curve, also known as normal distribution, is the most common type of distribution for a variable. It is accepted as a distribution that occurs naturally in many situations. In a bell curve, the highest point of the arc defines the mean, which is the highest number of occurrences of an element. The probability of occurrences decrease towards either side of the curve. You can use a bell curve to compare performances by excluding extremes, or define your expectations by the possibility that an outcome will lie within a range to the left or right of the center. In this guide, we are going to show you how to create a bell curve in Excel with a real world use case scenario as an example.

    Basics

    All you need is the mean (average) and the standard deviation values of your data set. Both of these metrics can be calculated in Excel using the formulas below.

    In consideration of these two values, normally distributed values follow these rules:

    1. The total area under the curve is equal to 1 (100%)
    2. The center of the bell curve is the mean of the data point
    3. (1-σ) About 68.2% of the area under the curve falls within one standard deviation (Mean ± Standard Deviation)
    4. (2-σ) About 95.5% of the area under the curve falls within two standard deviations (Mean ± 2 * Standard Deviation)
    5. (3-σ) About 99.7% of the area under the curve falls within three standard deviations (Mean ± 3 * Standard Deviation)

    How to create a curve in excel

    Creating a bell curve in Excel

    Let’s take a common example, and say we are analyzing exam results for a class of students. We will be using a bell curve to measure exam results for better comparison.

    We begin by calculating the metrics to generate a normal distributed data which will generate our curve. We need to calculate:

    • Mean (average) of the values.
    • Standard deviation of the values.
    • 3-standard deviation limits for before and after mean.
    • Interval value for normally distributed data points. This also requires a determination of the interval points. You can select any number, but keep that in mind, more intervals mean more precision.

    Metrics

    Begin by calculating the mean and standard deviation of the data. You can use the AVEREAGE and STDEV.P functions to calculate the mean and standard deviation values respectively.

    How to create a curve in excel

    Next step is calculating the 3 standard deviation values to set the minimum and maximum values for the 99.7% of the data.

    How to create a curve in excel

    Maximum = 83.23 – 3 * 5.54 = 99.86

    After setting the minimum and maximum values for our curve, we need to generate the intervals. The interval values will be the base for the normally distributed values. To calculate the intervals, all you need to do is to divide the area between the minimum and maximum values by interval count. In this example, we set this to 20, but you can use a larger number to increase the number of data points.

    How to create a curve in excel

    Once the interval value is calculated, you can generate the data points. To do this, enter the minimum value in a cell. Then, right below the minimum value, enter the formula to add the interval value to the minimum. Here, we used cell references (like as J4) which helps populate the data points easily up to the maximum value.

    How to create a curve in excel

    The next step is to calculate the normally distributed values from the generated data points. You can use Excel’s NORM.DIST function to generate these values.

    Use the populated data points as the first argument of the function. The mean and standard deviation values are next arguments. Finish the formula with a FALSE Boolean value to use non-cumulative type of this function.

    How to create a curve in excel

    Chart

    We’re almost done! Select the data points and normal distribution values, then insert an X-Y Scatter chart. Use the Scattered with Smooth Lines version to create a bell curve in Excel.

    How to create a curve in excel

    The chart may seem a bit off first. Let’s see how you can make it look better.

    To change the title of the chart, double-click on the title and update the name.

    Next, double-click on the X-axis and define minimum and maximum values from the Axis Options panel to eliminate the white space on both sides. This will give your chart a better bell shape. We set values that are a bit outside our data set. For example, 66 – 100 for values 66.30 – 99.86.

    How to create a curve in excel

    You can further enhance your chart by adding the standard deviation values.

    😠😜😳 Click to see full answer.

    Keeping this in consideration, how do I create a bell curve in Excel?

    😠😜😳 Creating a Bell Curve in Excel

    1. In cell A1 enter 35.
    2. In the cell below it enter 36 and create a series from 35 to 95 (where 95 is Mean + 3* Standard Deviation).
    3. In the cell adjacent to 35, enter the formula: =NORM.DIST(A1,65,10,FALSE)
    4. Again use the fill handle to quickly copy and paste the formula for all the cells.

    😠😜😳 Secondly, how do you use normal distribution in real life? Let’s understand the daily life examples of Normal Distribution.

    1. Height. Height of the population is the example of normal distribution.
    2. Rolling A Dice. A fair rolling of dice is also a good example of normal distribution.
    3. Tossing A Coin.
    4. IQ.
    5. Technical Stock Market.
    6. Income Distribution In Economy.
    7. Shoe Size.
    8. Birth Weight.

    😠😜😳 Besides, what are the characteristics of a normal distribution?

    😠😜😳 Characteristics of Normal Distribution Normal distributions are symmetric, unimodal, and asymptotic, and the mean, median, and mode are all equal. A normal distribution is perfectly symmetrical around its center. That is, the right side of the center is a mirror image of the left side.

    😠😜😳 What is normal distribution used for?

    😠😜😳 The normal distribution is the most important probability distribution in statistics because it fits many natural phenomena. For example, heights, blood pressure, measurement error, and IQ scores follow the normal distribution. It is also known as the Gaussian distribution and the bell curve.

    Whale curve can be easily created in Excel. Most of the Excel users trying to create Excel chart with whale curve are looking at visually analyzing and reporting their customer profitability.

    How to create a curve in excel

    While this chart can be used by anyone in business – most of the users come from companies with large customer base like logistics and manufacturing companies. In addition business professionals who are ABC (activity-based costing) users use the whale chart.

    Anyway, what is the whale curve and what are the benefits of using it?

    You can use this chart template to visually represent your customer profitability. This means you need to have the profitability for each of your customers. Once you have the data creating the curve is the easy part.

    In order to create the curve you need to rank your customers from most profitable to least profitable (with negative profit or loss). The resulting curve shows the cumulative profit (your overall profit) as each customer is added to the curve. In most cases, the most profitable customers create the largest part of the profit – this is where the curve generally rise after which the curve growth is declining and at some point the curve declines as customers with negative profit (loss) are represented on the whale curve.

    Looking at the right part of the curve can be alarming because you can visually see the impact of the bottom customers on your overall business profit.

    However, at the same time, this is the tricky part for every manager. What do you do to improve the big picture? The first logical step for an outsider would be to fire all the bottom (negative) customers however in most examples this can be a mistake because without those customers the remaining part of the curve will change as well.

    Changes of this kind of scale are not made in vacuum without impact on the big picture. Reasons are changes in purchasing power, negotiating power, pricing, volume, economies of scale….

    How to Create Whale Curve in Excel?

    Download the template and follow the quick instructions
    1. Gather and organize your customer profit data – the profitability for each of your customers.
    2. Enter (copy and paste) your customer list in column A in the excel template and the profitability for each customer in the next column (Column B in the template).
    3. Sort your data by profit descending (click on cell B2 and click the Z-A sort button).
    4. Column C has the formulas to calculate the cumulative profit for your data. What you need to do is to simply drag or copy the cells in column C to adjust for your customer list and the data will update.
    5. Adjust the scales in your chart – double click the X axes and adjust the range (min and max values based on your data). Do the same adjustment for the Y axes range for minimum and maximum values. This will give you the right focus and curve for your data.

    You can download the Whale Curve Excel Template here

    Note: Gross margins and gross profit can be misleading so if your profitability data includes profit per customer at gross level your whale curve does not represent the true net profitability. For best and most reliable customer profit analysis use ABC to calculate the net profit for each customer.

    March 23, 2020 – by Bill Jelen

    How to create a curve in excel

    I have 2200 Excel videos on YouTube. I can never predict which ones will be popular. Many videos hover around 2,000 views. But for some reason, the Bell Curve video collected half a million views. I am not sure why people need to create bell curves, but here are the steps.

    A bell curve is defined by an average and a standard deviation. In statistics, 68% of the population will fall within one standard deviation of the mean. 95% falls within two standard deviations of the mean. 99.73% will fall within three standard deviations of the mean.

    Say that you want to plot a bell curve that goes from 100 to 200 with the peak at 150. Use 150 as the mean. Since most of the results will fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean, you would use a standard deviation of 50/3 or 16.667.

    1. Type 150 in cell B1.
    2. Type =50/3 in cell B2.
    3. Type headings of Point, X, Y in cells A4:C4.

    Fill the numbers 1 to 61 in A5:A65. This is enough points to create a smooth curve.

    How to create a curve in excel

  • Go to the midpoint of the data, point 31 in B35. Type a formula there of =B1 to have the mean there.
  • The formula for B36 is =B35+($B$2/10) . Copy that formula from row 36 down to row 65.

    The formula for B34 is =B35-($B$2/10) . Copy that formula up to row 5. Note that the notes in columns C:E of this figure do not get entered in your workbook – they are here to add meaning to the figure.

    How to create a curve in excel

    The magic function is called NORM.DIST which stands for Normal Distribution. When statisticians talk about a bell curve, they are talking about a normal distribution. To continue the current example, you want a bell curve from 100 to 200. The numbers 100 to 200 go along the X-axis (the horizontal axis) of the chart. For each point, you need to calculate the height of the curve along the y-axis. NORM.DIST will do this for you. There are four required arguments: =NORM.DIST(This x point, Mean, Standard Deviation, False) . The last False says that you want a bell curve and not a S-curve. (The S-Curve shows accumulated probability instead of point probability.)

    Type =NORM.DIST(B5,$B$1,$B$2,False) in C5 and copy down to row 65.

    How to create a curve in excel

    Select B4:C65. On the Insert tab, open the XY-Scatter drop-down menu and choose the thumbnail with a smooth line. Alternatively, choose Recommened Charts and the first option for a bell curve.

    How to create a curve in excel

    Related Articles

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    Representing an indifference curve in a graph helps you visualize consumer indifference between different product bundles. You can create an indifference map to indicate what amount of goods or bundles of goods that the consumer must sacrifice in order to consume more goods. Plot the indifference curves by entering your data sets into columns in Microsoft Excel and creating a new Scatter chart. Adding a new series to the chart enables you to compare multiple consumer indifferences for specific products.

    Step 1

    Open the spreadsheet containing your data in Excel — or create a new blank spreadsheet.

    Step 2

    Click inside the first cell and enter the smallest data amount for your first product bundle preference.

    Step 3

    Click inside the next cell in the column and enter the second smallest data amount. Work your way down the column from smallest to largest until you have entered all of the data for the first product preference.

    Step 4

    Click inside the first cell of the next column and enter the largest data amount first.

    Step 5

    Click into the next cell in the column and enter the second largest data amount repeating the process from the first column but in reverse order — largest to smallest.

    Step 6

    Enter data for additional product preferences into separate column sets and repeat the process — entering data from smallest to largest in the first column in the set, and then in reverse order for the next column in the set.

    Step 7

    Click on the “Insert” ribbon tab, click the “Insert Scatter (X,Y) or Bubble Chart” button in the Charts group, and then click “Scatter with Smooth Lines.” Excel automatically generates a scatter chart using the data from your spreadsheet — you will need to manually re-select the correct data for your scatter chart.

    Step 8

    Click on the “Select Data” button in the Data group of the Design ribbon. Click the “Remove” button for each series to remove them from your chart.

    Step 9

    Click the “Add” button, and then enter a label for your first data set into the “Series Name” field of the Edit Series dialog box. Alternatively, you can click on a cell in your spreadsheet containing the label for your first data set.

    Step 10

    Click into the “Series X Values” field and then click and drag to select all the data from the first column in the data set. Repeat the process with the “Series Y Values” field, selecting all of the data in the second column of the data set. If prompted, click the “OK” button and manually delete the “<1>+” text from the “Series Y Values” field. Click the “OK” button to save the series to your chart.

    Step 11

    Click the “Add” button and repeat the process of selecting the data from your second data into the appropriate fields. Click the “OK” button once you have finished selecting the second data set.

    Step 12

    Click the “OK” button to save changes to the series and close the “Select Data Source” window. Your scatter chart now represents the indifference curves for your consumer product preference.

    How to create a curve in excel

    This Article will teach you how to generate a normal distribution graph – also called normal curve, using the RANDARRAY which is a dynamic function from Microsoft Office 365.

    If all those words sounded like a puzzle to your ears, let me explain in simple terms what we are going to do and why it’s useful, if you already

    Definition

    First, it’s also called Bell curve because it literally looks like a bell, let’s see an example:

    How to create a curve in excel

    What you see is a continuous graph because it’s dynamic, it fluctuates with new data coming in and out. It shows the highest point which has the highest probability of occurring. So with this graphic in mind, we can see that what we are about to learn is useful for statistical data to find out the top performers in some area.

    Now to understand bell curve, you need to know about two metrics:

    1. Mean – the average value of all the data points
    2. Standard Deviation – it’s how different the data is from the mean value, let’s say you have 100 records with the mean is 50 but there is one value that is 10, the standard deviation is going to measure that.

    To learn how to create it watch the video below, it’ll be faster for you:

    The site is about Microsoft Excel.

    How to create a curve in excel

    I’ve had this ‘Business Formulas’ book sitting around for years. I decided to explore the learning curve formula: (a) create it in Excel and (b) think about the factors that go into learning Excel.

    What is the Learning Curve?

    It’s based on the proposition that labor hours decrease in a definite pattern as labor operations are repeated….based on the statistical finding that as cumulative production double, cumulative average time required per unit will be reduced by some constant percentage, ranging typically from 10% to 20%

    How to create a curve in excel

    This quote is from the book “SCHAUM’s BUSINESS FORMULAS”

    In other words The more you learn the easier it gets.

    Well…kind of. More on this later.

    Excel File

    In this Excel file I converted the formal equation into a formula:

    =$F$24*($F$3)^(LN(E25)/LN(2)) this formula can described as:

    = Unit Time Hours *(Learning Curve Percent) ^(LN(Unit Value)/LN(2))

    • Unit Time Hours total hours to complete the first unit.
    • Learning Curve Percent or the improvement rate.
    • ^(LN(Unit Value)/LN(2)) calculates like compound interest.

    See columns E and F. At the top I used a simple method to reduce the value above by the same learning curve percent. Below that I used the formula described above.

    What Affects Rate of Learning Excel?

    • The Learning Curve is use d for economics & accounting. Can we apply it to Excel?
    • When learning Excel what influences (a) Learning Curve Percent, (b) Unit Time Hours?
    • Can we reduce these components down to simple terms?

    Let’s consider the following:

    • Learning Curve Percent =quality of the training material + necessity + curiosity
    • Unit Time Hours =effort

    High quality training definitely accelerates learning.

    For me, necessity & curiosity are incredible factors in the learning process.

    By necessity I learned T-SQL in my last job. I enjoyed it but had to learn quickly and stay focused.

    I’ve learned most of my vba due to curiosity . The “I wonder if it’s possible to…” has been a huge factor.

    Effort (grit) is an incredible factor. Without it nothing else matters.

    Decrease Learning Curve Percent

    If we can decrease our learning curve percent we’ll learn faster!

    How can we do that?

    • Find the material that works for you
    • Practice. Build stuff (necessity helps!)
    • Get help (don’t forget what you learn!)
    • Repeat & Improve (it gets easier)

    If we don’t improve the percent will remain close to 1. S ee sheet ‘Learning Curve Percent’.

    About Me

    How to create a curve in excel

    My name is Kevin Lehrbass. I’m a Data Analyst. I live in Markham Ontario Canada.

    My Data Learning Curve started back in the late 1990s. I saw someone working in Excel and it intrigued me. I read a book and took a course. Then I read the Excel 2000 Bible by John Walkenbach cover to cover! In 2001 I started my first data job, learned SQL, took more courses, read more books… and the rest is history.

    But…we have to keep using our skills or we’ll forget. My T-SQL (and PL-SQL) skills have dropped off because I haven’t used it in 10 years (I still use SQL). My Excel and DAX formula knowledge have increased. I still play around with VBA and it does come in handy but it’s not an essential part of my current job.

    vinay_bull

    Lot size = 1500
    Sample size = 150
    Acceptance no = 3

    How Do i plot this curve in Excel?

    Also my AQL is 0.05% and LTPD is 6%, how do I describe the protection offered?

    Wesley Richardson

    Wes R

    Re: How do i draw OC curve

    Lot size = 1500
    Sample size = 150
    Acceptance no = 3

    How Do i plot this curve in Excel?

    Also my AQL is 0.05% and LTPD is 6%, how do I describe the protection offered?

    Use the equation P(r) = ((e^(-np)(np)^r)/(r!)
    for your example, n = 150
    r = 3
    p = lot fraction defective
    P(r) = Probability of exactly r defectives in sample of n.

    Do this calculation for various values of p, for example over the range from p = 0.005 in 0.005 increments up to p = 0.10. Using the above equation, or built in function in Excel, this can be done quite easily.

    Plot the value of P(r) as a function of p.

    This is the operating characteristics curve.

    vinay_bull

    Re: How do i draw OC curve

    Thanks for the reply. Any idea about the second question
    Also my AQL is 0.05% and LTPD is 6%, how do I describe the protection offered?

    Wesley Richardson

    Wes R

    Re: How do i draw OC curve

    Thanks for the reply. Any idea about the second question
    Also my AQL is 0.05% and LTPD is 6%, how do I describe the protection offered?

    AQL is normally associated with a sampling plan such as ANSI/ASQ Z1.4 for attributes or ANSI/ASQ Z1.9 for variables. The AQL is used to define for a given plan, the accept and reject numbers. Since you have defined your own plan, the AQL is not applicable.

    You can determine the AOQ and AOQL from the method I have given above.

    Calculate AOQ = (p)(P(r)) for each of the values you found above. AOQL is where AOQ is at the maximum.

    One correction for my previous equations, since r = 3, you will also need to calculated P(r=0), P(r=1) and P(r=2), as well as P(r=3) for each p. Add the P values together for a given p to get the total P_a (probability of acceptance) under the OC Curve.

    Enter Data for Cases in Rows
    Enter the cases into the spreadsheet, listing the data for each case in a separate row. One column should be designated for the date of onset of disease for each case. In the example spreadsheet below, I deleted the names of the cases from column A, but I listed the date of onset in column B (so this simple example just has one column for date of onset).

    Sort by Date
    Next sort the data set according to date of onset of disease. You can do this by “selecting” the block of data (columns and rows) that you want to sort using your mouse (click the left mouse button on the upper left hand cell of the block you want to sort and hold the mouse button down as you move the mouse down and to the right all the way to the lower right hand cell of the block you want). Then release the mouse button. This should highlight the block of data to be sorted. Then, from the menu at the top of the page click on “Data” and then select the “Sort” option.

    This makes a dialogue box appear. Make sure that the selection “Header row” is selected at the bottom of the box if the columns have header titles. Then at the top of the dialogue box click on the selection arrow for “sort by” and chose “Date of onset”. Then click on “Ok”. The block of data should now be sorted by date.

    Tally the Number of New Cases Each Day
    Once the list is sorted by date, it easy to count up how many people became ill on a given date (step 2 in the spreadsheet illustration).

    Sometimes it is more convenient to tally the number of new cases that occurred at intervals other than 1 day. For example, the illustration below tallies new cases that occurred at 4 day intervals after 4/28, when the outbreak began.

    Table of Contents

    How do I create a bell curve in Excel with data?

    Creating a Bell Curve in Excel

    1. In cell A1 enter 35.
    2. In the cell below it enter 36 and create a series from 35 to 95 (where 95 is Mean + 3* Standard Deviation).
    3. In the cell adjacent to 35, enter the formula: =NORM.DIST(A1,65,10,FALSE)
    4. Again use the fill handle to quickly copy and paste the formula for all the cells.

    How do you calculate bell curve grade?

    To curve grades, start by finding the highest grade earned in the whole class. Then, subtract that grade from 100. Finally, add that number to every student’s grade. For example, if the highest score in the class was 90 percent, you would subtract 90 from 100 and get 10.

    How do you graph a bell curve?

    How to Create a Bell Curve Graph

    1. Collect Accurate Data. Carefully gather your data of interest.
    2. Calculate Sample Average. Calculate your sample mean.
    3. Determine Standard Deviation. Compute your standard deviation to find out how far each score is from the average.
    4. Plot Data. Plot your mean along the x-axis.
    5. Draw the Graph.

    How do you plot a bell curve?

    How do you measure a curved line with a thread?

    Tie a knot at one end of the thread. Place the thread at the beginning of the line and try to measure a small initial portion of the line which is relatively straight. Place your thumb at the other end of the measured portion and measure next straighter portion. Repeat the above step till the end of line is reached.

    How to create a bell curve in Excel?

    First, click on All Charts. Now select XY Scatter Chart Category on the left side. You can see the built-in styles at the top of the dialog box; click on the third style, Scatter with Smooth Lines. Select the Second chart and click on Ok. So now you will be able to see the Bell curve in your excel sheet as below.

    How to get a normal distribution curve (Bell Curve) in Google Sheets?

    Now under the Recommended chart, you will see lots of option for different types of charts. But to get a normal distribution curve (Bell Curve), follow the below steps. First, click on All Charts. Now select XY Scatter Chart Category on the left side.

    How to use the bell curve in HRM?

    Click on the Axis button, and you will see two options for Horizontal Axis and Vertical Axis. Just uncheck the Vertical Axis. This Bell curve helps you identify who the top performer in your team is and who is the lowest performer and help you decide the ratings of the employee.

    What is the bell curve method of scoring?

    Using the bell curve approach, the marks of students are converted into percentiles that are then compared with each other. Students getting higher marks are on the right side of the curve and students getting low marks are on the left of the curve (with most of the students being in the middle around mean score).

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    How to Make a Calibration Curve in Excel

    How to Make a Calibration Curve in Excel.

    Procedure to Make a Calibration Curve in Excel

    Before proceeding towards to plot calibration curve in excel. You should have some practical data to plot. After getting practical data, then go towards excel.

    • Put the Data in two columns. (In case of above diagram First column contain Concentration, and second column will contain Absorbances).
    • Then Select the both data.
    • Click on Insert option in menu.
    • Then select the type of graph (XY Scatter).
    • After selecting the graph, a graph will appear with your practical data.
    • Then right click on any point of data.
    • And select the option trend line.
    • Choose the options like Show equation on chart, Show R squared value and Select intercept if you want.
    • Your calibration curve will be ready along with trendline, Equation (Y=mx+C) and R squared value.
    • Format your chart as per your need. (Colour and thickness of line, chart area, Data Points, Legend name, Title of chart, style of chart etc.)
    • You can also make a calibration curves in other softwares like Origin.

    There are also other types of charts present in excel, but calibration curve require XY scatter type of chart.
    Some researchers uses intercept in calibration curves while some doesn’t. So make sure as per your need.
    The equation (Y=mx+C) that is generated by standard calibration curve is used to determine the unknown conc. of any sample.

    I Hope you will like this post.
    Stay connected with A to Z Color to get Education related articles.

    The site is about Microsoft Excel.

    How to create a curve in excel

    I played around with two different S curve concepts using dynamic arrays.

    Related to Excel I found two concepts. In the end, both create a line that resembles an S when plotted against time.

    How to create a curve in excel

    Project management: tracks allocated costs over time. Estimate ahead of time or track as it happens. Often ends up looking like an S curve.

    Formula generated: uses inputs & formulas to directly create an S curve.

    Each Excel file is based on a source, video & xlsx, that were created without dynamic arrays:

    project management: video from Insights Training (how to build it)

    formula generated: Excel file from clearlyandsimply

    In both cases I modified the concept/file to work with dynamic arrays!

    The 2 Excel files based on file & video from Insights Training & ClearlyandSimply but modified by me to work with dynamic arrays.

    Now I will review each file.

    The Excel file from clearlyandsimply was great! I replaced various formulas with dynamic arrays so that increasing or decreasing the value in cell B4 automatically changes the amount of rows.

    How to create a curve in excel

    ‘Date’ formula:

    Select a time unit in cell B11. I used scenario manager to add sample data for each time unit (eg day data doesn’t work if month is selected).

    This formula uses dynamic array SEQUENCE to spill the date values down.

    ‘X-axis Date’ & ‘Counter’ formulas are simple. Let’s skip to ‘Amount’.

    ‘Amount’ formula:

    Creates the line on the chart. ClearlyandSimply has a great explanation here of how it works.

    Original formula from clearlyandsimply Excel file:

    I modified it to spill downwards automatically due to F14# spill syntax:

    Column C has phases (could be costs). As the project ramps up the costs increase and then start to tail off. On a chart the line looks like an S.

    Select a time unit in cell B5. Again, I used scenario manager to load sample data for each time unit.

    Cell I7 has this formula that spills to the right as far as necessary:

    The other formulas below don’t spill to the right. Could I somehow update them to also spill right?

    The chart range is: =data!$I$14:$O$14

    For the charts In both Excel files I changed various options. It was really late at night on Saturday and I was in the zone. But now, I can’t remember everything I did and I’m lazy to audit and document it all. So, I’ll leave it to you as homework to audit them so see what I changed 🙂

    This was fun to explore. The key formula from clearlyandsimply is amazing. It makes the line start slow, increase sharply, and then tail off. The video from Insights Training is great. It shows step by step how to create an S curve based on expenses (or projected expenses).

    Modifying their files to use dynamic arrays (sequence function) was a good challenge.

    How to create a curve in excel

    My name is Kevin Lehrbass. I’m a Data Analyst and I live in Markham Ontario Canada.

    If you haven’t noticed I like playing around in Microsoft Excel.

    The best way to graph a supply and demand curve in Microsoft Excel would be to use the XY Scatter chart. A line graph is good when trying to find out a point where both sets of data intersects. A column chart is good for displaying the variation between the data.

    To graph a supply and demand curve in Microsoft Excel in both versions 2010 and 2013, follow these steps. Replace the data used in the example below with the data that is available to you.

    1. Open a new spreadsheet in Excel
    2. In column A cell 1 put the word Price
    3. In column A cell 2 put Qs
    4. In column A cell 3 put Qd
    5. In column B cell 1 put 10
    6. In column B cell 2 put 200
    7. In column B cell 3 put 540
    8. In column C cell 1 put 20
    9. In column C cell 2 put 300
    10. In column C cell 3 put 480
    11. Add more data as needed
    12. Hover the mouse over the Insert tab in Chart group select Scatter and click the icon for Scatter with Straight lines.
    13. A chart will then appear with the Supply and Demand diagram It will automatically display the Price on the X-axis this will need to be changed. Put the Price on the Y-axis.
    14. To change the axis right click on the chart and click Select Data from the menu
    15. Make sure to highlight the first row, which is Qs
    16. Delete the data in the box that pops up for Series X and Series Y values
    17. Put the cursor in the Y value box and select the Price values
    18. Put the cursor in X values and highlight Qs
    19. Follow the steps to edit the data for Qd column this time
    20. Click OK and a chart will appear

    What is the Swap Rate Curve?

    The swap rate curve is a chart that depicts the relationship between swap rates and all available corresponding maturities. Essentially, it indicates the expected returns Expected Return The expected return on an investment is the expected value of the probability distribution of possible returns it can provide to investors. The return on the investment is an unknown variable that has different values associated with different probabilities. of a swap on different maturity dates. The curve can be considered as the swap’s equivalent of a bond’s yield curve Yield Curve The Yield Curve is a graphical representation of the interest rates on debt for a range of maturities. It shows the yield an investor is expecting to earn if he lends his money for a given period of time. The graph displays a bond’s yield on the vertical axis and the time to maturity across the horizontal axis. , and is a par curve, as it is based on par swaps Swap A swap is a derivative contract between two parties that involves the exchange of pre-agreed cash flows of two financial instruments. The cash flows are usually determined using the notional principal amount (a predetermined nominal value). .

    How to create a curve in excel

    The swap rate curve is a two-dimensional plot drawn against the x-axis and y-axis. The swap rates are plotted against the y-axis while the times to maturity are drawn on the x-axis. Generally, the curve is upward sloping, since long-term swap rates tend to be higher than short-term rates.

    Understanding the Swap Rate Curve

    The swap rate curve is frequently drawn together with the yield curve of a government bond (e.g., US Treasury securities Treasury Bills (T-Bills) Treasury Bills (or T-Bills for short) are a short-term financial instrument issued by the US Treasury with maturity periods from a few days up to 52 weeks. ). In some cases, the two curves may coincide, but they often diverge from each other. If the two curves diverge from each other, the swap spread is presented. Historical data shows that the swap rate curve tends to be above the yield curve Yield Curve The Yield Curve is a graphical representation of the interest rates on debt for a range of maturities. It shows the yield an investor is expecting to earn if he lends his money for a given period of time. The graph displays a bond’s yield on the vertical axis and the time to maturity across the horizontal axis. , thus indicating positive swap spreads.

    The swap rate curve is extensively used in financial markets. For example, it is frequently used as a benchmark for interest rates. In addition, the curve can be utilized to assess market participants’ sentiment regarding the prevailing market conditions (particularly risk).

    How to Create the Swap Rate Curve in Excel?

    The curve can be easily created using Microsoft Excel. It can be done by following the steps below:

    1. Create a table that will contain the necessary information, including the swap rates and corresponding maturity dates.
    2. In the first column, list the swap rates.
    3. List the corresponding maturities in the second column.
    4. Using the mouse or keyboard, highlight the created table. Then, press Insert->Recommended Charts->All Charts->Line Chart and choose the chart with the single line. Alternatively, you can do it by pressing Insert->Scatter->Scatter with Straight Lines and Markers. Your swap rate curve should look like the chart in the image above.

    Valuation

    Swap contracts are traded in Over-The-Counter Markets (OTC). Over-the-Counter (OTC) Over-the-counter (OTC) is the trading of securities between two counter-parties executed outside of formal exchanges and without the supervision of an exchange regulator. OTC trading is done in over-the-counter markets (a decentralized place with no physical location), through dealer networks. As a swap contract comprises two legs, we must determine the present value of both legs to determine the value of the swap contract.

    The fixed leg of interest rate swap Interest Rate Swap An interest rate swap is a derivative contract through which two counterparties agree to exchange one stream of future interest payments for another contract, for example, is fairly simple to calculate, as future cash flows are set at inception. The floating leg requires a more complex calculation, as it is subject to change with the fluctuation of interest rates. The forward rate curve must be used to determine the forward rate of each future floating payment.

    CFI offers the Capital Markets & Securities Analyst (CMSA)® Program Page – CMSA Enroll in CFI’s CMSA® program and become a certified Capital Markets &Securities Analyst. Advance your career with our certification programs and courses. certification program for those looking to take their careers to the next level. To keep learning and advancing your career, the following CFI resources will be helpful:

    • Excel for Finance Excel for Finance This Excel for Finance guide will teach the top 10 formulas and functions you must know to be a great financial analyst in Excel.
    • Swap Swap A swap is a derivative contract between two parties that involves the exchange of pre-agreed cash flows of two financial instruments. The cash flows are usually determined using the notional principal amount (a predetermined nominal value).
    • Swap Spread Swap Spread Swap spread is the difference between the swap rate (the rate of the fixed leg of a swap) and the yield on the government bond with a similar maturity. Since government bonds (e.g., US Treasury securities) are considered risk-free securities, swap spreads typically reflect the risk levels perceived by the parties involved in a swap agreement.
    • Fixed Income Fundamentals Course

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    How to create a curve in excel

    Learn financial modeling and valuation Explore All Courses in Excel the easy way, with step-by-step training.

    This article discusses drawing curves, circles, and ovals. For information about drawing lines, see Draw or delete a line or connector. For information about freeform shapes and editing points in shapes, see Draw or edit a freeform shape.

    Draw a curve

    On the Insert tab, click Shapes.

    Under Lines, click Curve.

    Click where you want the curve to start, drag to draw, and then click wherever you want to add a curve.

    To end a shape, do one of the following:

    To leave the shape open, double-click at any time.

    To close the shape, click near its starting point.

    Draw an oval or circle

    On the Insert tab, click Shapes.

    Under Basic Shapes, click Oval.

    Click where you want the oval to start, and drag to draw the shape.

    To draw a circle, press Shift while you drag.

    You can change the look of your circle or curve by adding a shape fill or effect or changing the border.

    If you want to create a more advanced diagram like overlapping circles, an organizational chart, or a flowchart, you can create a SmartArt graphic instead of drawing each shape manually.

    Circles and ovals are filled automatically. If you don’t want the shape to obscure anything underneath it, such as text or cells, select the shape, and on the Format tab, click Shape Fill, and then click No Fill.

    Draw a curve

    On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes.

    Under Lines, click Curve .

    Click where you want the curve to start, drag to draw, and then click wherever you want to add a curve.

    To end a shape, do one of the following:

    To leave the shape open, double-click at any time.

    To close the shape, click near its starting point.

    Note: By default, a closed shape is filled. To make sure that the shape doesn’t obscure the cells underneath, select the shape, and then under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click Shape Fill, and then click No Fill

    Draw an oval or circle

    On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Shapes.

    Under Basic Shapes, click Oval .

    Click where you want the circle to start. To make the shape a circle, press and hold SHIFT while you drag to draw.

    You can change the look of your circle or curve by adding a shape fill or shape effect or changing the shape border.

    If you want to create a more advanced diagram like overlapping circles, an organizational chart, or a flowchart, you can create a SmartArt graphic instead of drawing each shape manually.

    By default, a circle or oval is filled. To make sure that the shape doesn’t obscure the cells underneath, select the shape, and then under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click Shape Fill, and then click No Fill.

    This tutorial will show you how to draw and interpret a ROC curve in Excel using the XLSTAT statistical software.

    What are ROC curves?

    ROC curves were first developed during World War II to develop effective means of detecting Japanese aircrafts. It was then applied more generally to signal detection and medicine where it is now widely used.

    The problem is as follows: we study a phenomenon, often binary (for example, the presence or absence of a disease) and we want to develop a test to detect effectively the occurrence of a precise event (for example, the presence of the disease).

    If the test is quantitative (possibly ordinal), for example, a concentration of a molecule, we will try to determine from what concentration can a patient be considered as ill. The ROC curves and indices calculated here will help us make the best decision.

    Dataset to generate a ROC curve

    The data correspond to a medical experiment during which 50 patients, among which 20 are sick, are submitted to a screening test where the concentration of a viral molecule is being measured.

    Setting up of a ROC curve

    Once XLSTAT has been started, select the Survival analysis / ROC Curves command.

    How to create a curve in excel

    When you click on the button, a dialog box appears. Select the data that correspond to the event data and enter the code that is associated to positive cases.

    Then select the data that correspond to the diagnostic test that we are evaluating and specify what type of rule should be used to identify the threshold value below or above which the test should be considered positive.

    We choose here to consider that the test is positive if the concentration is greater than or equal to a value to be determined.

    How to create a curve in excel

    In the Options tab, you can specify the method for calculating the confidence intervals.

    XLSTAT is the software offering the widest choice. The defaults are those most recommended.

    In this tab, you can also assign a cost to the various cases. We wish to strongly penalize diagnostic errors and more particularly the case where the sick patients are not detected.

    How to create a curve in excel

    In the Charts tab, we choose to display a decision plot based on costs.

    How to create a curve in excel

    When you click OK, the computations are done and the results are displayed.

    interpretation of a ROC curve

    The first table displays the descriptive statistics for the test variable, here the concentration, followed by the statistics for the event variable, here the disease. The prevalence observed on the sample is equal to 0.4.

    How to create a curve in excel

    The ROC is then displayed. To each small square corresponds an observation.

    How to create a curve in excel

    The “ROC Analysis” that follows, displays for each possible threshold value, the value of the various performance indices. For example, if we decide to declare a patient sick when the concentration is greater than or equal to 0.98, the sensitivity is 0.95, the specificity of 0,733 and the cost is 61. For more details on the various indices, you can check the tutorial on sensitivity and specificity analysis.

    How to create a curve in excel

    A graph constructed using this table is then displayed. He can see the evolution of counting TP (true positives), TN (true negative), FP (false positives) and FN (false negatives) depending on the chosen threshold value.

    How to create a curve in excel

    The decision plot allows to choose the threshold value that minimizes the cost. To see what is the minimum threshold value on the chart, just leave your mouse over the corresponding point. This value corresponds to a concentration of 0.98, as we had identified earlier in the table analysis ROC.

    How to create a curve in excel

    The last series of results allows the study the area under the curve (AUC). The AUC and its confidence interval are calculated. The test that compares the AUC to 0.5 allows to check if the diagnostic test is more powerful than just a random rule. In our case, the test is very powerful and the AUC is significantly different from 0.5.

    How to create a curve in excel

    The comparison of the AUC is also a way to compare different diagnostic tests. XLSTAT can compare as many tests as you like.

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    Table of Contents

    How do you create a learning curve in Excel?

    1. Step 1: Set up Excel Spreadsheet. • Create a new spreadsheet and set aside a cell to enter your learning rate.
    2. Step 2: Enter Formulas. • The formula to calculate time in a learning curve is:
    3. Step 3: Enter Data and Determine the Learning Rate. •
    4. Step 4: Minimum Time Requirements. •

    What does 90 percent learning curve indicate in terms of improvement rate?

    A 90% curve means there is a corresponding 10% rate of improvement. Stable, standardized products and processes tend to have costs that decline more steeply than others.

    What does a 100 learning curve mean?

    Note that a 100 percent curve would imply no decrease in unit time at all (i.e., no learning).

    What is learning curve with example?

    The basic theory behind the concept of a learning curve is that there will usually be an initial period in which the amount invested will be greater than the return, but after the learning curve has been overcome, the return should be greater than the investment. For example, imagine you’ve just started a new job.

    How do you calculate learning curves?

    a = time taken to produce initial quantity. X = the cumulative units of production or, if in batches, the cumulative number of batches. b = the learning index or coefficient, which is calculated as: log learning curve percentage ÷ log 2. So b for an 80 per cent curve would be log 0.8 ÷ log 2 = – 0.322.

    How do you calculate learning curve?

    What is a good learning curve?

    In colloquial usage, a “steep learning curve” means the knowledge in question takes longer to learn; a “shallow learning curve” means it’s a nice quick process. A steeper curve indicates quicker learning, and the converse.

    What does 80 learning curve mean?

    An 80 percent learning curve means that the cumulative average time (and cost) will decrease by 20 percent each time output doubles. In other words, the new cumulative average for the doubled quantity will be 80% of the previous cumulative average before output is doubled.

    How to create a curve in excel

    What are the 4 types of learning curves?

    Here are four common types of a learning curve and what they mean:

    • Diminishing-Returns Learning Curve. The rate of progression increases rapidly at the beginning and then decreases over time.
    • Increasing-Returns Learning Curve.
    • Increasing-Decreasing Return Learning Curve (the S-curve)
    • Complex Learning Curve.

    Is Steep learning curve good?

    If one plots amount learned vs. time, then a steep (or short) learning curve is a good thing, because it indicates that a large amount of learning is taking place in a short period of time. In contrast, a shallow (or long) learning curve indicates that a long period of time is required to learn the needed information.

    What are examples of learning curves?

    Four examples of the learning curve model

    • The diminishing returns learning curve.
    • The increasing returns learning curve.
    • The S-curve.
    • The complex learning curve.

    A bell curve (also known as normal distribution curve) is a way to plot and analyze data that looks like a bell curve.

    In the bell curve, the highest point is the one that has the highest probability of occurring, and the probability of occurrences goes down on either side of the curve.

    It is often used during employee performance appraisals or during evaluation in exams (ever heard – “You will be graded on the curve?”).

    Now before I jump in on how to create a bell curve in Excel, let’s get a better understanding of the concept by taking an example.

    Understanding the Bell Curve

    Suppose you work in a team of 100 members and your manager tells you that your performance will be relative to others and will be evaluated on the bell curve.

    This means that even if your team is the best team ever and you’re all superheroes, only a handful of you would get the top rating, most of the people in your team would get an average rating, and a handful will get the lowest rating.

    How to create a curve in excel

    But why do we need the bell curve?

    Suppose you have a class of 100 students that appear for an exam. According to your grading system, anyone who gets above 80 out of 100 gets an A grade. But since you set a really easy paper, everyone scored above 80 and got the A grade.

    Now there is nothing wrong in this kind of grading system. However, using it, you can not differentiate between someone who got 81 and someone who got 95 (as both would get the A grade).

    To keep the comparison fair and keep the competitive spirit alive, a bell curve is often used to evaluate performances (at least that’s how it was when I was in college).

    Using the bell curve approach, the marks of students are converted into percentiles that are then compared with each other.

    Students getting higher marks are on the right side of the curve and students getting low marks are on the left of the curve (with most of the students being in the middle around mean score).

    Now to understand bell curve, you need to know about two metrics:

    • Mean – the average value of all the data points
    • Standard Deviation – it shows how much the dataset deviates from the mean of the dataset. For example, suppose you have a group of 50 people, and you are recording their weight (in kgs). In this dataset, the average weight is 60 kg, and the standard deviation is 4 kg. It means that 68% of the people’s weight is within 1 standard deviation from the mean – which would be 56-64 kg. Similarly, 95% of the people are within 2 standard deviation – which would be 52-68 Kgs.

    When you have a dataset that is normally distributed, your bell curve will follow the below rules:

    • The center of the bell curve is the mean of the data point (also the highest point in the bell curve).
    • 68.2% of the total data points lie in the range (Mean – Standard Deviation to Mean + Standard Deviation).
    • 95.5% of the total data points lie in the range (Mean – 2*Standard Deviation to Mean + 2*Standard Deviation)
    • 99.7% of the total data points lie in the range (Mean – 3*Standard Deviation to Mean + 3*Standard Deviation)

    How to create a curve in excel

    Now let’s see how to create a bell curve in Excel.

    Creating a Bell Curve in Excel

    Let’s take an example of a class of students that have been scored in an exam.

    The mean score of the class is 65 and the standard deviation is 10. (You can calculate the mean using the AVERAGE function in Excel and Standard Deviation using the STDEV.P function).

    Here are the steps to create a bell curve for this dataset:

    • In cell A1 enter 35. This value can be calculated using Mean – 3* Standard Deviation (65-3*10).
    • In the cell below it enter 36 and create a series from 35 to 95 (where 95 is Mean + 3* Standard Deviation). You can do this quickly by using the autofill option, or use the fill handle and drag it down to fill the cells.
    • In the cell adjacent to 35, enter the formula: =NORM.DIST(A1,65,10,FALSE)
      • Note that here I have hardcoded the value of mean and standard deviation. You can also have these in cells and use the cell references in the formula.
    • Again use the fill handle to quickly copy and paste the formula for all the cells.
    • Select the data set and go to Insert tab.
    • Insert the ‘Scatter with Smooth Lines’ chart.

    This will give you a bell curve in Excel.

    How to create a curve in excel

    Now you can change the chart title and adjust the axis if you need.

    Note that when you have a low standard deviation, you get a packed slim bell curve, and when you have a high standard deviation, the bell curve is wide and covers more area on the chart.

    This kind of bell curve can be used to identify where a data point lies in the chart. For example, in case a team is full of high performers, when evaluated on a curve, despite being a high performer, someone can get an average rating as he/she was in the middle of the curve.

    Note: In this blog post, I have discussed the concept of a bell curve and how to create it in Excel. A statistician would be better suited to talk about the efficacy of the bell curve and limitations associated with it. I am more of an Excel guy and my involvement with Bell curve has been limited to the calculations I did when I worked as a Financial Analyst.

    Hope you found this tutorial useful!

    Let me know your thoughts in the comments section.

    Whenever we are performing descriptive statistics on historical data, it is required to know the spread of the data. Creating a Bell curve is such methodology where spread of data can be visualized. So, let us understand that what is Bell Curve. Also, we’ll discuss that how to create Bell Curve in excel.

    Table of Contents

    What is Bell Curve?

    Bell Curve is a methodology to understand normal distribution of data. In other words, Bell Curve is the graphical form of normal distribution. In Bell Curve, X axis represents the values of distribution and Y axis represents the frequency of each value.

    Middle axis peak of a normally distributed Bell Curve denotes Mean, Median and Mode. If we go towards left or right side from middle, we’ll found the intervals of standard deviation (σ) denoted by 1s, 2σ & 3σ.

    Why Bell Curve?

    After discussing what is Bell Curve, next question comes into the mind that why bell curve. As discussed in the beginning that Bell Curve is used to visualize the distribution of data. Also, the skewness of the data can be found through Bell Curve. If the data is skewed and bell curve is not symmetrical, in that case Mean and Median will be different and Median can be considered instead of Mean for further analysis.

    What is Empirical Rule or Three-Sigma Rule of Bell Curve?

    In Bell Curve, if we consider 1s (-1σ to 1σ), 68% data falls under 1 standard deviation (σ). Same way, 95% data falls under 2σ and 99.7% data falls under 3σ. Also, this is called 68-95-99 rule.

    What is Skewness and Kurtosis?

    In earlier paragraph (what is bell curve), it is discussed that bell curve is only possible if data is normally distributed. Many times, we are creating Bell Curve and it is not showing the symmetrical shape, either it is skewed towards left or right. On the other hand, the tail of the Bell Curve can be heavy or light. To explain the asymmetrical Bell Curve, Skewness and Kurtosis came into the picture.

    If the Bell Curve is skewed towards left or right and it has a long tail, it is called skewed Bell Curve. There are two types of Skewness, Right or positive Skewed and Left or negative Skewed.

    Kurtosis tells about the outliers present in a data or it can be considered as a measuring technique of outlier.

    How to measure Skewness and Kurtosis with Excel functions?

    To find out SKEWNESS of a data set, “SKEW” function is being used where positive or negative data output can be found. Based on negative or positive output, type of skewness can be decided.

    To find out KURTOSIS of a data set, “KURT” function is being used. Output interpretation is given below.

    If output value is “Zero”, it is Mesokurtic

    If output value is “Negative” (-), it is Platykurtic

    If output value is “Positive” (+), it is Leptokurtic

    What is the difference between Normal Distribution (Gaussian Distribution) & Non-Normal Distribution?

    In case of normal distribution, Bell Curve is looks symmetrical where maximum data points are located at the center and smoothly distributed towards left and right side by creating tail with diminishing order.

    In case of non-normal distribution, Bell Curve is skewed toward left or right and form positive or negatively skewed Bell Curve.

    What is Standard Deviation?

    Standard Deviation is the measure of dispersion or spread of a data. In other words, Standard Deviation talks about the deviation of data from mean value. Standard Deviation denoted by Sigma (s).

    To calculate Standard Deviation in Excel, “STDEV” function is being used.

    What is Z Score?

    Z score tells us that how many data points are falling under number of standard deviation from mean. As an example, if Z score is +1, that tell us that the data points are above mean value and 1 standard deviation.

    How to create Bell Curve in Excel?

    Excel is a basic data analytics tool used by all the industry experts every day. In excel 2016, insert statistical chart option is available but readymade bell curve option is not available. Hence, creating bell curve is not so hard and it requires the use of specific formula and arrange the data. To create Bell Curve in Excel, we need to use three functions, “AVERAGE” to calculate average or mean, “STDEV” to calculate standard deviation and “NORM.DIST” to calculate normal distribution.

    We have below data set of different age by which we would like to create a Bell Curve to check distribution of data.

    1. First arrange the data as ascending order.

    2. Calculate average (Mean) by using “AVERAGE” function and calculate Standard Deviation by using “STDEV” function.

    3. Create another column to add Normal distribution with “NORM.DIST” function. In NORM.DIST function, it is required to include average and standard distribution which is already calculated. Also use “FALSE” while applying NORM.DIST function for “Probability Mass Function”.

    4. Finally create “Scatter Diagram” with smooth line by using Data (Age) and Normal Distribution (Norm Dist) column.

    Bell Curve vs Histogram:

    Both histogram and bell curve are being used while performing descriptive analytics. We can say that histogram is another way to find hidden story in a data set. Histogram is such graph which gives the clarity regrading distribution of data. But in histogram, data frequency is also visible. Histogram is also called frequency distribution graph. It is based on bar graph and frequency of each numerical value is represented through bar graph. In one hand, bell curve is based on the probability distribution methodology. On the other hand, histogram is based on the frequency distribution methodology.

    Like bell curve, histogram can show the skewness and the data. Histogram shape can be classified as bell shaped, binomial shaped, left and right skewed, uniform shape and random shaped.

    So, we have discussed that what is bell curve and other related points on bell curve. Bell Curve is one of the key concepts of descriptive statistics that’s why in any of the statistical tool (R, Python) it can be created to understand distribution of historical data.