# How to create a pdf file with openoffice

Learn how to easily convert OpenOffice documents to PDF. Take steps to help you avoid compatibility issues when sharing your documents.

OpenOffice is an open-source office productivity software that includes a word processor for creating text documents, a spreadsheet capable of performing calculations, a presentation app, and the ability to create drawings. OpenOffice works across multiple operating systems and creates files with various file extensions.

To avoid incompatibility with other software when sharing OpenOffice documents, convert them to PDF first. PDF is the standard for document exchange and presentation. Converting files created in OpenOffice to PDF is quick and easy.

## Steps to convert OpenOffice documents to PDF.

You can convert any text, image, or web page to PDF with Adobe Acrobat DC. OpenOffice files are no exception.

Follow these five easy steps to convert OpenOffice documents to PDF:

1. In Acrobat, navigate to the Create PDF option from the Tools menu
2. Click on Select A File and navigate to the location of your OpenOffice document
3. Click on the file you want to convert
4. Choose Create
5. Click the save icon to save your new PDF to the desired location

One helpful advantage when working with PDF documents is their nearly universal readability. Regardless of their operating system or software, your colleagues will be able to open and view documents created in an OpenOffice application.

Now that you can convert your OpenOffice files, explore everything else you can do with Acrobat to work with your PDFs.

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##### Margarete Cotty

2022-04-29 14:42:24 • Filed to: How-To-Windows • Proven solutions

OpenOffice is considered one of the best office solutions because it includes so many tools. It is an open-source Office suite that includes a word processor, a spreadsheet application, presentation applications, and more. This article will cover how to convert PDF to OpenOffice supported file formats.

## Convert PDF to OpenOffice Compatible Formats

Wondershare PDFelement – PDF Editor lets you convert any PDF document into OpenOffice supported file types. It has a simple user interface and supports many amazing features that make editing and converting PDF files easy. It provides a hassle-free way to import, edit, and save any PDF file into an OpenOffice-supported format.

Business professionals recommend PDFelement because of its wide range of customization tools and functions. Its OCR tool is considered to be its most useful function, as it supports more than 20 languages for the conversion of scanned PDF documents. You can also add text, insert images, delete or edit text, add text boxes and watermark, or include notes and comments.

### Step 1. Load PDF File for Conversion

Install PDFelement and open the program. Click the “Open files” button and select the target file in the pop-up window.

### Step 2. Edit PDF before Conversion (Optional)

Users can easily edit PDF files before converting them. PDFelement supports a wide range of all the essential features to modify any content within your document. Click the “Edit” button in the top-left corner of the ribbon bar, then click on the text you want to edit and start making changes. You can also modify images in editing mode by adding an image, removing an image, or moving/resizing/rotating an image.

### Step 3. Convert PDF to a Format Compatible with OpenOffice

Go to the “Convert” tab and click “To Word”. A new dialog box will pop-up, where you can select an OpenOffice supported output format. These include .doc, .docx, .rtf, .hwp, .xlsx, .png, etc. You are also able to set the file destination in the output folder. Finally, click “Save” to begin the process.

### Step 4. Import Converted File into OpenOffice

In OpenOffice, go to the “File” menu. Select “Open” to choose the converted OpenOffice supported file format in the program.

## OpenOffice Supported File Formats

OpenOffice supports several file formats along with OpenDocument files. Here are some of the commonly used file formats opened in the OpenOffice program:

• All versions of Microsoft Word Documents 6.0/95/97/2000/XP/2003/2007
• XML (.doc,.dot, .xml, .docx, .docm, .dotx & .dotm)
• Hangul WP 97 (.hwp)
• WordPerfect Document (.wpd)
• All Versions of Microsoft Excel
• Rich Text Format (.rtf)
• Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 (.pptx, .potx, pptm & .potm)
• Portable Document Format (.pdf)
• Database File format (ODB)
• Text Template (OTT)
• Drawing (ODG)
• Supports image file formats such as JPEG, BMP, EPS, MET, PBM, PNG, RAS, TIFF,
• XPM, PCT, EMF, SVG, etc.

Post by patjm » Tue Feb 21, 2017 6:40 am

It finally worked. I went into control panel and then programs and features and made OpenOffice the default. For awhile, I still needed to go into OpenOffice to open a word document. Another friend of mine gave me the key piece of advice:
uninstall Microsoft Office. Now I don’t have any trouble opening word documents. One small glitch is how to get OpenOffice to create a new word document as .doc and not in .txt. It defaults to .odt, which I doubt anybody ever uses.

### Re: How to edit a PDF easily

Post by Zizi64 » Tue Feb 21, 2017 8:26 am

The XML based ODF fileformats (.odt for text documents) are International Standards, but the binary, old fashioned .doc format never was and never will be standardized, and it has many many versions, and subversions. Wich version of the .doc format you want to save your document?

Always use the ODF fileformats if you want to use effectively your AOO or LO software.

Otherwise the newest MS Office versions can open the ODF files, (but the older can not). If you always need to save into the old MS formats, it is better to buy an MSO software.
The LibreOffice (LO) can save the new MS format (docx; OOXML Strict), but the MS not support the Strict version of (its own) OOXL format (but it can handle only the Transitional version of the Standard)!

OpenOffice is really a good program which supports many kinds of document types such as MS Office Word, Excel, PowerPoint and so on. It also has its own document formats such as ODT, ODS, ODP, ODG and so on. If there is no MS Office installed on your computer, the OpenOffice which is free of charge will be a good choice. When you want to convert document of OpenOffice to jpeg, the application docPrint Document Converter Professional is an excellent assistant.

For docPrint Document Converter Professional (docPrint Pro) can convert any printable documents to various image formats, you can use it to convert OpenOffice to jpeg freely only by some easy clicks. There are three applications in docPrint Pro, which are designed for different purposes. If you want to make batch conversion, you can choose the GUI application; If you need to develop software basing on docPrint Pro, you can choose the command line application; If you are an office worker and print documents everyday, you can choose the virtual printer application.

What to be mentioned here is that the virtual printer application docPrint is also a powerful document converter which can realize the conversion from printable documents to images, including OpenOffice to jpeg of course. So for using docPrint, you should download docPrint Pro at https://www.verypdf.com/artprint/docprint_pro_setup.exe and install it on the computer. Please don’t worry about that you cannot see docPrint in the installation directory. It stays in the printer list and you can click “Start”—“Printers and Faxes” to find it.

• You need to run the printer driver at first. Please open the OpenOffice document such as the ODT document in OpenOffice program and click “File”—“Print” or press “Ctrl”+ “P” to open the “Print” dialog box in which you can set “docPrint” as your printer in “Printer” combo box. Then please click “OK” button. If docPrint is the default printer, please right click the ODT document and click “Print” in dropdown list.
• In the popup “docPrint” main interface, you should try to open the “Save As” dialog box which is the last dialog box in the conversion from OpenOffice to jpeg. Here are three given methods for your reference and you can choose any one of them. You can click “File”—“Save as”. Click the “Save file” button which looks like a floppy disk in the toolbar. Press “Ctrl”+ “S” on the keyboard at the same time. If you have some other good methods, you can share with us by leaving messages.
• Please save the document of OpenOffice to jpeg in the “Save As” dialog box which is shown in Figure1. In “Save in” combo box, you should specify the output location. In “File name” edit box, you are able to input the output file name. In “Save as type” combo box, please choose the right output format. At last, please click on “Save” button.

Then you will get your target file several seconds later. The whole conversion process costs no more than two minutes and with the friendly and clear application interface, you can master docPrint at once.

Brady Gavin has been immersed in technology for 15 years and has written over 150 detailed tutorials and explainers. He’s covered everything from Windows 10 registry hacks to Chrome browser tips. Brady has a diploma in Computer Science from Camosun College in Victoria, BC. Read more.

PDFs are great for sharing your work. There are free PDF readers available for Windows, macOS, Linux, iOS, and Android, and PDF file retain their formatting no matter where they’re displayed. Best of all, you can quickly create PDFs from other documents in Windows using tools you already have.

Creating a PDF in Windows is extremely easy, whether you’re building one out of word documents, web pages, images, or whatever else you have.

## Create a PDF from Anything Using Windows 10’s Built-In PDF Printer

Windows 10 features a built-in print driver that converts documents to PDF. It’s super easy to use, too. All you have to do is print the document the way you usually would, and then choose the PDF option as your printer. We say document, but really, you can convert anything you would usually print to a PDF—text files, images, web pages, Office documents, whatever.

For our example here, we’re going to create a PDF from one a text file. That’s not something you’re likely to do, but it’s a simple way to show the process using the default Windows Print window. It’s going to look a bit different depending on the app from which you’re printing, but the process is pretty much the same no matter what the source.

Start by selecting the “Print” command in whatever app you’re using.

Next, you’ll be changing the printer. Again, this is how it looks in the default Windows Print window. It will look different in different apps, but the option will still be there. When you’ve selected the PDF printer, go ahead and print the document.

When you print, Windows will open up a standard Save As window for you to name and save your new PDF. So, go ahead and give it a great name, choose your save location, and then hit that “Save” button.

You now have an amazing PDF to share.

## Combine Multiple Images into a Single PDF

Here’s another quick tip for you. If you have a bunch of images (or other documents) that you’d like to combine into a single PDF document, you can do that right from File Explorer.

Select all the files you want to combine, right-click any of them, and then choose the “Print” command from the context menu.

Note: The order your images appear in File Explorer is the order they will show up in your PDF. If you want them in a different order, rename the images before combining them.

Next, make sure “Microsoft Print To PDF” is selected from the list of available printers, and then click “Print” to save the PDF to your hard drive.

## Create a PDF from an Existing Word Document

If you have Microsoft Word and you want to convert it to a PDF, you’re better off doing that from Word than using Windows’ built-in PDF printer because Word does a better job of retaining the layout and formatting of your document during conversion.

With your Word document open, click the “File” menu on the Ribbon.

On the sidebar that opens, click the “Save As” command.

Now, all you have to do is give your file a name, select “PDF” from the dropdown menu, and then click the “Save” button.

Saving documents as PDF files is one of the most common tasks. PDF ensures that the documents will not be amended by the third parties. Also, PDF is device independent – information the documents contain will be reflected same way regardless of where it is displayed.

Export of documents to PDF is a routine task: contracts, financial documents, reports, etc. are best saved untouched as PDF files.

DocuFreezer is the software whose mission is to guarantee long lasting document workflow. DocuFreezer can convert all types of documents, presentations, Excel worksheets and images to the most widely used formats: PDF, JPG, TIFF, or PNG depending on individual preferences and specific requirements.

DocuFreezer is equipped with user-friendly interface. To convert the documents, one does not need to have any special skills or be an advanced computer use. The software will do everything by itself – just add the files to the list, select the desired output file format and click “Start”.

DocuFreezer works with lots of file types and formats. Files that can be converted include, but not limited with Microsoft Office Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher and Visio documents, HTML, XPS, JPG, TIFF, PNG, GIF, Bitmap, PCX, TGA, WMF, EMF and Adobe PSD files.

DocuFreezer version 1.4 has been updated with newly added formats: OpenOffice ODT, ODF, ODP, ODS and ODG documents, PostScript (*.PS), Encapsulated Postscript Vector graphics (*.EPS) files and SVG image files.

DocuFreezer 1.4 offers the ability to split multipage documents into separate TIFF pages and can complete this task in batch mode.

## Account Information

How to create interactive PDFs with LibreOffice

### How to create interactive PDFs with LibreOffice

If you’re looking for the simplest, cheapest route to interactive PDFs, Jack Wallen walks you through the steps of creating such documents with LibreOffice.

Ah, the PDF. Portable Document Format. For the last decade, the PDF has been a critical element in business. Granted, over the last few years the prevalence of the PDF has been reduced, thanks to mobile apps and other digital tools. Nevertheless, the PDF still holds powerful sway over business. Why? It’s easy to use, easy to create, and can be viewed on nearly every type of device.

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One of the more important, business-centric elements of the PDF is the ability to create interactive documents. With these files, users can answer questions, fill in missing information, and so much more.

Most assume you have to work with a tool specifically designed to create interactive PDFs (such as Scribus). Or worse, that you would have to use a command line tool like LyX. You’d be surprised to find out that neither are required. In fact, thanks to LibreOffice, interactive PDFs are incredibly easy to create.

Let’s walk through the process of creating an interactive PDF with LibreOffice 5. For reference, I’ll be using LibreOffice 5.2.2.2 on Elementary OS Loki. These same steps will work on any platform.

## What you can add to PDFs

It should come as no surprise that you can add numerous interactive elements to a LibreOffice document. If you click on Insert | Form Control, you will see the entire list of elements (Figure A).

Figure A

I’m going to walk you through the process of adding a couple of these elements and then exporting the document so it can be distributed to your users.

Let’s add the elements to a simple document. You will first want to have your document designed and the necessary images and text entered, prior to adding the interactive elements. Let’s first add a text box. Say you need users to enter their name. Click Insert | Form Control and the cursor will change so that you can draw the box (Figure B). If the text box doesn’t wind up where you need it, fear not, you can drag and resize it accordingly.

Figure B

Once you have the text box in place, you’re ready to move on to the next element. Let’s say you want a group of checkboxes so the user can select an option. Each checkbox will also contain a label, so you don’t have to worry about first creating the text for each. Click Insert | Form Control and the select Check Box. Once the cursor changes, click on the document and drag it to draw the element. Double click on the newly drawn check box to bring up the Properties window and fill out the options as needed (Figure C).

Figure C

Once you’ve customized the check box, click the X in the upper left corner to close out the Properties window. Continue to add check boxes until you’re satisfied. With all of your check boxes completed, drag/resize them until they are exactly where you need them (Figure D).

Figure D

You will also notice, in Insert | Form Control, a number of elements (such as List Box, Combo Box, and Group Box) that require the addition of a data source. This data must come from a LibreOffice created database. I’ll deal with the creation of such data in a later post.

When you’ve added the necessary elements to your document, click File | Export as PDF, accept the defaults, click Export, give the document a name, select a location to save the document, and click Save.

Once the document has saved, you have created your first interactive PDF with LibreOffice. When a user opens the PDF, they can enter their data and will be prompted to save before closing. They can then return the document to you…data intact.

Congratulations, you’ve created your first interactive PDF with LibreOffice. Until you get involved with combo/list/group boxes, the process is incredibly easy and should not prevent anyone from creating much-needed interactive documents.

OpenOffice is a very useful program that helps you organize your documents, create graphics and formulas, make multimedia presentations, calculations and easily convert your files into various formats. The software also allows you to set a password for your important files to encrypt them and enhance their security. Read on to discover how to do it.

• Launch OpenOffice and open the document you’d like to protect by going to File >Open.
• Once the document opens, head to File >Save As.
• Enter in a document name. Below the Name and Document Type fields, you will see a few additional save options.
• Note that this option will not be shown if you attempt to save your document in a format other than an OpenOffice.org file.
• Now click OK.
• A dialog box will appear, prompting you to enter a password. It is extremely important that you make note of your password, as Open Office does not offer any password recovery options.

To protect your important data you can either assign a password to a sheet, follow these instructions:

1. Open your document in OpenOffice and click on Tools > Protect document and choose whether you want to secure the whole document or the current sheet.

2. A new dialog box shall open, enter and confirm your password.

Working with MS Word / OpenOffice ocuments

Tips how to open and work with the Microsoft Office and OpenOffice documents

## How to open, work with or convert documents

Everyone working on a computer knows Microsoft Office and its document formats. Word documents, Excel spreadsheets or PowerPoint presentations are pretty common and most people known that they can open them in their respective programs.

However, not everyone is familiar with formats from other, mainly open source alternatives, such as Apache OpenOffice or LibreOffice, so in this article we will briefly review the basics about Microsoft Office and OpenOffice documents, how to open them and convert them.

Most people are familiar with the standard .docx and .xlsx files from Word and Excel, but there are several variants of these formats for files with macros (.docm) and (.xlsm) and template variants (.dotx, .dotm, .xltx, .xltm).

Other Office programs, such as PowerPoint and Access have their own sets of dedicated file formats, which you can all check in our list of Microsoft Office formats.

### How to open Microsoft Office files

In case you have MS Office installed in your computer, you can easily open Word, Excel or PowerPoint files easily with a single click. But what if you do not have access to Office? Well, not everything is lost.

If you have Microsoft Account, for example as part of OneDrive service, you can easily access Microsoft Word Online and Microsoft Excel Online.

Online version of Microsoft Word available for users with Microsoft Account

Last viable option would be to use some of the MS Office alternatives like Apache OpenOffice (OpenOffice.org), LibreOffice and many more, that typically support Word, Excel and PowerPoint formats. Some issues might be caused because of formatting, but unless you do heavy changes to the original document, everything should be fine.

### Microsoft Office document conversion

Sometimes you just want to export your Word document or Excel spreadsheet to PDF so you can easily share it. Without MS Office or similar software, the only option would be to look for a software converter that can convert your document or check one of the online document converters.

Many productivity suites adopted formats in so called Open Document Format for Office Applications (ODF), an XML-based file format for spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents that was developed with the aim of providing an open, XML-based file format specification for office applications.

Users familiar with Apache OpenOffice or LibreOffice surely known .odt (text document) or .ods (spreadsheet) files, but there are also .odp (presentation) files, .odg (graphic files) and .odf (mathematics) files that work pretty much like their counterparts from Microsoft Office.

### How to open OpenDocument files

Any of the previously mentioned file types can be opened in almost any modern office productivity suites, including programs from Microsoft Office. If you need, you can easily download and install some of the free Office alternatives, such as Apache OpenOffice (formerly OpenOffice.org) or LibreOffice, but plenty of other similar office productivity bundles exist.

### OpenDocument conversion

The very same document converters for MS Office formats can be usually used for OpenDocument files as well and same goes for various online converters. You can also convert OpenDocument files to MS Office formats and vice versa in case you are accustomed to work in a particular program.

Apache OpenOffice (OpenOffice.org)
A free multi-platform productivity office suite for Windows, Mac and Linux

Apache OpenOffice Calc (OpenOffice.org Calc)
Spreadsheet program from OpenOffice.org productivity suite

Apache OpenOffice Impress (OpenOffice.org Impress)
Free presentation program from OpenOffice.org

Apache OpenOffice Writer (OpenOffice.org Writer)
Word processor and text editor from OpenOffice.org suite

LibreOffice
An open source personal productivity suite for Windows, Macintosh and GNU/Linux

LibreOffice Calc
Full-featured spreadsheet tool from LibreOffice suite

LibreOffice Impress
Powerful multimedia presentation software tool from LibreOffice suite

LibreOffice Writer
Full-featured word processing and desktop publishing tool from LibreOffice suite

Microsoft Excel
A popular spreadsheet application distributed with Microsoft Office suite

Microsoft Excel Viewer

Microsoft Office
One of the most popular and powerful office suites on market

Microsoft PowerPoint
A presentation program from the Microsoft Office suite

Microsoft PowerPoint Viewer
A free viewer for Microsoft PowerPoint presentations

Microsoft Word
One of the most popular word processor program from Microsoft Office suite

Microsoft Word Viewer
Simple viewer for Word documents

Q: How can I add a button to a PDF form that will send the form as attachment by email with a custom email subject?

A: PDF Studio supports using submitForm as a Javascript action to send the current PDF form by email. Below is an example showing a button with submitForm action and a text field to be sent as email subject. The text field could contain for instance a unique identifier for the data contained in the form, such as the customer name, social security number, or a patient insurance ID which will be sent as the subject of the email.

1. Create a Push Button and a Text field (change the name to MyTextField)

2. Right click on the Button -> Properties -> select Actions

3. Select Add -> select JavaScript action from “Action” list

4. Copy and paste the following code.

5. Change email address, subject and body to contain the information you wish to see.
6. Click OK to apply the save the JavaScript action.

When you click on the button, PDF Studio will ask permission and then open the mail application with the subject, body specified above and the form data as an attachment. e sure your email application has been configured correctly. You can refer to our knowledge base entry to change default email application.

The application docPrint Document Converter Professional is an expert in document conversion which can convert any printable documents to image formats. With this function, you can convert OpenOffice document of odt to jpeg with docPrint Document Converter Professional easily, which only requires three steps.

There are three applications in docPrint Document Converter Professional which is also called as docPrint Pro. They are GUI application which is designed for the batch conversion, command line application which is often used by software developers, virtual printer which can be used to save paper and ink.

The virtual printer docPrint can also be seen as a powerful document converter with a friendly and clear interface. You can print the ODT document to docPrint to launch the application at once. But before using docPrint, you should download docPrint Pro at https://www.verypdf.com/artprint/docprint_pro_setup.exe and install in on your computer. Then you will see the GUI and command line application in the installation directory and the virtual printer in printer list. Please see the conversion steps in the following contents.

1. Run the printer driver.

If you have set docPrint as the default printer, you can right click the ODT document and choose “Print” option to run docPrint directly. Which is the simplest way to run the printer driver. If not, please open the ODT document in OpenOffice and click “File”—“Print” or use the hot key “Ctrl”+ “P” to open “Print” dialog box. There is a Tab Control on the right of the dialog box, please choose “docPrint” as your printer in “Printer” group box of “General” Tab. Then click “Print” button. Please see it in Figure1.

2. Open “Save As” dialog box.

You will see the docPrint main window on the screen after that. There are some function buttons in the toolbar and a small dialog box named as “Option Settings” on the right. You cannot care about them if you don’t want to set parameters to the target files. Just use the methods shown below to open “Save As” dialog box. (1) Click “File”—“Save as” in docPrint window. (2) Click the “Save File” button in the toolbar. (3) Press “Ctrl”+ “S” on the keyboard.

3. Save the target files.

Please see the “Save As” dialog box in Figure2. To finish the conversion from odt to jpeg , you should operate as follows. (1) You can have the target file saved in some location of the computer by setting the file location for the target file in “Save in” combo box. (2) Please input the name of the target file in “File name” edit box. (3) Please choose the right output format for the target file in “Save as type” combo box. (4) Click “Save” button.

The conversion from odt to jpeg will come to the end when the progress bar appearing at the bottom of docPrint window is empty again and you can get the target file in the specified location. Please browse the target file with some kind of image viewing or editing program. You can get more useful information about docPrint Pro at it homepage via clicking here.

## This online PDF converter allows you to convert, e.g., from images or Word document to PDF. Convert all kinds of documents, e-books, spreadsheets, presentations or images to PDF.

2. Choose “Use OCR” if you want to extract text from an image (optional).
3. Choose a language (optional).
4. Click on “Start”.
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### Easily Convert To PDF

If you want to convert to PDF, you will get the option to use OCR. If you have a scanned page or image, you can use OCR to extract text from your file and paste it into the new PDF document. That way, you can easily convert from image to text.

Afterwards, click on “Save Changes” and leave the hard work to us!

### Use An Online Converter

If you find a free converter to turn your files into PDF documents, you should always make sure that your computer or mobile device is safe. By using an online converter, you can be sure that you won’t have to download and install any suspicious programs.

Say good-bye to worrying about malware, viruses or storage space when converting to PDF. On PDF2Go, you only download your edited file and nothing else.

### Why Convert Files To PDF

PDF is a wide-spread and common document format. It’s main features are print optimization and a fixed formatting that allows PDFs to look exactly the same on any device.

This is, for many, enough reason to use a free PDF converter to convert from Word to PDF. With OCR, you can even extract text from images, for example if you convert from JPEG to PDF. Simply check the “Use OCR” option in this case.

### Conversion That’s 100% Safe!

If you have safety concerns you will find them eased. PDF2Go’s PDF converter handles your files 100% securely.

We do not obtain the right of your file and there will be no manual checking. After a certain amount of time, the files will be deleted from our servers.

### Possible Conversions To PDF

DOC, DOCX, ODT, RTF, TXT and more

E-Book:

AZW, EPUB, MOBI and more

Images:

GIF, JPG, PNG, SVG, TIFF and more

Presentations:

CSV, ODS, XLS, XLSX

### Convert To PDF Online

PDF2Go does exactly what the name implies: the online PDF converter works from any device, online, without installation of any additional software. Just use your browser.

Furthermore, PDF2Go provides a free PDF converter. This means there are no costs for you!

You need to convert and download at least 1 file to provide feedback

##### Tip / Trick

Watermarks are faded background text or images that display behind the text in a document. Unlike MS Word OpenOffice’s word processor doesn’t have a specific watermark option. However, with the software’s page formatting options, and an image editing package such as Paint.NET, you can still add a custom text watermark to OpenOffice documents.

Firstly, you’ll need to set up a background watermark image with a photo editing package. Paint.NET is freeware software that has plenty of image editing options. With that software open a blank document, and then click Tools and Text. Before you enter any text, click on the Windows > Color options to open the palette below. There you should choose a light gray text color for the watermark.

You can also alter the text’s direction by selecting Image > Rotate 90 Clockwise. Alternatively, click Layers > Custom Zoom to open the window below. There you alter the direction by entering a number in the Angle box.

Click File > Save, and save the watermark text document as an image file such as JPG. Then open OpenOffice’s word processor, and a suitable document to add the watermark to. Click Format and Page to open the window in the shot below.

There you should click Browse, and then open the watermark image file. Click the Position check-box, and center the watermark text in the middle of the page. Then click OK to close the window and add the watermark to the document as below.

### 3. Compatibility of LibreOffice

LibreOffice is the functional office suite. It has many functions alike with the other office applications. However, compared with them, LibreOffice is opener. For example, Microsoft Office has 3 components, Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. LibreOfficec has the additional functions, draw, base and math. What’s more, LibreOffice can be installed in the USB flash drive, the portable hard disk, and even SD card. That means you can use the software in different scenarios.

Microsoft Office, WPS and LibreOffice are the well-known office applications. Although WPS and Microsoft Office are compatible with each other, LibreOffice run much stably than the others.

LibreOffice is easy to use. For example, it offers the document patterns and it can automatically arrange the imported document. The heading, text, page and paragraph are fixed well in each pattern.

In recent years, Microsoft are attaching importance onto the open-source applications. Therefore, Microsoft Office is gradually compatible well with LibreOffice. Now, the latest PC version and the mobile version of Office can view the LibreOffice documents (i.e. .odt), but also generate the .odt documents. Besides, LibreOffice is free while Microsoft Office should be paid. Therefore, LibreOffice is favored by some users.

Next, we will talk about how to convert PDF to the LibreOffice-supported formats, ODT/DOC/DOCX.

## How to open a PDF file in directly in PDF Viewer instead of in SharePoint?

Hello, i apologize if the title is confusing.

So, whenever users open a PDF file, it’s opened in SharePoint first regardless of the ‘Site Collection Features’ setting for ‘Open in Browser’.

When a user selects a file, only way that person can open in PDF Viewer on Chrome is if they select the below ‘Open in Browser’ button after the file is opened in SharePoint.

Is there anyway to change this so whenever a user opens a PDF file uploaded in SharePoint, it will opened up in PDF Viewer in Chrome directly?

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You would need to develop your own file handler. Otherwise, it will be handled by SharePoint or if you integrate something like Adobe Document Cloud, opened by Doc Cloud (which is still in the browser, but Adobe’s service instead).

In essence, no PDF application out there (such as Adobe Reader) implements a Chrome plugin to automatically open in the desktop application. Chromium-based browsers will always have the PDF open in the browsers’ renderer. Adobe provides a plugin for Chromium browsers that allows you to then click and open it in the desktop, but that’s not quite applicable in this case.

So, until a company like Adobe, Foxit, etc. produce a handler that allows for registration and opening in the desktop application, we’re a bit out of luck here.

There are already numerous browser extension that do this. For some reason the OneDrive/SharePoint sites ignore them.

Wading through extensions is a lot of fun, but does one reputable one jump out? It appears that the Adobe one is on-prem SP only:

@EdwardKim-1648 I could reproduce this issue on my SharePoint environment, and it seems to be by default.

Except the method you mentioned above (“open in browser” from the SharePoint PDF Viewer Page), here are other suggestions for you:
1. Select the PDF file and select “Open in browser” in the ribbon:

2. Select ellipsis next to the file name and Select “Open”->”Open in browser”:

Thanks, i thought this would be handy but i guess a member don’t like this either.

I honestly think he/she is trying to just give me hard time now smh. I’m gonna respond this accordingly

This is not useful because we need the ability to click on a SharePoint link and have it open directly in Adobe Pro. The browser PDF viewers is almost completely useless for business and professional needs. Currently I have about 500 copies of the same file downloaded, because this seems to be the fastest way to open them in a useful application, while maintain live revision control.

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## Background

In a previous article, we talked about how to scrape tables from PDF files with Python. In this post, we’ll cover how to extract text from several types of PDFs. To read PDF files with Python, we can focus most of our attention on two packages – pdfminer and pytesseract.

pdfminer (specifically pdfminer.six, which is a more up-to-date fork of pdfminer) is an effective package to use if you’re handling PDFs that are typed and you’re able to highlight the text. On the other hand, to read scanned-in PDF files with Python, the pytesseract package comes in handy, which we’ll see later in the post.

## Scraping hightlightable text

For the first example, let’s scrape a 10-k form from Apple (see here). First, we’ll just download this file to a local directory and save it as “apple_10k.pdf”. The first package we’ll be using to extract text is pdfminer. To download the version of the package we need, you can use pip (note we’re downloading pdfminer.six):

Next, let’s import the extract_text method from pdfminer.high_level. This module within pdfminer provides higher-level functions for scraping text from PDF files. The extract_text function, as can be seen below, shows that we can extract text from a PDF with one line code (minus the package import)! This is an advantage of pdfminer versus some other packages like PyPDF2.

The code above will extract the text from each page in the PDF. If we want to limit our extraction to specific pages, we just need to pass that specification to extract_text using the page_numbers parameter.

If the PDF we want to scrape is password-protected, we just need to pass the password as a parameter to the same method as above.

## Scraping text from scanned-in images

If a PDF contains scanned-in images of text, then it’s still possible to be scrapped, but requires a few additional steps. In this case, we’re going to be using two other Python packages – pytesseract and Wand. The second of these is used to convert PDFs into image files, while pytesseract is used to extract text from images. Since pytesseract doesn’t work directly on PDFs, we have to first convert our sample PDF into an image (or collection of image files).

### Initial setup

Let’s get started by setting up the Wand package. Wand can be installed using pip:

This package also requires a tool called ImageMagick to be installed (see here for more details).

There are other options for packages that convert PDFs into images files. For example, pdf2image is another choice, but we’ll use Wand in this tutorial.

Additionally, let’s go ahead and install pytesseract. This package can also be installed using pip:

pytesseract depends upon tesseract being installed (see here for instructions). tesseract is an underlying utility that performs OCR (Optical Character Recognition) on images to extract text.

### Converting PDFs into image files

Now, once our setup is complete, we can convert a PDF into a collection of image files. The way we do this is by converting each individual page into an image file. In addition to using Wand, we’ll also going to import the os package to help create the name of each image output file.

For this example, we’re going to take a scanned-in version of the first three pages of the 10k form from earlier in this post.

In the with statement above, we open a connection to the PDF file. The resolution parameter specifies the DPI we want for the image outputs – in this case 500. Within the for loop, we specify the output filename, save the image using Image.save, and lastly append the filename to the list of image files. This way, we can loop over the list of image files, and scrape the text from each.

This should create three separate image files:

### Using pytesseract on each image file

Next, we can use pytesseract to extract the text from each image file. In the code below, we store the extracted text from each page as a separate element in a list.

Alternatively, we can use a list comprehension like below:

This topic shows how to use the classes in the Open XML SDK 2.5 for Office to programmatically create a spreadsheet document.

The following assembly directives are required to compile the code in this topic.

In the Open XML SDK, the SpreadsheetDocument class represents an Excel document package. To create an Excel document, create an instance of the SpreadsheetDocument class and populate it with parts. At a minimum, the document must have a workbook part that serves as a container for the document, and at least one worksheet part. The text is represented in the package as XML using SpreadsheetML markup.

To create the class instance, call the Create(Package, SpreadsheetDocumentType) method. Several Create methods are provided, each with a different signature. The sample code in this topic uses the Create method with a signature that requires two parameters. The first parameter, package, takes a full path string that represents the document that you want to create. The second parameter, type, is a member of the SpreadsheetDocumentType enumeration. This parameter represents the document type. For example, there are different members of the SpreadsheetDocumentType enumeration for add-ins, templates, workbooks, and macro-enabled templates and workbooks.

Select the appropriate SpreadsheetDocumentType and ensure that the persisted file has the correct, matching file name extension. If the SpreadsheetDocumentType does not match the file name extension, an error occurs when you open the file in Excel.

The following code example calls the Create method.

When you have created the Excel document package, you can add parts to it. To add the workbook part you call the AddWorkbookPart() method of the SpreadsheetDocument class. A workbook part must have at least one worksheet. To add a worksheet, create a new Sheet. When you create a new Sheet, associate the Sheet with the Workbook by passing the Id, SheetId and Name parameters. Use the GetIdOfPart(OpenXmlPart) method to get the Id of the Sheet. Then add the new sheet to the Sheet collection by calling the Append([]) method of the Sheets class. The following code example creates a new worksheet, associates the worksheet, and appends the worksheet to the workbook.

## Basic Structure of a SpreadsheetML Document

The following code example is the SpreadsheetML markup for the workbook that the sample code creates.

The basic document structure of a SpreadsheetML document consists of the Sheets and Sheet elements, which reference the worksheets in the workbook. A separate XML file is created for each worksheet. The worksheet XML files contain one or more block level elements such as SheetData. sheetData represents the cell table and contains one or more Row elements. A row contains one or more Cell elements. Each cell contains a CellValue element that represents the cell value. The following code example is the SpreadsheetML markup for the worksheet created by the sample code.

Using the Open XML SDK 2.5, you can create document structure and content by using strongly-typed classes that correspond to SpreadsheetML elements. You can find these classes in the DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Spreadsheet namespace. The following table lists the class names of the classes that correspond to the workbook, sheets, sheet, worksheet, and sheetData elements.

SpreadsheetML Element Open XML SDK 2.5 Class Description
workbook DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Spreadsheet.Workbook The root element for the main document part.
sheets DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Spreadsheet.Sheets The container for the block-level structures such as sheet, fileVersion, and others specified in the ISO/IEC 29500 specification.
sheet DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Spreadsheet.Sheet A sheet that points to a sheet definition file.
worksheet DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Spreadsheet.Worksheet A sheet definition file that contains the sheet data.
sheetData DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Spreadsheet.SheetData The cell table, grouped together by rows.

To create the basic document structure using the Open XML SDK, instantiate the Workbook class, assign it to the WorkbookPart property of the main document part, and then add instances of the WorksheetPart, Worksheet, and Sheet classes. This is shown in the sample code and generates the required SpreadsheetML markup.

## Sample Code

The CreateSpreadsheetWorkbook method shown here can be used to create a basic Excel document, a workbook with one sheet named “mySheet”. To call it in your program, you can use the following code example that creates a file named “Sheet2.xlsx” in the public documents folder.

Notice that the file name extension, .xlsx, matches the type of file specified by the SpreadsheetDocumentType.Workbook parameter in the call to the Create method.

Following is the complete sample code in both C# and Visual Basic.

OpenOffice is a free open-source software suite. Word processing software is part of the suite, which small businesses can use to make invoices. The word processor is called OpenOffice Writer and can create many types of documents.

To make an invoice in OpenOffice, you’ll need to download and customize one of their invoice templates, according to the Houston Chronicle.

Looking for a better way to invoice? FreshBooks’ online invoicing software gets you paid 2x faster.

## 2. Open OpenOffice Writer

Once OpenOffice is installed, open the program. A menu will pop up asking you which application you want to open. Select “Text Document” or “OpenOffice Writer”—whatever appears on your particular version. Now you’re ready to start creating your invoice.

## 3. Select an Invoice Template

1. Go to OpenOffice.org to find invoice templates or click the button on the program’s home screen that says “Get more templates for OpenOffice.”
2. Or from within OpenOffice Writer, click on “File” then “New” and then “Templates and Documents.” A window will pop up. Click on “Get more templates on-line” in this pop-up.
3. Once in the templates page, enter “invoice” in the search bar within the page. In the navigation page in the left hand search bar, filter by application by clicking “Writer.”
4. Choose the format that appeals to you. Click on the template you want and then click the button that says “Download template.” The file should automatically download to your computer.
5. Check that the file’s in your downloads folder. Open Writer and then click “File” and “Open.” Find the file and open it. Or open the file directly from your downloads folder by double clicking it.

## 4. Customize the Invoice Template

Now’s the time to personalize your basic invoice. To insert your logo, click on the field you want it in. Then select “Insert” and “Picture” and click “From File.” A window will open so you can find and insert a downloaded image from your computer. Or drag the image from your desktop or other location directly into the document.

Next, customize all the fields. Add an invoice number and date, add your contact information and the client’s, add products or services plus descriptions and their respective costs, add up the total and add extra details like payment terms or a personalized message to your client.

## 5. Save and Send the Invoice

When you’ve completed your invoice, select “File” and then “Save” to save the invoice on your hard drive. Email the file to your client or print it off and mail it.

## How To Make an Invoice in PayPal

Follow these easy steps to make an invoice in PayPal:

I want to convert a .pdf file to an .odt file so that I can further convert it to a .doc file. Is there any software/script that can do this. I have tried to copy the content of the .pdf file and pasted it in liberoffice writer the formatting isn’t preserved.

The document is confidential so I’d prefer not to use any on-line service for the conversion.

Any help is highly appreciated.

You could take a look at PDF Utilities (poppler-utils via Synaptic or apt-get) which includes pdftotext:

Poppler is a PDF rendering library based on Xpdf PDF viewer.

This package contains command line utilities (based on Poppler) for getting information of PDF documents, convert them to other formats, or manipulate them:
* pdfdetach — lists or extracts embedded files (attachments)
* pdffonts — font analyzer
* pdfimages — image extractor
* pdfinfo — document information
* pdfseparate — page extraction tool
* pdftocairo — PDF to PNG/JPEG/PDF/PS/EPS/SVG converter using Cairo
* pdftohtml — PDF to HTML converter
* pdftoppm — PDF to PPM/PNG/JPEG image converter
* pdftops — PDF to PostScript (PS) converter
* pdftotext — text extraction
* pdfunite — document merging tool

Of course, success will depend on how the pdf file was generated. If you get what you want as a text file, you could then save that as an .odt file.

Edit: I forgot to provide the source for the quote. It’s from the description tab in Synaptic for PDF Utilities (based on Poppler).

## 3 min

This tutorial will show how to open a file selection dialog in LibreOffice, OpenOffice using Macro.

File selection dialog is used to select single/multiple file(s) in various automation activities e.g. opening an OpenOffice, LibreOffice workbook, importing a text/csv file etc.

## Create Objects

Lets define a function which can be used from any macro to open a file picker dialog.

To open a file selection dialog, use FilePicker service of module com.sun.star.ui.dialogs and SimpleFileAccess service of module com.sun.star.ucb . These two service will provide necessary handles to open a file selection dialog.

Declare and create two objects to these services.

The object ucb a.k.a Universal Content Broker provides a way to access various contents via UCP (Universal Content Providers).

## Formatting the Dialog

Before opening the file picker dialog, we need to provide some informations for the dialog. Such as, the file types/extensions (*.jpg, *.png etc) that would be available as filters. Along with file types we will set the default directory to be selected when the dialog is executed.

Define an array containing the file extensions to be loaded in type dropdown. Once defined and filled up, pass it to AddFiltersToDialog function with the dialog object.

To set the default directory which would be opened by dialog, use the SetDisplayDirectory method of dialog object. The ConvertToUrl function transforms the Linux path to a file system path. Say the path /usr to be converted to file:///usr .

## Open the Dialog

Now its time to open the file selection dialog and return the file name. File selection dialog will open when file dialog’s Execute function is executed. It returns two value 0 and 1 based on user actions. If you select a file and press OK, it returns 1. If you press CANCEL in the dialog, it returns 0. When user selects a file or multiple files, it is returned as an array. For this example, lets select one file and return the file name.

And finally execute Dispose to release all the resources.

Now call the function open_file() from another procedure and let’s show the selected file path in a message box.

After running the function pick_a_file() the dialog can be seen and the message box with selected file path.
File Selection Dialog Open using Macro

File Open Output

## Multiple File Selection

One of reader asked in this article’s comment, how to select multiple files and get the names of selected multiple files. So, I have modified above complete macro a bit and it would return the list of file names (full path) that is selected. Only difference is the funtion is defined as Variant and use of file dialog property file_dialog.setMultiSelectionMode(True) and the method file_dialog.getSelectedFiles() .

Complete macro for selecting and getting the names of multiple files is present below:

• FilePicker
• SimpleFileAccess
• AddFiltersToDialog [Refer in dialog editor: LibreOffice Macros & Dialogs -> Tools -> ModuleControls ]
• SetDisplayDirectory

## Looking for Something Else?

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Are you trying to print out the contents of a PDF document in booklet format?

A colleague of mine just told me about a very long and drawn out process he went through to create a booklet for his work. The original file he was given for the project had been created with Microsoft Publisher. He, being a Mac Guy, was using Quark for page design. Overall, it just did not go well.

He copied and pasted elements from the original file into his new Quark file, but ran into trouble trying to impose the pages for printing (this is the re-ordering of the individual booklet pages so that the printed pages, when stacked together and stapled down the middle, will be in the correct reading order.)

To print a typical booklet, 4 pages are combined and printed onto a single sheet of paper – 2 pages on the front and 2 on the back. When all of the printed pages are stacked together and folded, the individual booklet pages should be in the correct reading order.

My colleague went ‘old school.’ He printed out all of the individual pages and taped them together in the right order for printing. Then, he photocopied the results and sent them to the printer to print the finished copies. Technology to the rescue.

### Simple Method To Print Booklets From PDF Files

A much less labor intensive, and higher quality, method is available. This is what I recommended to him:

1. Print a copy of the booklet in normal reading order to a PDF file (this is easy to do and can be accomplished with free software)
2. Using a program like CutePDF Pro ($50), or the PDF Snake plugin ($340) for Adobe Acrobat, open the file and use the booklet function to reorder the pages
3. Print a test copy by printing all of the odd pages first, flipping the paper stack, and then printing all of the even pages (each page in the file will contain 2 booklet pages side-by-side and alternate between the front and back pages)
4. Send the new PDF file to the printer

The computer can do all of the hard work and the results are great. Whenever I want to print out an e-book, I do this step first. I have stacks of booklets created in this fashion.

If you are creating the book in Microsoft Word or OpenOffice, you can set up booklet printing inside the software for each new document. The pages will automatically be reordered when you print. There is also a product called Clickbook that intercepts the file when you hit the print button and reorders the pages before sending them on to the printer. It will work with any program that is capable of printing. The price is comparable to CutePDF Pro.

CutePDF Pro and PDF Snake both offer a free trial version. Hardcore users will appreciate the features of PDF Snake, but most folks will do fine with the cheaper CutePDF Pro.

Created: August 2006

## Description

OpenOffice.org is a free, open source office suite, comparable to Microsoft Office. Although it is often called Open Office, the correct name of the suite of tools is OpenOffice.org, often abbreviated OOo. Several government agencies (including the state of Massachusetts), institutions and individuals use OpenOffice.org as their primary office suite.

OpenOffice.org is not quite as robust as Microsoft Office, but it provides almost all the features your average user will encounter. For those of you familiar with Microsoft Office, the following table should help clarify the similarities between MS Office and OOo :

OpenOffice.org
application
Function Comparable Microsoft
Office application
Writer Word processor Word
Impress Presentation PowerPoint
Base Database Access
Math Equation creator Equation Editor
Draw Graphic editor None

Note: OpenOffice.org saves files to the OpenDocument format or ODF. The extension for files created in OOo Writer files is ODT (OpenDocument text). In this resource, files created in Writer will be referred to as ODT files and Writer Files.

## Product Website

• OpenOffice.org Accessibility Project

## Increasing OOo Writer Accessibility

There are at least two things that can be done to increase the accessibility of OOo Writer documents:

## Save and Export Writer Documents to Other Formats

1. DOC (Microsoft Word document)
2. PDF (Portable Document Format)
3. HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language)

Note: Any time you convert a file to another format, it is recommended that you ensure the accessibility features, such as alt text for images and headers for tables, remain intact.

Microsoft Word DOC format is currently the de facto standard for document creation. If you use Writer you will very likely need to save documents to that format occasionally. That can easily be accomplished by selecting File > Save As > and then choosing Microsoft Word 97/2000/XP from the dropdown list labeled Save as Type. There are other MS Word formats, but this is probably the most reliable. The look of the document may change if it is saved in another format, but the structure of the document should still basically be the same.

It is possible to save an ODT file as HTML, but the resulting file can be bulky and contain a large amount of unnecessary formatting. This is due to an attempt to make the HTML file match the look of the original document as much as possible. In Writer, you can either save a file as HTML 4 Transitional or Export as XHTML 1 Strict. XHTML is the successor to HTML and saving a file as XHTML is almost always better when you have the option in a program. Unfortunately, this is not necessarily the case in Writer.
Both the HTML and the XHTML files created in Writer are problematic, and it is difficult to recommend one format over the other, but the HTML file created in Writer (once it is cleaned up) is usually more accessible than the XHTML file.

#### Save as HTML

The HTML file created in Writer is not valid and uses unnecessary styles, but it is clearly structured and much smaller than the XHTML file; for those reasons, it is probably the more desirable HTML file format. To save the file as HTML, choose File > Save As > choose HTML Document under Save as File Type. The file is saved as HTML 4 Transitional. Once the file is saved, be prepared to clean up the file extensively. More on that below.

#### Export to XHTML

The XTML file created in Writer is valid XHTML 1 Strict, but it is basically one large block of unorganized text filled with unnecessary styles. Files exported to XHTML are not always marked up correctly (e.g., tables headers are not exported as headers). That is why it is usually better to save a file as HTML instead of XHTML. To Export a document to XHTML choose File > Export > and then choose XHTML under File Format.

#### Clean up HTML and Verify Accessibility

Whether you choose to save your ODT file as HTML or export as XHTML, there are quite a few steps that need to be taken before HTML is clean and accessible.

• You may want to start by running your file through a utility like HTML Tidy. Save as XHTML and try to get the tool to remove as many unnecessary tags and styles as possible.
• Make the file as compact as possible. Remove any unnecessary styles, line breaks, etc.
• Remove unnecessary markup. Most HTML editors can help you with this process. If you are familiar with HTML, you can also do it yourself. Here are some (but not all) changes to make.
• Remove unnecessary id , class and type attributes (almost all of them are unnecessary).
• Remove font tags.
• Remove styles in the tag.
• Make sure tags all have a scope attribute.
• Remove

A Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT) is a vendor-generated table that describes to what extent a product complies with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act. There doesn’t seem to be a VPAT on the OpenOffice.org site.

## Featured Item

The NCDAE Accessibility
features
new articles and
resources monthly.

OpenOffice document can be password protected using the Save As option. Click the File menu –> Select Save As option. This would display the following Save As dialog box.

Enter the file name for the document and mark the checkbox with label as Save with password and Click the Save button. This would now prompt the user to Enter the Password to protect the OpenOffice document.

After entering the password, click the Ok button to confirm the changes.

So I password protected it, but when I go back to open it, it doesn’t come up with a box or anything telling me to put in password to open it. It just says that it can’t be opened cuz it has a password on it! I worked HOURS on that paper and now I can’t get it! I know the password, it just doesn’t give me like any box or line or whatever TO TYPE IN MY PASSWORD TO OPEN THE FILE!

Thanks for this solution. Very easy. I Just never noticed the option at the bottom of “Save As”. Another solution was bogus: Under file properties, putting a password did nothing but enable “record changes”

I saved a document and protected it with a password. Put password on a Centrum USB drive. It won’t let me open document. What do I do?

Have you tried opening the document by copying it to laptop or desktop instead of reading it from the USB?

[…] How to password protect a Open Office document This highlights which boxes to tick int he Save As… dialog box. […]

[…] How to password protect a Open Office document This highlights which boxes to tick int he Save As… dialog box. […]

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## Introduction: Make a Database in Open Office

Data Bases can be really helpful. They can be made for personal things, like a CD collection for example, or business, for something like how many cars they have. So now, I’m going to show you how to make a database in Openoffice.Org.

## Step 1: Open Up Base

Open up Open Office.org (Now referred to by me as OO.org) base and select create new database. Then click finish. It will prompt you to save, so save it and name it what you like.

## Step 2: Make the Grid

To start, you’re going to get all of your information in. To do this, you need o make a Table. So, go to The “Table” tab and select the Wizard option. Design view is for advanced people. If you were advanced, you probably wouldn’t be looking at this Instructable right now.

## Step 3: Step 1 of the Wizard

On step one are your fields. Those are the information that will be in your database, whichever way you might choose to present it. As you can see, there’s a picture of a database entry. This is a good example of what fields look like.

So, lets go over from the business bubble, to the personal bubble. (No pun intended)

There, there’s a drop down menu called simple tables, and select CD-collection.

Then add Artist and AlbumTitle to your box on the right. I know that I’m not very good at explaining things, so you should probably check out the pictures.

## Step 4: Wizard Step 2-4

So, now you’re on step two. This is pretty much for advanced users, although there is one thing I use it for. There’s a box for the name of the field, and you can change it. That’s pretty much it. Now you can click next.

Step three is just another advanced feature. Just make sure “Automatically add a primary key” is selected.

Just click next on step 4 and off we go.

## Step 5: Making a Table

I know. Everyone hates spreadsheets. But this one isn’t that bad. Just type in some example artists and albums for your fields. If you can’t think of any titles, just use mine. You should do at least two, so you can use the search and browse capability. When you finish, just File>Save or just click the little save icon in the top right.

## Step 6: Making Forms

Close out your table and go back onto the actual OO.org Base program. Now, go over to the forms option and click on “create form with wizard.”

Step one will ask you what fields you want. You should definitely add you Artist and Album title, but you don’t really need to add ID.

Subforms are just another advanced feature, so skip step 2.

Steps 3+4 are also for subforms, so it just grays those out.

This controls how you want to present your info. I don’t suggest the default, because all it is, is a spreadsheet. I like the “Columnar – Labels on top” one. If you select it, it does give you a preview in the background on what it will look like.

Leave step 6 exactly as it is, and move on.

Step 7 is optional. You can choose the color of the database. And the final step, just leave it.

## Step 7: Look Through You Database

To scroll and look through your database, just click on the arrows on the bottom to look through your entries.

Go ahead. Look at your beautiful database. You finished. Now, just imagine all of the possibilities that lie within this program. Thanks for using my first Instructable. It means something when I know that it actually helped someone out.

## Be the First to Share

Did you make this project? Share it with us!

## Recommendations

### Tinkercad to Fusion 360 Challenge

Keeps telling me that I need to install JRE which I did. Still says needs JRE. I prefer open office but I simply don’t have time to mess with things like that right now. None of Java listed anything for win 8.1 (which is also the worst thing to happen to computers)

If your still having this problem it might be that open office is looking in the wrong location for your JRE, or that you installed JRE in the wrong location.

## Slowpreneur. Web Developer. Author.

I recently received the reMarkable 2 paper tablet and it is everything it promised. I’m excited to use it for work and personal adventures, but for work I wanted to create a document template that would allow me to always make content that is pixel perfect for the tablet. This way there is no scaling necessary and I can even leave in margins for the menu options to stay visible.

This was designed for OpenOffice or LibreOffice, but since it is an open format, I’m sure it can be opened by Microsoft and other document programs. Once you open the file, you can save it as a template using the File menu. After that, it’s simply a matter of selecting File > New > Template and selecting reMarkable 2 from the available templates! When you’re done, Export to PDF and transfer to your reMarkarable using their convenient applications.

## 6 thoughts on “ Template file for Creating PDFs for the ReMarkable 2 Paper Tablet ”

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@Laura
File > Templates > Save as Template

having the same problem as everyone else here.
how do you save as a template.

Do you have any more detailed instructions for Mac? I receive the message that I cannot save the file when attempting to save the file that I have opened via your link.

“Once you open the file, you can save it as a template using the File menu.”

How do you do this? Finding it a little confusing (being quite technologically challenged, har har).

File > Templates > Save as Template in LibreOffice

The software company fCoder has developed several software tools to completely automate the printing of PDF files and other office documents. They can help you save much time if you don’t want to go through a tedious process of running a file’s application, opening each document and clicking through the print dialog windows.

## Bulk printing software

For businesses that print many documents, Print Conductor is a powerful software tool developed to batch print multiple documents without opening them. This intuitive and simple tool is designed for automatic printing of PDFs, images, and other data.

Print Conductor automatically batch prints nearly any printable file, including many standard graphics filetypes (JPG, PNG, TIF), office documents (PDF, Word, Excel), and more. Users no longer need to open each file and print it, which takes time and is inefficient. With Print Conductor, you just add all files that need to be printed, including PDF and Microsoft Office formats, and all the documents get automatically printed.

Print Conductor is compatible with all types of printers, including local, network, and virtual ones. Print Conductor also works with a whole lot of filetypes such as AutoCAD, HTML, images, and of course, PDF and Office files.

## Auto print PDF files from folders

Another software tool, FolderMill, makes the printing of files even faster. Through the use of monitored “hot folders”, users can print a wide variety of file formats. When a Print Document action is set to a “hot folder”, users simply place a document, or multiple documents, into this shared “hot folder” and FolderMill instantly carries out the actions assigned to it.

FolderMill allows printing to multiple printers simultaneously. For example, an employee responsible for printing invoices would place the PDF invoices into a “hot folder” FolderMill would then auto print the PDF files to any printer shared with the employee. Then they can drop some other documents into another “hot folder” in order to send them to another printer.

### Automated file conversion

Besides, auto-printing from a specified folder, FolderMill can convert various file types into the PDF or image format. The program is very easy to use for end users after the initial configuration. All an employee needs to do is place new files into a “hot folder”. Actions can be combined – for example, FolderMill can convert incoming images to PDF and can then automatically print new PDF files.

## Command line document printing tool

fCoder developed a tool for system administrators and developers. It is called 2Printer. 2Printer is another powerful printing tool to auto print PDF and Office files. The main feature of 2Printer as a way to automate the printing of files via the command line interface.

Because of this command line functionality, it is especially popular among system administrators and software developers.

Like Print Conductor, 2Printer is compatible with all printers and the types of file formats supported is pretty much the same and can be used as Print Conductor alternative.

This software tool may even save your money when combined with Windows Task Scheduler. By configuring 2Printer together with the Scheduler, it is possible to:

• run printing at night, when electricity is less expensive
• set up user-unattended printing
• automate printing from a list or a folder

Just imagine: your employees do not even have to be at work to auto print files. Your business can use 2Printer to print all documents required for the next day. When your employees show up for work, everything is printed and ready for use.

This saves time and is incredibly efficient, which, in the end, means lower overhead costs and more profit. Therefore, businesses can get more profit with 2Printer when PDF and Office files are auto-printed with minimal resources used.

To maximize efficiency and eliminate the possibility of mistakes, one can use all these tools together. With the features of FolderMill, Print Conductor, and 2Printer, your business can reduce costs, increase efficiency, and maximize the productivity of all employees.

PDF or Portable Document Format is mostly our first choice when it comes to printing, sharing and emailing documents, especially the large ones. For Windows and MacOS, you might be very much familiar, and also dependent, on the widely used Acrobat products for pdf creation, viewing, and editing. Unfortunately, there is no default pdf creator available on your Linux systems. You can, however, use the LibreOffice products to create and edit PDF files in Ubuntu.

• Create a PDF File
• Convert a document to PDF
• Edit PDF Files

We have run the commands and procedures mentioned in this article on a Ubuntu 18.04 LTS system.

## PDF Creation/Conversion Through LibreOffice Writer

The LibreOffice Writer lets you export your document into a PDF File. Through this feature, you can create a new PDF document or convert an already existing document into a PDF file. LibreOffice Writer is part of the LibreOffice package and is mostly available by default in most Linux distros. If your system lacks it, you can easily install it from the Ubuntu Software Manager:

You can launch the LibreOffice Writer either through the application launcher search bar or directly from the Applications list.

In order to create a new PDF, create a document as you would in any word processor.

When you are done with adding all the text and graphics in your file, click the Export as PDF icon from the toolbar. Alternatively, click the File menu and select Export as, and then Export as PDF. The second method gives you a lot of options for your PDF file creation.

Click the Export button, and name the file if you haven’t already done so. Now your file will be exported as a PDF file.

If you want to convert an already available document to a PDF file, simply open the file in LibreOffice Writer and then export it as PDF. Advertisement

## PDF Editing through LibreOffice Draw

If you are looking for basic pdf editing functions such as editing of text, LibreOffice Draw is the right tool for you. It is also part of the LibreOffice package and is mostly available by default in most Linux distros. If your system lacks it, you can easily install it from the Ubuntu Software Manager:

In order to edit a pdf file, launch LibreOffice Draw from the system Dash as follows:

Then open the pdf file you want to edit from the File menu:

Then make the alterations to your file; I have added some random text to my Dummy PDF file;

You then need to export the edited file to pdf by using the following icon:

This will save the output as a pdf file.

If you get an input/output error while exporting the file, you can save the file by some other name. When you close the file, you do not need to Save the file when you get the following message:

Click the Don’t Save button and your file will be saved as a pdf file only.

After using these LibreOffice products on Ubuntu, you will hardly miss the Acrobat products for PDF creation and editing.

• ← How to block/allow ping using iptables in Ubuntu
• How to Install CouchPotato on Ubuntu →

#### Karim Buzdar

About the Author: Karim Buzdar holds a degree in telecommunication engineering and holds several sysadmin certifications. As an IT engineer and technical author, he writes for various web sites. You can reach Karim on LinkedIn

## What is an ODS file?

An ODS file is a spreadsheet created by Calc, a spreadsheet program included in the Apache OpenOffice suite. It stores data in cells that are organized into rows and columns, and it may also contain charts, mathematical functions, and formatting. ODS files are similar to .XLSX files.

Apache OpenOffice is a free, open-source alternative to Microsoft Office. To save money yet still produce Office-compatible documents, some students and professionals use OpenOffice in place of Microsoft Office.

Calc is OpenOffice’s equivalent to Microsoft Excel. It allows users to create spreadsheets that can be used as project trackers, budgets, to-do lists, and other data catalogs. Calc saves users’ spreadsheets in ODS files, which are similar to Excel’s XLSX files.

ODS files are formatted using the OASIS OpenDocument XML-based standard. This standard is used by OpenOffice, LibreOffice, and other variants, all of which save spreadsheets as ODS files.

NOTE: Apache OpenOffice was previously known as OpenOffice.org.

## How to open an ODS file

You can open an ODS file with various spreadsheet applications, including: OpenOffice Calc (cross-platform), Microsoft Excel (cross-platform), LibreOffice (cross-platform), and Google Sheets (Web, iOS, Android, Chrome OS).

In all of those programs, you can also convert your ODS file to an XLSX file. Note that you may lose some formatting when you open an ODS file in a program other than OpenOffice or LibreOffice or convert an ODS file to another spreadsheet format.

## How to convert an ODS file

Several spreadsheet applications, including OpenOffice Calc and Microsoft Excel, can convert ODS files to other formats.

For example, OpenOffice Calc can convert ODS files to one of the following formats:

• .OTS – OpenDocument Spreadsheet Template
• .XLS – Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet (Legacy)
• .XLT – Microsoft Excel Template (Legacy)
• .CSV – Comma-Separated Values
• .DIF – Data Interchange Format
• .PDF – Portable Document Format
• .HTML, .XHTML – HTML Webpage
• .XML – Extensible Markup Language
• .DBF – dBASE Database File
• .UOS – Uniform Office Spreadsheet
• .PXL – Pocket Excel File
• .SXC – StarOffice Calc Spreadsheet
• .STC – StarOffice Calc Spreadsheet Template

Drop any files here!

### What is a PDF (Portable Document Format) file?

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a universal file format that comprises characteristics of both text documents and graphic images which makes it one of the most commonly used file types today. The reason PDF is so widely popular is that it can preserve original document formatting. PDF files always look identical on any device or operating system.

### How to open a PDF file?

Most people head right to Adobe Acrobat Reader when they need to open a PDF. Adobe created the PDF standard and its program is certainly the most popular free PDF reader out there. It’s completely fine to use, but I find it to be a somewhat bloated program with lots of features that you may never need or want to use.

Most web browsers, like both Chrome and Firefox, can open PDFs themselves. You may or may not need an add-on or extension to do it, but it’s pretty handy to have one open automatically when you click a PDF link online. I highly recommend SumatraPDF or MuPDF if you’re after something a bit more. Both are free.

Developed by: ISO

Initial Release: 15 June 1993

### What is a JPG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) file?

JPG (Joint Photographic Experts Group), is a universal file format that utilizes an algorithm to compress photographs and graphics. The considerable compression that JPG offers is the reason for its wide use. As such, the relatively small size of JPG files makes them excellent for transporting over the Internet and using on websites. You can use our compress JPEG tool to reduce the file size by up to 80%!

If you need even better compression, you can convert JPG to WebP, which is a newer and more compressible file format.

### How to open a JPG file?

Almost all image-viewer programs and applications recognize and can open JPG files. Simply double-clicking the JPG file will usually result in its opening in your default image viewer, image editor, or web browser. To select a specific application to open the file, utilize right-click, and select “Open with” to make your selection.

JPG files open automatically on popular web browsers such as Chrome, Microsoft applications such as Microsoft Photos, and Mac OS applications such as Apple Preview.

The API for converting Word DOC documents to PDF files.

String Authentication secret must be provided as a query parameter. If omitted, token must be provided.

String Authentication token must be provided as a query parameter. If omitted, secret must be provided.

• File
• URL
• File ID

File File to be converted. Value can be URL or file content.

Bool Store converted file on our secure server and provides download URL.

Default: False

String Converted output file name without extension. The extension will be added automatically.

Integer Conversion timeout in seconds.

Default: 900

Range: 10 .. 1200

Bool Run conversion job asynchronously.

Default: False

String Conversion job self generated UUID (RFC 4122) used for getting conversion result asynchronously. Also automatically added to WebHook url.

String Set WebHook URL to call after conversion is finished. Also works for synchronous requests.

String Sets the password to open protected documents.

String Set page range.

Default: 1-2000

Collection Page orientation.

Default: default

Values: default, portrait, landscape

Collection Page size.

Default: default

Values: default, letter, lettersmall, tabloid, ledger, legal, statement, executive, a3, a4, a4small, a5, b4, b5, folio, quarto, 10×14, 11×17, note, envelope9, envelope10, envelope11, envelope12, envelope14, csheet, dsheet, esheet, envelopedl, envelopec3, envelopec4, envelopec5, envelopec6, envelopec65, envelopecb4, envelopeb5, envelopeb6, envelopeeurope, envelopem, envelopeusa, fanfoldusa, fanfoldgerman, lfanfoldgerman

When printing your marketing materials with our local Greenfield print shop, you’ll most likely be asked to provide bleed and crop marks. If you’re outsourcing your printing, you have nothing to worry about. Your professional graphic designer will know what to do!

But if you’re choosing to do it yourself, and you’re making artwork that goes edge to edge, you need to know how to create a PDF with bleed and crop or cutting marks. Not sure how to do that? No problem! In this blog we’ll go over exactly how to create a print ready PDF.

## Understanding Printing and Graphic Design Terms

The printing world has a language of its own: bleeds marks, trim marks, crop marks. What does it all mean? Before we get into the specifics of how to add marks and bleeds to your PDF, we’ll go over basic printing terminology.

### Bleed Marks

If you’re creating marketing material that has a background, shape, line, or image spanning from edge to edge, you’ll want to add a bleed. The bleed area ensures that your brochure, business card, etc. doesn’t have a white edge once it’s cut. Once printed, the bleed marks will be cut off rather than the white margin ensuring that your final product has a clean finish and no weird edges.

### Trim Marks or Crop Marks

The words trim marks and crop marks mean the same thing and can be used interchangeably. They’re the lines printed in the corner of your PDF that tell the printers where to cut. Marks and bleeds work cohesively to make sure colors or images go all the way to each edge of your marketing collateral. Anything past the trim mark will be cut off.

### Content Area

You can think of your content area as your “safe” area! Anything within this area won’t be trimmed or cut off. This is where all of your text, branding, and content will go. Be sure to check that none of it is hanging over the crop marks!

Photo Credit: https://www.pexels.com/photo/turned-on-silver-imac-and-magic-keyboard-with-mouse-326508/

## How Do You Add Bleed and Crop Marks?

As a general rule of thumb, your bleed margins for printing should be 0.25” on all sides. So if you’re printing 3.5 x 2 inch business cards, your PDF should be 3.75 x 2.25 inches including the bleed and trim marks.

1. File > New…
2. Set the four bleed values to 0.25”, set height and width > Create
3. When done, File > Save as .ai > File > Save as .PDF
4. When PDF window appears, Adobe PDF Preset > “Press Quality” > Click “Marks and Bleeds” > Check “Trim Marks” and leave other values at default > Check “Use Document Bleed Settings”

### Add Crop Marks and Bleeds in an Existing Illustrator File

If you already have a file completed and are looking to add a bleed to it:

1. File > Document Setup
2. Set the four bleed values to 0.25”
3. When done, File > Save as .ai > File > Save as .PDF
4. When PDF window appears, Adobe PDF Preset > “Press Quality” > Click “Marks and Bleeds” > Check “Trim Marks” and leave other values at default > Check “Use Document Bleed Settings”

### Adding Print Crop Marks and Bleed Margins to Microsoft Word

If you don’t have access to Adobe Illustrator, that’s okay. You can use Microsoft Word too! Although this option is mainly used to create eBooks. To add crop marks and bleeds to your Word file:

1. File > Page Setup
2. Paper Size > Manage Custom Sizes
3. Click the “+” sign and name it “Edge to Edge”
4. Toggle “Non-Printable Area” > “User Defined”
5. Set all margin values to zero

### How Do I Remove Crop and Bleeds From a PDF?

If you have a PDF with bleed margins that you want to remove, you can use Adobe Acrobat to do so. Once you open the document:

1. Tools > Pages > Crop
2. Drag the crop tool over the document excluding the print marks
3. Double click your mouse inside the crop area to open the “Set Pages” box
4. Enter new size for cropping area. If you’re happy with how it is, you don’t need to make any changes.
5. Choose “Page Range” or select “All” and click “Ok”

## Are Crop Marks Necessary?

If you’re creating a document that is the exact size you want it to be when it’s trimmed, you might not need to add trim marks. If your document will need to be cut, and you have any assets within your printing material the span edge to edge, adding bleed and crop marks are necessary. Otherwise, your final print might have some irregularities on the edges.

## In Greenfield, IN and Looking for a Print Shop Near You?

Look no farther! If you have any questions about setting your PDF up to be printed, we can help. Davant Indy is a Greenfield Indiana printing solutions company that helps individuals and small businesses with their printing, design, mailing, signage, and promotional products.

To get in touch, give us a call at (317) 849-6565 or simply upload your file HERE.

Our tool is easy to use and FREE*

Drop files here or

From Device

Your files are only stored on our servers for 24 hours, after which they are permanently destroyed.

## Combine PDF files online with ease. How can I combine PDF files for free?

### 1 Choose files to Merge

Choose file: drag and drop to upload documents directly from your computer, or upload files from a cloud storage service like Google Drive or Dropbox.

### 2 Adjust order of files

Our Merge PDF tool is the solution for users looking to merge multiple files into a single PDF document. Once files have been uploaded to our system, change the order of your PDF documents.

### Batch Import

With our free & secure online tool, there’s no limit to how many files you can add, or drop, at a time. Batch import allows you to combine multiple files at once. Convert to PDF or convert from PDF, the merging is entirely up to you!

### Merge Online

Want to secure and merge PDF files on-the-go? You can also use the full Soda PDF Online application to convert from PDF and convert to PDF in any browser, on any device. It’s FREE*!

### Work Offline

Merge PDF files even without Internet access. Download and install the Soda PDF desktop app to edit, compress, split, secure and merge PDF files offline.

## How to merge PDF

### How-To Add Pages To PDFs

So, you want to add pages to that PDF file. Maybe it’s a document you’ve already created or one that’s recently been sent your way. But how in the world do you insert pages to an already pre-existing PDF file that just seems reluctant to be modified?

### How-To Batch Create PDF Files

You will only increase your efficiency when you learn how to batch create PDF files. Any file that can be printed to paper can also be converted into the PDF format. With Soda PDF 12’s batch creation process, you can take any number of files, regardless of format, and turn them all into PDFs at the same time.

### How to Combine Documents with Soda PDF 12

Combining, or merging, documents is a very popular feature within the all-new Soda PDF 12 that we just can’t stop talking about. The first step towards combining your documents fast is to make sure that you already have your Soda PDF application (whether Online or via Desktop) open. Once you have our software solution open and accessible, it’s time to combine!

Soda™ is a trademark of LULU Software™.

Use our FREE* PDF converter online website to convert to PDF or convert from PDF files in just a few clicks. Enjoy our easy-to-use software!

Drop file here or

From Device

Your files are only stored on our servers for 24 hours, after which they are permanently destroyed.

### 1 Choose file

Choose file: upload files to our online PDF converter from your computer, or simply drag and drop files into the PDF converter box. You can even upload files from a cloud storage service like Google Drive to our online PDF converter.

### 2 To and from PDF

Free PDF conversion from Word, Excel, JPG and HTML files, or convert to PDF. Use our online PDF converter tool to convert files automatically into PDFs. When you upload a PDF file, select the file type you want to convert to and leave the rest to our free convert to PDF tool.

### View secure files online or offline

Download the Soda PDF Virtual Printer to turn any file into a PDF copy. Use this feature to view and share information, text and pages from documents created in any program by choosing the Soda PDF printer from the print menu. Get our Soda PDF desktop application to edit text, split pages or extract an image from your files or convert to DOCX or PPT files.

### Convert back to the original format

Just because you are uploading a file to convert to PDF doesn’t mean the conversion is final. In many cases, a PDF can be converted back to its original format. Convert back or combine popular file formats for free in Soda PDF to merge convert to PDF files into one document for ease.

# How to create a gradient in gimp

Gimp is one of the most popular open-source photo editing software. It also happens to be free. Due to its customizability, it would be strange if it didn’t offer you a chance to make a unique photo collage.

Making a photo collage in Gimp is a thorough process. There are no apps or plug-ins that would make it easier, so you will have to do it manually.

However, if you want to create beautiful images, go through this guide and you’ll be able to create your personal mosaic in no time.

## How to Make a Grid Photo Collage in Gimp?

To make a photo collage in Gimp, you should follow these steps:

### Creating a Blank Canvas

1. Open Gimp.
2. Click on ‘File’ on the top-left of the screen.
3. Select ‘New’. A ‘Create a New Image’ window should appear.
4. In the ‘Image Size’ section, set both ‘Height’ and ‘Width’ to 1350 pixels.

This will create a blank square within which you can place a lot of small pictures. The best way to do this precisely is to use ‘Guides’. With this tool, you’ll be able to position and center your images evenly in collage squares. You’ll have to create 2 horizontal and 2 vertical guides.

### Creating the Guidelines

1. Click ‘View’ on the top of the screen and then ‘Show Guides’ and ‘Snap to Guides’.
2. Go to ‘Image’ > ‘Guide’ > ‘New Guide’. A new window will open.
3. Select the ‘Horizontal’ direction and enter 450 for position.
4. Click OK.
5. For the second guide, repeat steps 5-7, and choose 900 for position
6. For the first vertical guide, repeat steps 5-7, but select ‘Vertical’ direction and 450 position.
7. For the second vertical guide, repeat steps 5-7, but select’ Vertical’ direction and 900 position.

It’s time to insert the first image into these guides:

1. Click ‘File’ on the top-left.
2. Select ‘Open as Layers’.
3. Find the image and select ‘Open’. The image should appear on the screen with guides over it.
4. Adjust the image to one of the squares in the guide.
5. Go to ‘Tools’> ‘Transform Tools’ > ‘Scale’ to resize the image.
6. Click on ‘Tools’
7. Go to ‘Selection Tools’ and then choose ‘Rectangle Select’.
8. Click and drag the selection over the part of the image that’s in the square.
9. Select ‘Edit’, and then ‘Copy’.
10. Then go to ‘Edit’ > ‘Paste’.
11. Select ‘Layer’ and then ‘To New Layer’.

This will now create the first part of your collage. You should remove the original image’s layer by selecting it in the layer window and pressing the ‘Delete’ key.

What’s left is to add a border to your image and insert the rest of the pictures.

1. Go to ‘Tools’, and click ‘Default Colors’. This will make the background of your collage white. If you want a different background color, select ‘Tools’> ’Swap Colors’.
2. Right-click on the new, modified layer.
3. Click ‘Alpha’ and go to ‘Section’. This will select the image.
4. While the image is selected, go to ‘Edit’ and click on ‘Stroke Selection’. A ‘Stroke Selection’ window will pop up.
5. Select ‘Stroke line’, and click on ‘Solid color’ button.
6. Choose the line width, for example, 30px.
7. Select the ‘Stroke’ button.

This will create the white border for the first image in your collage.

### Adding the Rest of The Images

Now that you know how to add parts of the collage, it is time to complete it.

Repeat the previous steps for each image that you add. Remember to adjust them to the guides to maintain the perfect square shape.

After you finish your collage, you should remove the guides and save the image. To do this, follow these steps:

1. Go to ‘Image’ on the top of the screen.
2. Select ‘Guides’.
3. Click on the ‘Remove all Guides’ button. Now you’ll be able to see your collage clearly.
4. Click ‘File’ on the top-left.
5. Select ‘Save’.
6. Choose the save destination and the name of your document.
7. Click ‘OK’.

This will save the collage to your hard drive.

## Time to Experiment with Collage

At first glance, this process seems long and exhausting. But after you get the hang of it, it will all go quick and smooth.

One of the best parts of making a photo collage is that you can customize it any way that you want. In this article, we used 1350px squares. However, you can adjust the guides to form smaller squares while choosing an even bigger canvas.

You can also modify some guides to be bigger than others, and experiment with sizes and shapes of your collage. So, what are you waiting for? That beautiful collage will not form itself.

In this tutorial, I will show you how to make a simple gradient shape like this one:

So, let’s get started. First of all create a new image with the size 640×400 and click OK. Then select your Blend Tool and down select the foreground color to white and the background color to a light grey. Then down make sure that the Gradient is on FG to BG. Then at the Shape list select Radial and then drag a line from the center to down – right like I did.

Then create a new layer by going to Layer – New Layer or by pressing Shift + Ctrl + N and click OK and then select the Path Tool and click on a place on the image to create a start path and then click on another place and then drag down to make a shape like I did.

Then put another point and drag it like I did.

Again put another point and drag it like I did.

Now to finish the shape: hold Ctrl and then click the first dot you made, just like I did.

Now, my shape isn’t that cool because I did this for this tutorial but you can always change the shape of it and make it like you want. Ok so now we will go to the toolbox window and down we will see a button that says “Selection from Path“. Click it, then grab your Blend Tool and set the shape back to Linear. Then at the colors box select the foreground color and make it with #4ec7ff as the HTML notation and the background color #051955 then drag from the top to the bottom like I did:

Then go to Select – Grow and grow it by 10 px then click OK. You can always make that number larger depending on how big do you want the border to be. Then create a New Layer and in the layer window move this new layer underneath this layer. It should look like this:

Ok now with your Blend Tool grabbed make the foreground color a light grey and the background color a slightely darker gray. Then drag from the top to the bottom of the shape to make the border.

Then go to Select – None. Now the last step is to apply a drop shadow to our shape so go to Filters- Light and Shadow- Drop Shadow and there put 0 to both X and Y and the Blur Radius to 20 the opacity to 100 and uncheck Allow Resizing and click OK. So thats how you create a simple random shape in GIMP. For the text you can do the same thing just that you will need to right click on the text layer and select alpha to selection. I will update this post with the Text effect tutorial when I will have more time since this tutorial is made on the run. So thanks for reading enter my YouTube Channel and subscribe and see you later. God Bless You!!

You probably noticed that the title of this post is a bit odd, but however you got here, I can show you how to draw any kind of shape you want in GIMP using a few simple tools. Like most things in GIMP, there are several ways you can do this job, so let’s start with the simplest one.

## Method 1: Making a Solid Shape

This method will allow you to create solid shapes filled with a single color, a pattern, or a gradient. If you want to create an outlined shape, try Method 2 or Method 3.

### Step 1: Create A Selection

With your image open in GIMP, switch to the Rectangle Select tool using the toolbox or by pressing the keyboard shortcut R.

Click and drag on your image to create your chosen rectangle or square. GIMP will outline the selection and provide adjustment handles at the four corners for resizing, and along each edge for constrained resizing along a single edge (although these will be hidden until you hover the cursor over the selection).

You can also hold down the Alt key (Option on a Mac) and click and drag to reposition your entire selection area.

If you want to be precise about the location without having to place the selection by hand, you can also use the Tool Options panel on the left dock to type in a specific location and size, based on the upper left corner of the selection area.

You’ll need to have started drawing a selection already, and GIMP will reposition it for you based on your input.

Once you’re happy with the size and position of your selection, press the Enter key to finalize it.

### Step 2: Fill Your Selection

Now for the fun part! If you want to fill your selection area with a solid color, select it using the color picker at the bottom of the toolbox. The upper left color swatch is your foreground color, and the bottom right color swatch is your background color.

Switch to the Bucket Fill tool using the toolbox or the keyboard shortcut Shift + B. Check the Tool Options panel and make sure the Fill Type is set to FB color fill (although you can use BG color fill or Pattern fill if you want to), and Affected Area is set to Whole Selection.

Then simply click anywhere inside your selection, and GIMP will fill it with your chosen color or pattern.

If you don’t want to use the Bucket Fill tool, you can quickly fill a selection area with the current foreground color by pressing Ctrl +, (that’s a comma, in case it isn’t clear) or fill with the current background color by pressing Ctrl + . (that’s a period, even though my grammar checker is mad about it).

You can also fill your selection with a gradient by switching to the Gradient tool, which is nested in the toolbox underneath the Bucket Fill tool, or you can use the keyboard shortcut G. Set your Tool Options as desired, and then click and drag anywhere inside your selection to fill with your chosen gradient settings.

You can repeat this process as many times as you want, although I recommend that you put each different rectangle/square/box on a separate layer so that you can move them around independently of each other later on.

## Method 2: Making An Outlined Shape

This method is fairly similar to Method 1, although we’ll use a different technique to create an outline of the selection instead of using a solid color, gradient, or pattern fill.

### Step 1: Create A Selection

Create your selection as before using the Rectangle Select tool. I won’t rehash the same details over again, since this is a fairly basic step.

### Step 2: Apply A Stroke

If you’re not familiar with the terminology, this isn’t some scary medical condition that can affect your image. Instead, applying a stroke essentially means drawing a line or brushstroke around the selection area.

Open the Edit menu, and click Stroke Selection.

GIMP will open up the Stroke Selection dialog box, which is full of all sorts of ways to customize the stroke that will be applied to your selection.

You can apply a simple line, a pattern, or even a paint tool complete with emulated brush input dynamics, although these dynamics won’t be as effective as if you’d actually hand-drawn the stroke.

Choose all your settings, and click the Stroke button to finalize it.

This is probably the most flexible way of creating a rectangle/box/square in GIMP, and it can be combined with Method 1 or Method 3 to create more complex effects.

## Method 3: Drawing Straight Lines In GIMP

If you don’t want to use either of the selection methods, there’s one last option that might work for you.

It’s possible to draw perfectly straight lines in GIMP using one of the many brush tools – and I don’t mean cheating by using a ruler on your drawing tablet, which is silly. Usually, I wholeheartedly approve of silly things, but you don’t want to damage your tablet’s drawing surface!

This method has the advantage that it works with any of GIMP’s brush-based tools, from the Paintbrush to the Clone tool, which creates some interesting possibilities depending on the settings you choose.

Select your chosen tool, and click at a point where you’d like to have one corner of your shape. Hold down the Shift key, and move your mouse to the next corner. While you’re holding the Shift key, GIMP will automatically draw a straight line between the two points, showing the path that your auto-filled stroke will take.

However, that’s only good enough to draw straight lines. For a proper rectangle/square/box, we’ll need to constrain the angle too. While still holding down the Shift key, hold down the Ctrl key as well, which will constrain your angle to 15-degree increments.

That will allow you to draw any kind of straight-edged polygon that you want, from squares to boxes to hypercubes!

Welcome to the second of our tutorial series on Gimp. As we have said before Gimp has evolved into an extremely powerful tool for photographers, having many of the features contained in it’s payware cousin, Photoshop. Today we are going to take a look at one of those features, layers and as before, the best way to do this is by doing something constructive, in this case adding a graduated filter to an image with a dull sky. For the first tutorial in the series, check out the post on how to make your images sparkle using levels and curves.

Open the Image

The image I am using in this tutorial has a potentially interesting sky that needs livening up. Click here to download the image to work along. With the image open in Gimp, check that you can see the layers palette to the right and make sure the layers tab is selected.

Create a Duplicate Layer

First thing we need to do is create a duplicate of our original image. To do this, we go to the main menu and select Layer – Duplicate Layer. We will now see our duplicate layer appear above the original in the layers palette. Unlike Photoshop, in Gimp you do not get the option to rename a layer when creating it, however, you can double click on the layer in the palette to rename it. In this case we will call it Graduated Sky.

Duplicate the background layer

Darken the Sky

Now with the duplicated layer selected, we are going to darken the sky to get the effect of a graduated filter. To do this you can use either the levels or curves tool that we learned about in the previous tutorial. The curves tool is preferable here as it gives you a whole lot more control. As you can see from the image, I have created a luminance curve to darken both the darkest parts of the clouds but also to add definition to the god rays breaking through the clouds. To give the image an end of day, sunset feel, I have also put a slight curve into the blue and red channels. Curving the blue channel down in the mid tone regions adds a subtle yellow feel to the image and curving the red very slightly up has added a touch of warmth. By using the individual RGB curves you can theme your graduated filter to more or less any color. For example, adding a deeper blue to a blue sky. Click OK once you are happy with your curve.

Using curves to get the sky as we want it

Next we are going to use another technique that Photoshop users may be familiar with, adding a layer mask. Make sure your duplicate layer is still selected and from the menu select Layer – Mask – Add Layer Mask. You can also right click on the duplicate layer to do this. Make sure White (Full Opacity) is selected from the pop up dialogue box and click Add.

Set Foreground and Background Color

From the tool box on the right, you will see the foreground and background colors, again very similar to Photoshop. Make sure that the foreground is set to white and the background to black. By default, it is the other way round but by clicking on the reverse arrow you can switch them. If either the foreground or background is not black or white, clicking on either color swatch will bring up a color palette, allowing you to select the correct color.

Use Blend Fill Tool for a Graduated Fill Effect

Using another familiar tool select the Blend Fill tool similar to the Graduated Fill tool in Photoshop. With this tool, we can draw a line from the top of our image down towards the bottom. You need to judge where to stop the Blend Fill, I usually find around one third of the distance from the bottom of the sky to the bottom of the image works well. If you a have more foreground subjects to one side, you can angle the Blend Fill. When you release the mouse, your will see the sky remains dark but your foreground returns to the brightness of the original. If you are not happy with the position of the blend, simply repeating the exercise will replace it with a new version.

Before and After

If you want your sky darker, you now have two options. You can make a further curves correction on the duplicate layer or you can duplicate the layer again and back off the opacity to suit your need.

So there you have it, a simple technique to add drama to your skies using a very powerful yet free image manipulation program.

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## how to make a circular gradient

i’m using a photoshop tutorial to figure out how to make a “waiting animation” (a circle of spinning circles), except i’m doing it with gimp. see http://www.vladstudio.com/photoshoptutorials/?8

i’m stuck on the step where i need to add a gradient layer, that will make the first circle fully visible and then each circle thereafter lighter until at about 270 degrees there is only white.

the tutorial says add a Gradient Fill layer, white-to-transparent at 77 degree angle. I can’t find an equivalent in gimp for “New Fill Layer”.

i tried the Filters | Light Effects | GFlare. this comes close, but all the circles are still visible. i want them to disappear at 270 degrees.

using gimp, how do make a circular transparent-to-white gradient that goes to completly white three-quarters the way around in a circle?

### RE: how to make a circular gradient

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I’m fairly weak in my GIMP skills but I would really like to improve. I’m trying to create a realistic gold surface in GIMP. I’ve created a reasonable image here using the gold gradient, a curve shift for the edge of the medallion, and bump mapping for the pressed image. However the gold needs work.

The gradient lines are too straight and consistent, which may work on specific objects but not so well for the coin.

How can I improve the surface effect?

Here’s my medallion:

And here’s a real medal:

Part of the “problem” for anyone relatively new to Gimp is that there are often many ways to reach any desired outcome and the desired outcome is always a personal preference. Hopefully you will get many answers with alternative solutions.

Based on your description and attached medal, I presume you have been watching “How to create gold medal with GIMP” tutorial on YouTube by Jose Navas which is an ok tutorial and intro to using bump maps in Gimp. The “Gold Gradient” used in the tutorial is not necessarily the best way to start but since you’ve already chosen that path, here are some methods and filters you can play with. Try different combinations. Always first make a copy of the layer you wish to modify. Play with Layer Opacity Values and Layer Blend Modes. Since you already know how to use bump maps, an easy way to proceed might be to search and download “Gold Medal Textures”, open them as layers and use them as bump maps in the same manner as you did with pressed image.

I would suggest you first install G’MIC Plugin for Gimp. That way you have more filters and options.

Some filters you might wish to try:

• Cartesian Transform (Filters -> G’Mic -> Deformations -> Cartesian Transform)
• Gaussian Blur (Filters -> Blur -> Gaussian Blur)
• Random (Filters -> G’Mic -> Deformations -> Random)
• Textured Glass (Filters -> G’Mic -> Deformations -> Textured Glass)
• Cinema (Filters -> G’Mic -> Testing -> Gentlemanbeggar -> 60’s cinema)
• Metallic Grain (Filters -> Gmic -> Testing -> Photocomix -> Metallic Grain)
• Relief Light (Filters -> G’Mic -> Lights & Shadows -> Relief light)
• Brushify (Filters -> G’Mic -> Artistic -> Brushify)

In the samples below I’ve typically used layer opacity values between 20-50 percent so effects are subtle. Hopefully you can see some differencies when zooming in.

If you wish to control lighting options and optionally add realism by using environment maps (much the same way as bump maps), you can try Lighting Effects (Filters -> Light and Shadow -> Lighting Effects. ).

For desired outcome, try different material properties, maps, light colors, intensities, number of lights, lamp types etc.

There seems to be plenty of Photoshop tutorials available so depending on how well you know your way around Gimp you could perhaps attempt to follow one of those tutorials and try to replicate the tasks in Gimp. One good Youtube tutorial is called “How To Create a Realistic Coin In Photoshop“. It introduces some basic concepts and methods that are Application independent and achievable also in Gimp or most any other image editor.

Finally, if you wish to learn more about surface texturing and photorealistic material creation, it might be a good idea to search for Blender “Hard Surface Texturing” tutorials even if you are not a Blender user. Many Blender artists create their weathered hard surface texturing brushes, bump maps, scratch brushes etc. in Gimp.

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In this tutorial I’ll be demonstrating how to create a molten lava text effect with GIMP where it appears as if the letters are made of smoldering magma. This tutorial is a little on the advanced side. You can follow along if you’re a beginner, but I have to warn that you may find it a bit overwhelming.

The following is a brief overview of the steps taken to achieve this effect. Please watch the video tutorial at the top of the page for the complete step-by-step instructions.

## Design Elements

You’ll need the following design elements in order to follow along with this tutorial, so please make sure to download them before getting started.

### Lava Texture

We’ll be using this lava texture several times throughout the tutorial.

### Scratched Steel Texture

This texture will be used as the background image. It is optional but recommended because it does add a nice overall touch.

### Smoke Brushes

These smoke brushes are completely optional. I just added a touch of smoke in order to help sell the design more. The effect looks fine without them though, so you can skip this step if you’d like. Please refer to the tutorial I made about installing GIMP brushes if you need instructions for how to do so.

## How To Create A Lava Text Effect

The first thing we’re going to do is create a new document with a black background and add some white text.

Next we’ll distort the edges of the text using the Distort Selection feature in GIMP.

Now we’ll use the lava texture to create a black and white mask over the text.

Then we’ll create a 3D map of the texture using the Emboss filter.

Now we’ll create another copy of the text and mask it with another copy of the lava texture.

Now we’ll place the embossed layer on top of the newly created lava texture layer, set the blend mode to Lighten Only and adjust the color curves so that the molten lava has more of a raised 3D sort of look.

Next we’ll create a border around the edges of the text, layer it beneath the text, and fill it in with a gradient.

Now let’s lighten up the background a bit by adjusting the color curves, then add a drop shadow beneath the text.

Next we’ll add a white glow to the top left edges of the text in order to give the design a little more dimension. This is achieved by create another white copy of the text, then using a slightly displaced black copy of the text to subtract from it.

Once subtracted, give it a slight Gaussian blue, set the blend mode to Soft Light and duplicate the layer to help enhance the effect a bit.

Now we’ll use our smoke brushes to add some subtle white strokes of smoke across the design. Set the blend mode to Overlay so it’ll have a nice, integrated effect.

The final step is to create a new layer from visible and adjust the color curves and levels in order to give the entire design a polished, uniform look. Again, refer to the video tutorial to see exactly how this is done.

And with that our lava text effect is complete! If you have any questions simply leave a comment below, and as always, thanks for watching!

## Become A Master of Adobe Illustrator!

Want to learn more about how Adobe Illustrator works? Check out my Illustrator Explainer Series – a comprehensive collection of over 100 videos where I go over every tool, feature and function and explain what it is, how it works, and why it’s useful.

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LogosByNick.com is an educational media platform for learning about graphic design software.

## 2 thoughts on “ Create A Molten Lava Text Effect with GIMP ”

Thank you for your tutorial and generous resources. 😊 I’m sort of odd, as I love to learn, but normally hate tutorials. But, yours was not only tolerable, but a pleasant experience. Clear, concise, direct. Thank you so much! (I also learned a new trick, as well, which may be no “trick” to other users, but the workarounds I’ve done to select a layer… Ugh. 🤦‍♀️ Long story short: I gasped, shook my head at myself, but felt thankful that if all else failed I was now fully made aware of the “Alpha to Selection” option.) My text turned out and now I’m excited to check out other tutorials you may have available. Many sincere thanks!

Glad to help, Erica! Thanks for the feedback.

thefakejarvis
Newbie

I recently got GIMP 2.10.4 after previously using 2.8. When initially learning how to fade layers to transparent, I used a tutorial which I will post below. With the new version, I am doing the exact same steps. When I get to “drag a vertical line from the bottom of the image to where you want the fade effect,” NOTHING happens. No gradient, nothing. I’ve tried this several times with the same failure. Did something change with the new version, or am I just completely missing something?

1. Open up the Layers menu [CTRL][L] . If you’re opening just a basic jpeg or png there should be just one layer at this point.
2. In the Layers menu , right click on the layer and select Add Layer Mask .
3. Make sure White (full opacity) is selected and click Add . You should see a white box show up next to the thumbnail of your image in the Layers menu.

1. Right click on your layer and make sure that Edit Layer Mask is selected.
2. Make sure that the Foreground Color is set to Black and the Background Color is set to White in the GIMP tools menu.
3. Click on the Blend Tool (it should be just to the right of Bucket Fill ).
4. Drag a vertical line from the bottom of the image to where you want to stop the fade effect. ( Hint: Hold down the [CTRL] key to help make the line vertical.)

In this GIMP tutorial, we are going to learn how to create a spherical photo collage.

We’ll be using the Ellipse Select Tool and the Spherize filter that comes with GIMP.

To create the reflection, we will use a layer mask and the gradient tool.

We can play around with GIMP’s many tools to add our own artistic effects.

Video: Tutorial How to Create a Spherical Collage in GIMP.

Watch the video for detailed instructions and use the written steps for quick reference. If you enjoyed this video, I highly encourage you to subscribe to my Youtube channel – PhotoEffect.

Export your collage as JPEG format.

Use File>Open. command in the top menu or else just press Ctrl+O to open your image.

The “Open Image” dialog will appear, allowing you to navigate to the file and click on its name.

Navigate through your folders in the Places panel and the Name panel until your images’ name appears in the Name panel.

Click the image you want to open.

When an image file is selected, you can view the preview of the image file at the right-hand side of the box, although it’s not easy to find an image based on a thumbnail.

2. Step 2: Locate the Brushes Folder in GIMP and Drag Brush Kit Into This Folder. …
3. Step 3: Refresh Your Brushes in GIMP. …
4. Step 4: Enjoy!

## How do I use custom brushes in gimp?

/. gimp-2.10/brushes/”). So select that folder and type in a name for the brush. For our example, the brush was named happy.

## How do I turn on pressure sensitivity in gimp?

GIMP: Go to Edit > Input Devices. Select “Microsoft device Stylus.” Set the mode to “Screen.” Pick a brush that uses pressure sensitivity, and start drawing.

## How do you open brushes in gimp?

1. from the Toolbox, by clicking on the brush symbol in the Brush/Pattern/Gradient area (if you have checked the “Show active brush, pattern and gradient” option in the toolbox preferences).
2. From an image menu: Windows → Dockable Dialogs → Brushes;

## Does gimp support Photoshop brushes?

Fortunately, GIMP makes installing and using Photoshop brushes very easy in versions 2.4 and beyond. All you have to do is place the brush file in the proper folder. For GIMP versions older than 2.4, however, you have to convert Photoshop brushes manually, and instructions are probably still available.

## Why can’t I edit brush in gimp?

Look in Edit -> Preferences Folders -> Brushes and by default there are two locations for brushes, your Gimp profile folder and the Gimp installation folder. These have a ‘writeable’ tick box. Do not try and make the Program Files writeable, this only affects the Gimp profile and any extra folder(s) you might create.

## How do I add brushes to gimp 2.10 Mac?

1. Step 1- Find and download the GIMP brushes or abr files you want to install. …
2. Step 2- Open Finder and go to Applications.
3. Step 3- Right-click the GIMP app and choose “Open package contents”.

## Can Gimp use ABR brushes?

GIMP brushes are usually available in . … For the versions 2.4 and above, GIMP makes installing and using Photoshop brushes (. abr file) quite straightforward. All you need to do is place the Photoshop brush files in the proper folder.

## Where does gimp install?

1. In Windows 7 and later versions: C:\Users\\AppData\Roaming\GIMP\2.10 (a.k.a. %APPDATA%/GIMP/2.10 )
2. In Linux: /home//.

## How do I create an ABR file?

1. 1 – Start Adobe Photoshop. …
2. 2 – Open the Brush window. …
3. 3 – Select the brush presets (and groups) to export. …
4. 4 – Export to an ABR file.

## How do I open a Brushset file?

1. Locate the .brushset file in Google Drive.
2. Tap the three little dots.
3. Select Open in.
4. Navigate to Copy to Procreate (if it doesn’t show up, try selecting More)
5. Tada! Your new brush set is imported into the Procreate app.

## What are ABR brushes?

An ABR file is a brush file for Adobe Photoshop, a photo editing program. Brush files include textures, shapes, and other information for use with the brush tool. They allow you to virtually paint shapes and lines with unique colors and textures, rather than just a solid color.

## Where are Gimp brushes located on Mac?

in Gimp, I search Gimp/preferences/folders/brushes. The writable folder is: /users/”username”/library/application support/GIMP/2.10/brushes.

## How do I select brushes in GIMP?

Brushes can be selected by clicking on an icon in the Brushes dialog. GIMP ‘s current brush is shown in the Brush/Pattern/Gradient area of the Toolbox. Clicking on the brush symbol there is one way of activating the Brushes dialog.

## What is the importance of brush in GIMP?

The brush determines how much of the image is affected by the tool, and how it is affected, when you trace out a brushstroke with the pointer. GIMP allows you to use several different types of brushes, which are described in the Brushes section.

## How do I use paint brushes in GIMP?

1. From the image-menu: Tools → Paint Tools → MyPaint Brush,
2. The Tool can also be called by clicking the tool icon:
3. or by clicking on the Y keyboard shortcut.

## Why can’t I paint on GIMP layers?

Check you’ve got the right layer selected

If you’ve got a lower layer selected, the paint will be applied to that instead of the visible top one. GIMP’s right sidebar displays your layers. Select the top layer there if it’s not selected, and then try painting.

## How do I convert ABR file to PNG?

1. Open ABRviewer and select File > Open brush sets.
2. Choose an ABR file and select Open.
3. Select Export > Thumbnails.
4. Choose where you want to save the PNG files and select OK.

## How do I rotate a brush in gimp?

Click “Script-Fu” from the main window and then click the “BrushUtil” option. Click “Resize Rotate Brush” to open a new options window.

## Is GIMP better than Photoshop?

Both programs have great tools, helping you edit your images properly and efficiently. But the tools in Photoshop are much more powerful than the GIMP equivalents. Both programs use Curves, Levels and Masks, but real pixel manipulation is stronger in Photoshop.

## Does GIMP have a virus?

GIMP is free open-source Photo editing software and is not inherently unsafe. It is not a virus or malware. You can download GIMP from a variety of online sources. This is the official website of the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP).

https://www.gimp.org/ is the official website of GIMP. You can feel free to download the GIMP photo editor there.

## How to create a new GIMP pattern

Before creating a new GIMP pattern, make sure that you have administrator access on your computer (or root in Linux). It is because of you will add a new file to the patterns folder under the GIMP installation folder.

If you use Windows, you can run GIMP as administrator by right-clicking GIMP on the start menu and select More -> Run as administrator.

If you use Linux, you can type sudo gimp on the terminal to run GIMP as root.

Once GIMP is open, create a new file by going to File -> New (Ctrl+N). Again, make sure to use a square image on your pattern. To create a square image, use the same values on the height and the width then you can click the OK button to start creating your pattern.

If you have a drawing skill, you can use the GIMP tools to create the pattern. If you don’t, you can simply take an image area you think it’s great to be used as a pattern and add it to the pattern you are working on.

Once you are done creating the pattern, go to File -> Export As (Shift+Ctrl+E). On the appearing dialog box, set the file type to GIMP pattern (pat). Give your pattern a name and set the destination folder. If you use Windows, you can set the destination to C:\Program Files\GIMP 2\share\gimp\2.0\patterns\ . If you use Linux, you can set the folder destination to /usr/share/gimp/GIMP version/patterns . Click the Export button.

Now please try to use Bucket Fill Tool and set the Fill Type to pattern and check if the pattern you have just created has been available. If you can find it, try to restart your GIMP.

Unlike Photoshop, GIMP does not have a built-in 3D tool… booo! No worries. In this GIMP text effect tutorial, I’ll show you how to create 3D text and shade it.

You’ll learn how to create 3D text with GIMPs Long Shadow tool, how to dodge & burn for highlights + shadows, how to use the Path tool to precisely control your edits, and more.

If you’re ready to master this text effect… let’s do it!

Note: the video tutorial was created with beginners in mind.

The following step-by-step instructions are for more experienced users.

## Step 1: Create a New Document

Start off by creating a new document (File > New) with the following dimensions; 1920 for the width and 1080 for the height and #333333 for the foreground color.

Also, this is key, set the resolution to 300 ppi (in the Advanced section). Otherwise, your text will look pixelated. Check out the pro tip for more info.

Pro Tip:

Regardless if I’m working on a design project for online use or for print, I’ll always set the resolution to 300ppi. Why?

GIMP, unlike Photoshop, is 100% pixel-based. In Photoshop, the text is vector based and is not prone to pixelization.

Since we don’t have that luxury in GIMP, you can get around this by setting the resolution higher to minimize pixelization (softness).

When the project is done, I’ll then export an updated canvas with a resolution of 72ppi for online use.

## Step 2: Add Text and Align

This is the easy part! Grab your Text tool (T) and type out in all caps; PIXELS. Or anything you want.

I’m using a free font called Aero for the font type, the font size is 400, and for the color, I’m using #f7e098. Next, let’s align the text to the middle of the canvas.

Grab your alignment tool (Q) and click on the inside of the layer boundary (yellow dashed outline). It’s not enough to have the text layer selected. We need to activate the layer with the Align tool, so GIMP knows which layer to align.

You’ll know the layer is activated when you see 4 light-colored squares (one in each corner of the boundary). Next, locate and click the following two icons labeled…

Align center of target Align middle of target

## Step 3: Create a 3D Shadow

I have a secret to reveal. GIMP has a 3D-like tool! It’s used mostly for creating long shadows, and it’s known as, well, Long Shadow! Let’s access it to make your 3D text effect.

First, let’s duplicate our text layer so we can work non-destructively. Rename the layer by double-clicking on the layer name and name it; 3D Shadow. Also, for this effect to work, you’ll need to increase the layer boundary size. Otherwise, the shadow will be confined to it.

Layer > Layer to Image Size

What color would you like for your long shadow? I’m using the following hexadecimal number, representing my chosen color if you’d like to use the same one; #e9be43.

Next, decide on the angle and length for the shadow. I’ve set mine to 149.61, and the length is 45. Now, move the 3D layer below the original text layer.

To assist with the shading, we’re going to add a gradient to the 3D shadow. Grab your Gradient tool (Shift + B), set the foreground color to; #e9be43, and the background color to; #d2911e.

Then, in the Gradient panel (Windows > Dockables > Gradient), choose the FG to BG (HSV clockwise hue) option. Within the Tool Options, make sure you have the “Shape” set to “Linear.”

Next, select each letter of your text. This way, the Gradient is applied only to the letters and not the entire canvas. Right-click on the 3D Shadow layer and select “Alpha to Selection.” Once selected, apply your gradient and deselect.

Although the gradient has provided some highlights and shadows, it’s not perfect. For example, in my design, the top of the letters is brighter vs. the bottom.

Therefore, our minds assume the light is coming from above. That being said, the letters’ base should be even darker since their further from the light.

To fix this, I’ll use my Dodge & Burn tool to darken my text’s specific areas. When “Dodging,” you create a lighter edit, and “Burning” makes it darker. Applying either option is done with a brush.

The only problem is the bottom of the letters has a hard (straight) edge. To control where your edit is applied, you can make a selection, and the edit will be used within it.

For example, the bottom of the letter “P” is a rectangle shape. You can use your Path tool to select this and then apply the Burn tool within.

It’s so much easier to show you vs. writing it out. Check out this part of the video to see how I’ve done the shading.

## Action Is Power

Now it’s your turn to complete this project, and I want to see your final design too…

Would you like to see how to process this design in Photoshop? If so, check out the Photoshop tutorial and article.

For whatever reason, flames are neat looking. I’ll leave it to psychologists to explain exactly why that is. All I know is that things on fire usually look cooler than things not on fire. To me, that also includes my wallpaper. As regular readers may know, I like to create my own abstract wallpapers and I’m a fan of the Gimp. Today we’re going to use Gimp to create flame wallpaper for your desktop. This process will work on any system that can run Gimp (Windows, Linux, OSX) without any additional plugins or textures.

### Background

You’ll probably want to start with a solid background color. Even if you’re not going to use it in the final product, it helps to have something to contrast the flames. In this example, we’ll be using a black background on a 1440×900 image.

### Flame Layer

In the Layers dialog, click the “Add New Layer” button. This can also be done by right-clicking the white space and choosing “New Layer“. When asked for details, enter “flame” for the name and make sure Layer Fill Type is set to Transparency.

You should now have one solid black Background layer and one transparent Flame layer.

We’re going to start with a simple gradient to form the base of our flame. From the toolbox window, choose the Gradient Tool. In the options section, look under Gradient for Burning Transparency.

To apply it to the canvas, make sure you’ve got the Flame layer selected and drag the cursor from the top of the canvas to the bottom with the left mouse down. Your canvas should now look something like this.

### Optional – Coloring

Normal flames are great and all, but if you want some variety, this is a great spot to try messing with the colors a bit. Gimp has a huge variety of color tools for different purposes, but for a quick and simple change of hue, try the Colorize option from the Colors menu.

### Warping

Now we’re ready to create the actual flames. For that, open Filters -> Distorts -> IWarp. We’ll be using a few of the options in this tool, but for starters chose the Move tool and set Deform Radius to 30. The preview window on the left is interactive, and dragging your mouse in a zigzag pattern across it will warp the image according to your movements.

You can now reduce the Deform Radius if you wish, and continue dragging across the preview screen to make finer adjustments to the overall shape.

And now to give it a little more spice, we’re going to use a slightly different warp. Instead of the Move option, change the Deform Mode to one of the Swirls (either clockwise or counter clockwise, it makes little difference). Choose a radius you think is appropriate, and drag some swirls across your preview pane to see how it affects the image.

After clicking OK, you should see your flame rendered nicely to your canvas.

### Touchups

If things aren’t exactly the way you want them, the two tools I’d recommend for touchups are the Eraser tool and the Smudge tool. Use the eraser with a fuzzy circle to smoothly remove portions of your image. It sometimes helps to reduce the opacity of the brush to help prevent sharp edges, even with the fuzzy brush. Smudge makes it easy to add and extend your flames. Just drag the mouse across a section of flame much like IWarp’s Move tool.

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Josh Price is a senior MakeTechEasier writer and owner of Rain Dog Software

## Co-founder of Connectifier.Investor at C3 Ventures.Google and CMU alum.

In my last post, I mentioned that I installed GIMP to read a Photoshop .psd file. If you’re not familiar with GIMP, it is an extremely high quality free alternative to Photoshop. Using GIMP, I have been able to create several graphical effects with little effort. In this post, I will show you how I created the logos for Lumidant and Moon Rock Media using GIMP.

Moon Rock came to us and wanted a “cliché web 2.0 design”. Basically that means they were asking for gradients, mirrored surfaces, reflections, and shiny or glossy images. To begin the logo, I created a gradient background. Select one color of gray as the foreground and another as the background. Then choose the gradient tool and drag it vertically from the top of the image to the bottom. Play around with this for a little to get a feel for the tool. Once that was completed, I used the text tool to write moon in blue and then rock in pink. I then chose the dodge/burn tool to alternately dodge and burn the pink letters:

Once I was certain the text was how I wanted, I stacked the two text layers to become a single layer, making them easier to work with. To mirror the text, you simply Duplicate Layer and then Flip Vertically. Position it below the original text. Now, under the transparency menu, Add Alpha Channel to the layer. This will allow us to make use of transparency. If the option was grayed out, then your layer already has an alpha channel, so you can just continue to the next step. The final step is to create another gradient effect. We want to use the gradient to hide the portion of the reflection we don’t want to see. I changed the foreground to black. Most importantly, you must click the picture of the gradient you’re creating in the gradient tool options and select “FG to Transparent”. Now drag the gradient tool up vertically over the text. This will hide most of the text with a black gradient:

Since we don’t want the black to show in the final logo, select Color to Alpha and choose black. Now the black will have disappeared leaving you with a finished reflection effect:

In the Lumidant logo on the Lumidant homepage, the lighthouse searchlight or spotlight was also created using gradient effects. To create a spotlight, first create a new layer. This is important because we will duplicate the layer later and only want the spotlight itself duplicated. Draw the outline of the light you’d like to create by using the paths tool. I created the light by drawing a long triangle. After you have drawn the third point and would like to connect back to the first, hold Ctrl and click on the first point. This will close the shape. Then hold Ctrl, click on the short side of the triangle, and drag it outwards. This will round the end of the light. Turn the shape into a selection by clicking “Selection from Path”:

Now, we get to use the gradient tool again. Having created the spotlight-shaped selection, we can draw inside the selection and nothing outside of it will be affected. Select white and “FG to Transparent”. Drag the gradient tool from the point of the triangle to the end of the rounded section. Now Duplicate Layer. Add a 4px Gaussian Blur filter to one of the layers. In the “Layers, Channels, Paths, Undo” menu bar (referred to as a dialog by GIMP), select the layer that you blurred and move the opacity down to 80. Now choose the original spotlight layer and move the opacity down to 20. Hooray! You’ve just created an awesome looking spotlight.

Thanks everybody. Combining everybody’s suggestions here with a bunch of experiments got me the result I wanted. Rich2005’s advice nearly got me there but I couldn’t persuade the “sort palette” tool to do its job correctly. Anyway, I’ve documented the process this time, so I’ve added my notes below.

And to illustrate the result:

This image is a NASA solar flare photograph that had to have been colourized with a gradient map because these are captured at one wavelength — but it’s a good choice of colours (warning: 4096×4096 pix):

This NASA sunspot image is coloured blue for some reason:

So using the first as a reference, I colorized the second to give:

Create gradient map from reference image for colourizing other images

———————————————————————
( The reference image should be a greycale image that had itself been
colourized by somebody with a gradient map, so this process is

file -> new -> 1024×64 (new image needs to be this wide for some reason)
view -> snap to canvas edges
foreground colour: black, background colour:white
blend tool -> shape: linear, no dithering, colour: FG to BG (RGB)
drag mouse from bottom left to bottom right of new image
(that gives greyscale gradient from back to white across the image)
colours -> map -> sample colourize:
sample: reference image, destination: greyscale gradient image
get samples, apply
colours -> info -> colourcube analysis
(that shows 265 unique colours, which is the correct number already)
image -> mode -> indexed: optimum palette, 256 colours
windows -> dockable dialogue -> palette
(this dialogue already shows the palette of the indexed-image at the top)
palettes -> right-click “colourmap of image #2” -> palette to gradient
windows -> dockable dialogues -> gradients
gradients -> double-click “colourmap of image #2 -> rename it -> enter

(Done. It’s saved as the file

can now be used to colourize other images.)

Load image to be colourized into Gimp
colours -> map -> gradient map.
Done.

The color of gold. What a precious sight. Wouldn’t you agree?

In this GIMP tutorial, I’ll show you how to turn anything into gold! Here are just a few of the things you’ll learn how to do;

How to remove a background How to use layer masks How to convert an object into gold The Key to turning objects into gold How to create a gradient stroke on text . and more

## Step 1: Create a New Document & Add The Provided Image

For this photo project, I’ll use the following dimensions; 1920 for the width and 1080 for the height. Let’s set the canvas color (foreground) to black.

Here’s the image we’ll be using. Once downloaded, drag and drop over the GIMP interface. After releasing your mouse button, the image will be added as a new layer.

Double click on the layer name to rename it to; “Original.” Next, duplicate the layer and rename it “Car.” Turn off the visibility for the Original layer.

Next, re-size the image to around 1200 px wide using the Scale tool (Shift + S). Instead of typing in width via the Scale window, hold down your Ctrl key, click and drag in. This will allow you to re-size the image from the center.

## Step 2: Remove the Background

Removing a background in GIMP is easy with the right tools. The first thing you have to do is make a selection of the background. But the question is which selection tool; Foreground Select tool, Fuzzy Select tool, Free Select tool, or something else?

Actually, any one of these is perfect for the initial selection. However, you may need a second tool to refine the selection.

Let’s start off by selecting the car with the Free Select tool (F). Draw around the car and try to get as close to the edge as possible. It doesn’t have to be perfect since we’ll use another tool to refine the selection.

Once you’ve made it back to the starting point and release your mouse button, the selection will be revealed. Now, turn on Quick Mask Mode (Shift + Q). This adds a red overlay on the outside of your selection. So, anything without the red overlay is part of your selection.

To add or remove from the selection, you’ll use a brush. Grab your Brush tool (P) and set your foreground color to black and apply the brush. Black removes from the selection, and white adds to the selection. Remember that anything in red is not part of the selection.

Adjust your selection as needed and press Shift + Q to de-activate Quick Mask Mode. Then, add a Layer Mask (white), Invert (Ctrl + I) the selection, and hit your Delete or Backspace key.

Then, Deselect with Shift + Ctrl or Command + A. Finally, duplicate the layer, right-click on it and select “Apply Layer Mask.”

Video: Create a Simple Sunset Scene In GIMP.

Watch the video for detailed instructions and use the written steps for quick reference. If you enjoyed this video, I highly encourage you to subscribe to my Youtube channel – PhotoEffect.

1. Open Image in GIMP.

The Open Image dialog.

For this GIMP tutorial, I’ll use this image, 298315, downloaded from Pixabay.

Image used in this GIMP tutorial.

The New Layer dialog box.

A new, transparent empty layer, added to the layer stack of the image, just above the active layer.

Click the foreground color box.

Fill the layer with the foreground color.

Change the duplicate layer blend mode to Multiply and adjust its opacity.

Click Save to store the project file.

Once you have finished, you will probably also want to export the image in a more widely used format, such as JPEG, PNG, TIFF, etc.

## Introduction: How to Make a Cool Icon for Websites With Gimp

Gimp is an good image editor, and a good alternative to Adobe Photoshop. In this Instructable, I will be showing you how to make a good icon for websites (YouTube, Facebook, Myspace, Twitter, etc.)

## Step 1: The Basice

In this step, we will be making the image size.

1) Go to File>New
2) Create the image at 250×250 then click Advanced Options. Under Fill With:, use Transparency
3)You will now have a screen similar to the one below (Third Image)

## Step 2: The Gray Background

To do this, first make a circle the size of the document. Then go to the gradient tool and select the brushed aluminum gradient. Then make the gradient go from left to right. Please follow the pictures below for more help.

***IMPORTANT*** Well, kind of. Be sure to create a new layer so we can revert back if we screw up.

Right click on the aluminum layer and click “Alpha to Selection”. Go to the new layer you created, and go to Select>Shrink. And shrink the selection by 5-10 pixels. Now go to the gradient tool and pick FG to BG. Now set the corresponding colors (First=FG Second=BG) To the colors you like. I picked a black to a red. Do a straight gradient from top to bottom.

## Step 4: The Gloss

***IMPORTANT*** Well, kind of. Be sure to create a new layer so we can revert back if we screw up.

First, select the area you would like the glossy area to cover. Now fill this area with white. Go to the layers pallet and make sure the new layer you created is selected (It should have the white “gloss” part) and tone down the opacity to your likings. It’s O.K. if the gloss goes into the background, we will fix this now. Right click on the layer with the gradient that we created and click “Alpha to Selection”. Now go back to the gloss layer. Make sure the color gradient is still selected, even though we are on the gloss layer. MAKING SURE YOU ARE ON THE GLOSS LAYER, go to Select>Invert and hit the delete key. This should get rid of the extra gloss.

## Step 5: And Finally, the Text

This couldn’t get any simpler. If your layers are in my order, they should be, and if not you did something wrong. Click on the colored gradient, which should be UNDER the “gloss” layer. Select the text tool. Put your text wherever you please, and it will be under the gloss layer, giving some (or all) of the text lighter.

## Step 6: The Final Result

If you have done everything correctly, it should look a little like this!!

## Be the First to Share

Did you make this project? Share it with us!

### In Windows XP

Install GIMP brushes

GIMP Brushes and gradients are installed similarly – extract and drop the brushes into C:\Document and Settings\ \.gimp- \brushes\ and gradients into C:\Document and Settings\ \.gimp- \gradients\

## Installing GIMP plugins

Plugins are bits of code that work with GIMP to add to the functionality. They may offer several exciting ways to extend the utility of the program. Plugins can be saved by unzipping the downloaded folder (if it is in a .zip format), and placing them in C:\Document and Settings\ \.gimp- \plug-ins\ . Restart GIMP, and the plugin will be activated.

## Installing scripts in GIMP

Some of the plugins are actually scripts, ending with a .scm extension. In such cases, drop them to C:\Document and Settings\ \.gimp- \scripts\ instead.

### In Windows Vista

If you use Windows Vista, you might have to go to your profile folder (the folder under which your documents, pictures etc. are located) to find your brushes, scripts etc.

### In Mac OS X

Brushes can be installed by dropping them (.gbr files) into the brush search path that is specified in GIMP’s preferences. If you have not tweaked anything, this is usually

where x.y denotes the version number of GIMP you are using (version number is visible in the GIMP startup splash page). Note that you should replace ‘username’ with your short username (not the full name).

### Install GIMP brushes in Linux

Go to your Home folder. You have to make hidden files/folders visible, so hit Ctrl+H. Go to the directory named .gimp-2.x (where 2.x is version number of GIMP you are using). Within that folder, there are subfolders, one of which is brushes. Drop your brushes to that folder.

### Do Photoshop brushes work in GIMP?

GIMP is open-source, and is hence flexible in application. Many of the Photoshop plugins and brushes work with GIMP, and it is a matter of trial-and-error. Note that using Photoshop brushes in GIMP requires GIMP 2.4 or above.

## GIMP tutorial: Striped background

This tutorial will show you how to create quickly some stripes to add to an image (for example, the image on the right here with some thin diagonal stripes)

Most tutorials depends on the use of a pattern with stripes, but here we will use gradients.
The gradient method allows to create quickly stripes of any size and any angle.

The drawback is that, even if you could use this for an illustration, it won’t work as a tileable pattern (for a webpage for example). If you don’t plan to do a webpage, it’s ok 😉

1) Create a new image (the size doesn’t really matter, choose 800*600px or whatever you like, it’s just an example).
2) Select any gradient you wish (even the default FG to BG).
3) Select the gradient tool. In the tool options, set “Repeat” to “Sawtooth” like show here:

4) Now use the gradient tool to draw a short gradient on your image, like shown below. The angle of the “stroke” will give the angle of the stripes (x90°) and the lenght of the stroke will give the width of the stripes.

5) On the left image, you can see that there’s some ugly pixelation effect. Thick the “Adaptative supersampling” box in the tool options, and then you should have a much smoother result, as shown on the right image:

Anyway, that still not very nice looking, right? But these are some stripes, at least :p. We just have to use a better gradient to create something like this for example: ( please forgive the ugly jpeg artifacts – it looks like this blog host likes to re-save images with an awful compression :/ )

The gradients from the set use the Foreground and Background colors, so no need to edit them to change the colors (but you can edit them to change the width of some stripes). Here are some small examples with various FG/BG colors (and also different “shape” settings: linear, radial and spiral) ( yarrrgh, the ugly compression strikes again )

An example setup:

Use the “Make new gradient” button on the bottom of the gradient list dialog(Ctrl+G), it will open the gradient editor. The default gradient is a black to white one.
Right click on it and choose “Split segment at Midpoint“.
Then click on the left part of the bottom bar (where there’s the triangles) so the left segment is selected. Right-click and select “Left Color Type > Foreground Color“. Do the same for the “Right Color Type“.
Then select the right segment (click on the right of the bottom bar), and do the same for the Left and Right Color Type, but with Background Color, this time.
You can then move the bottom triangles to change the width of the left and right segments.

Now you have a simple 2-colors gradient that can be tweaked to get various effects. For the image at the top of the tutorial, I just added some black and whites stripes on a new layer, and set it to “overlay”, so the colorful base image was visible.

These gradients can be used both in GIMP
and Inkscape.

Two methods exist for importing gradient files into an already open Inkscape document. The first is to use your window manager to drag a file and drop it onto an open Inkscape window. The second is to use the File → Import. (Ctrl+I) dialog.

Imported Gradients will appear in the Inkscape

To Use these Gradients in GIMP you have to

Alternatively you can place them anywhere you
want and point to those folders in program
options.

to fill the selected area with the gradient of
choice.Gimp has a powerfull Blend Tool with lots
of options.

Another use for gradients is to use them while
painting. Pencil, Paintbrush and Airbrush tools
have options to use color from grandient instead
of foreground color.

If you use a pressure sensitive tablet pen there
is a choice to use a color from gradient under
pressure sensitivity dialog.

Any B&W image can be remapped to a gradient under

You can import a new palette from any gradient.

attempt to make Common Atmospheric Effects
done in 3D programs in GIMP at ease of
drawing a Gradient from bottom of image to top
with Blend Tool.

There are many Basic Gradient possibilities
that done for a quick visual reference and
These are playings with pure form of primary
and secondary colors along with white and
black.

There are also a few modifications of original
Gimp Gradients like neons in new colors, and a
few unclassified new gradients that neither fit
in atmospheric nor basic.

There are several tutorials around about GIMP’s quickmask feature, but none of them tell you how to do what I always want to do: make an image fade to transparent around the edges, e.g. for putting it on a web page. With the help of some folks on #gimp, I now know how to do this, and want to share it with the world.

I first made this tutorial drawing gradients on each edge of the image. Immediately someone on #gimp suggested a better way, and later I thought of a still quicker way. So I’ll offer a couple of different approaches.

Here’s a different tutorial showing how to do the same thing using a layer mask.

## Method 1 (fastest): quickmask with a fuzzy rectangular selection.

 Step 1: Get your image. Step 2: Make the quickmask. Click on the quickmask button — the button at the lower left of the GIMP window with the red rectangle on it. You want a quickmask over the whole image. The quickmask appears as a reddish transparent layer. Step 3: Make a fuzzy rectangle selection. In the Rectangle Selection Tool Options dialog, check Feather and select your desired radius. Then make your rectangular selection. Step 4: Invert the selection.

This method is harder and more time consuming (don’t be fooled by the fact that it has fewer numbered steps: Steps 4 and 6 can take a while to get right). But if you need a lot more fuzz than you get with featured selection and Blur, or if you need more control in order to get specific effects (angular fades, different fades on different sides, nonlinear fades, etc.) then Method 2 might be just the ticket.

Before we get started, let’s take a look at the image we’ll be creating.

Create a new document in Gimp, I used 800×600 pixels. Then fill the background layer with black.Create a new layer and named it as circle 1. After that select the layer and using the Ellipse Select tool, create a circle in the middle of the canvas.

Now set a radial gradient for the circle. Select blend tool and choose white color as our foreground. At blend tool option choose FG to transparent gradient. Tick the reverse box. Set the offset to 40 and Radial for the shape.

After that duplicate the layer two time and i named it as layer circle 2 and cirle 3.

Now we will start to playing with the circle. Select layer circle 3. Move a bit to the top and to the left.

Duplicate layer circle 3 and arrange it like this. Don’t forget to rename this layer as layer circle 4.

Repeat the previous step,duplicate it and named it as layer circle 5. This time move it to top right.

We have 5 layer circle and set all the layer to Screen mod.

Okay, the next step is duplicate layer circle 5,i will named it as layer circle 6. Move it to to the top and to the left.

Then change the layer mode to Overlay.

Now duplicate the layer circle 6 two times and move it to the right.

So now we have 8 layer circle. Create a new layer and named it as gradient.

Select Blend tool. Use Deep Blue Gradient , 100 for the opacity and Linear for the shape.

Apply our blend tool to the gradient layer.

Then change the layer mode to Overlay.

Next duplicate the gradient layer.Drop the layer opacity down to 60%

Now create another gradient layer and named it as reverse gradient because i will reverse the gradient color.

Change the layer mode to Overlay. You will see nice color there..

We will add some light to the circle. Create a new layer and named it as light.

Using the Ellipse tool draw a small white circles.

Go to Filters>Blur>Gaussian Blur. For this first layer use 60 pixels for the Horizontal and 60 pixels for the Vertical. Click OK.

Duplicate it and place them in the parts where are the lights. Change the layer mode to Soft Light.

Final Result

If you want to add more light effect just duplicate the light layer. If you want to create a version with different colors just play with the gradient color..It’s just a simple and nice tecnique and i hope you enjoy this tutorial..cheers! 😀

In this tutorial I’ll be demonstrating how to use GIMP to create a dual lighting effect where it appears as if the subject has colored lights shining on them. The colors I’ll be using in this demonstration are pink and blue.

The following is just a brief overview of the steps taken to achieve this effect. For complete step-by-step instructions, please watch the tutorial video at the top of the page.

## Dual Lighting Effect with GIMP

For this tutorial I’ll be using the following example photo…

The first step is to create a duplicate of the layer and remove the saturation so that it is complete grayscale.

Next, we’ll add a new blank layer on top and fill it with pink. For this demonstration I used HEX #ff5bba but any shade of pink should work.

Now set the blend mode of the pink layer to Overlay, then create a new layer from visible. By now it should look something like this…

Now we just have to repeat the same process, only using blue instead. I used HEX #039be5.

By now you should have one pink layer and one blue layer positioned on top of each other. The order doesn’t matter.

Now it’s time to blend the two layers together. To do that, we’ll be adding a layer mask and applying a gradient of black and white to reveal one half of the layer over the other.

This should result in one side being pink and the other side being blue.

All we have to do now is make some adjustments to the color curves to make the final image look more refined and uniform. Refer to the video tutorial to see the exact adjustments to make.

And that should do it for today’s tutorial. That is how you can create a dual lighting effect with GIMP. If you have any questions just leave a comment below. As always, thanks for watching!

## Become A Master of Adobe Illustrator!

Want to learn more about how Adobe Illustrator works? Check out my Illustrator Explainer Series – a comprehensive collection of over 100 videos where I go over every tool, feature and function and explain what it is, how it works, and why it’s useful.

How do I create a split-tone effect in GIMP?

Here is an example of the effect I am looking for.

The effect is not a single color, but a gradient map, where everything between black and white is replaced with a transition between two colors. To create this effect in GIMP, you would first set the active foreground and background colors to the colors that you want to map to black and white, respectively:

The source image should have good contrast for best results:

Make sure that the the active gradient is set to “FG to BG (RGB)”, which is the default, then from the “Colors” menu, select “Map>Gradient Map”:

One way I often achieve a similar look in Gimp is the following:

• Convert your source shot to black and white,
• Duplicate the Layer, so you have to similar b/w layers, I will call them “light” (top layer) and “dark”.
• Select your “light” layer (not its layer mask!), go to ‘Colors’ -> ‘Colorize’, choose the hue for the lighter areas of the picture. I tried to mimic the middle one of your example, so I chose a hue value of 5. In this case, set Saturation to its maximum Value. I also had to reduce Lightness by 20.
• Select the “dark” layer, again select ‘Colors’ -> ‘Colorize’, choose the hue for the darker areas. Normally you get a good effekt by choosing a hue that is roughly the opposite color (add or substract 180 degree to the light hue). Again to mimic your example I chose hue 266. Saturation to the max, Lightness -20.
• To tweak the shift between light and dark and also the color contrast, you can now play with the layer mask of “light”. For that I suggest using the ‘Levels’ tool in the ‘Colors’ menu. I increased the contrast of the layer mask by changing the lower Input level to 80 and the upper one to 180. The middle value can be used to get the right dark/light transition.

GIMP (stands from GNU Image Manipulation Program) is an open source image and photo editing tool. In short, GIMP is the free and open-source alternative to Photoshop, available for almost all operating systems (Linux, Microsoft Windows, OS X).

Image blending is a common task. It can be applied with many ways. Here is a simple example.

According to this UN report, more people worldwide have mobile phones than toilets. I want to write an article about this report and I will blend two images to use the result as the article image.

## Source images

I will use two public domain images. The first one shows men silhouettes using mobile phone photos:

Second image shows a ground toilete in Botswana:

## Open images

From the Menu, select: File → Open as Layers…

Use CTRL + CLICK to select the images. The result is

## Resize canvas and arrange images

From the Menu, select: Image → Canvas Size…

Using the Move Tool from the Toolbox window

Place second image to the right side of canvas

From the Layers window, select the second image and Add Layer Mask

## Blend images

From the Toolbox window, select the Blend Tool

Click and drag the Blend Tool in the images overlap

## Blending result

This is the finally blending result:

Blend Images with GIMP

Experimenting with different parameters can give even better results.

Entrepreneur | Full-stack developer | Founder of MediSign Ltd. I have over 15 years of professional experience designing and developing web applications. I am also very experienced in managing (web) projects.

GIMP’s robust suite of tools and features allow you to manipulate your images in many different ways. One of the ways in which you can edit your photos is by isolating a single color — or a spectrum of similar colors — and deleting it to transparency. In this tutorial I’ll be demonstrating how to do just that as we use the Color to Alpha feature to make a color transparent in GIMP.

There’s actually several ways in which you can make a color transparent in GIMP. One way you can do so is by using the Select By Color tool, which you can use to click on a single color. When clicked, every other pixel of your image that has a similar color will be selected at once, and from there you can simply press Delete on your keyboard to make it transparent.

A more advanced method, though, would be the Color to Alpha feature, which we’ll be focusing on in this tutorial. This method is preferred because it gives you more granular control over the threshold of your transparent and opaque areas. Let’s dive in.

## Make A Color Transparent In GIMP

The following video tutorial will walk you through the process of using GIMP to select a single color and replace it with transparency:

### Step 1: Open the Color to Alpha menu

To make a color transparent in GIMP we’ll be using the Color to Alpha feature.

This tool allows you to move a single color within an image — or a range of similar colors — to the alpha channel, which will result in transparency.

To access this menu, navigate to Colors > Color to Alpha. The following menu should populate:

Once opened, you should notice that a large portion of the image on your canvas becomes partially transparent: Your image may look something like this when you first open the Color to Alpha menu.

The reason why this happens is because by default, the Color field in the Color to Alpha menu is white (as indicated by the white stripe in the menu.) This means that the white portion of all of the colors in your image are reduced to transparency based on a scale of how much white the color contains. Lighter areas become more transparent, whereas darker areas remain more opaque.

### Step 2: Pick the color that you’d like to make transparent

To pick the color that you’d like to make transparent in GIMP, click on the dropper icon in the Color to Alpha menu labelled “pick color from the image” when you hover your cursor over it. It’s the first item at the top of the list, located next to the white stripe: The dropper icon to select is highlighted in red.

With the dropper selected, click on the area of your image that contains the color you’d like to make transparent. Alternatively, you can also click on the white stripe to manually input a color code if you prefer to do it that way.

For this example image I will be making the shirt color transparent, so I clicked on the area of the image where the shirt is.

### Step 3: Set the farthest full-transparency color

Seeing as how nuanced the color composition of images can be, chances are you don’t just want to make a single color transparent. Ideally, you’d want to make all similar colors transparent as well.

For example, the color of the shirt in my image is white, but there’s many different grayscale shades that need to be made transparent as well, otherwise the shirt wont be entirely transparent. This is where the Color to Alpha tool begins to shine.

Within the menu, select the middle dropper icon labelled “pick the farthest full-transparency color” when you hover your cursor over it:

Use this tool to select the brightest area of your image that contains the color that you’d like to make transparent. For my example, I’ll be clicking on the whitest area:

You should notice that your selection is beginning to appear more accurate in the preview window.

### Step 4: Set the nearest full-opacity color

Now that you’ve told GIMP which pixels should be entirely transparent, it’s time to tell it which pixels should remain fully opaque.

To do so, click on the last dropper icon at the bottom of the list, labelled “pick nearest full-opacity color” when you hover your cursor over it:

Click on an area of the image that contains colors that you’d like to remain fully opaque.

Seeing as how your image will most likely have lots of different colors you’d like to remain opaque, you may have to select several different colors to see what gets the best result. You can also click and drag over your image to see how each of these colors react in real time.

### Step 5: Adjust the opacity and transparency threshold as needed

At this point we are nearly finished. However, as you can see in my example image, there is still some discoloration in the shirt, meaning there are white pixels that still need to be selected. This is where the threshold sliders come into play.

Within the Color to Alpha menu you will see two adjustment sliders:

1. Transparency threshold: this controls the intensity of the transparent areas. Increasing it will grab more colors from the spectrum and make them transparent. Decreasing it will have the opposite effect.
2. Opacity threshold: this control the intensity of the opaque area. Increasing it will make more colors in the selected spectrum more opaque. Decreasing it will have the opposite effect.

Adjust each of these sliders to tweak your selection. The values you should use will differ for each image. There’s no real formula for doing this, so just eyeball it and adjust these sliders until you get your desired result: As you can see, I was able to use the Color to Alpha feature to make a color transparent in GIMP.

Once you are happy with the adjustments, simply click the OK button to apply your changes and make your chosen color transparent!

## Conclusion

Unfortunately, there’s no perfect way to make a color transparent in GIMP. Regardless of the chosen technique, you are most likely going to end up with imperfections, as is the case with my example image. This feature probably won’t be the entire solution for you, but it can do most of the heavy lifting.

Once you have eliminated the base of the colors you’d like to make transparent, you can go through with the Eraser tool and erase out any outstanding pixels that may have slipped through the cracks. You can also go back and color in any pixels that you wanted to remain opaque, but may have been made transparent.

If you have any questions or need clarification for any the steps taken in this tutorial, simply leave a comment below.

## Become A Master of Adobe Illustrator!

Want to learn more about how Adobe Illustrator works? Check out my Illustrator Explainer Series – a comprehensive collection of over 100 videos where I go over every tool, feature and function and explain what it is, how it works, and why it’s useful.

# How to create a cool club name

##### Top 57 Guild Names (Cool, Funny, Serious, etc)

Regardless of what type of club you’re in, the importance of a great name can’t be overstated!

Our club name ideas below range from funny to cool and are appropriate for any type of club. If you’re interested in creating a unique club name of your very own, see our tips below the list.

1. Our Gang
2. Dreamwork
3. Morale Boosters
4. Bunch of Nobodies
5. Strength in Numbers
6. The Persistent Ones
8. Joining Forces
9. United
10. Allies Alliance
11. Harmonious
12. Unanimous
13. Good Vibes
14. Spontaneous
15. Fallen Angels
16. Rabid Abyss
17. Sinister Magic
18. Rancid
19. Troubled
20. Notorious
21. The Winners
22. Vanquishers
23. Conquering Heroes
24. The Top Dogs
25. Hail To the Victors
26. Off-the-Cuff
27. Possibilities
28. Happenstance
29. Destiny Nation
30. Serendipity
31. By Accident
32. The Total Freaks
33. Unparalleled
34. Matchless
35. Superlative United
36. Exquisite Generation
37. Dodgy Division
38. The Subtle Approach
39. Vague Association
40. Maximum Volume
41. Distorted Audio
42. The Trivial Tribe
43. Absence of Crowns
44. Minimum Parameters
45. Boundary Testers
46. Persona Patrol
47. The Unexpected
48. Non-Trivial Tribe
49. Happy Accidents
50. Just a Fluke
51. The Lucky Breaks
52. No Apparent Cause
53. Paranormal Claims
54. Folk Philosophers
55. Clash & Conflict
56. Synchronicity
57. Casual Yet Significant
58. Fate Twisters
59. Perception of Coincidence
60. Problematic
61. With Controversy
62. Awkward Alliance
63. It’s Complicated
65. The Moot Matrix
66. Questionable Motives
67. Up in the Air

## How to Create a Funny or Cool Club Name

Our tips for creating a cool and/or funny club name will have your club named in no time!

Keep the following in mind:

• Find your purpose. To quickly create a name, make a list of words and phrases that explain or define the focus for your club. While you’ll want to keep your final name short and catchy, you can use individual words or write out lengthier descriptions of your club’s purpose to generate ideas.
• Make it your own. Think of common words and phrases and tweak or change them slightly to create a humorous or cool team name. You have full creative control, so change the spelling, combine words, or use irony to create an unexpected name that suits your club perfectly.
• Have a contest. There’s no better way to find the best name than to take suggestions from a variety of people. Take suggestions from all of the club members and vote on the club favorite. If there are several favorites, see if you can combine them into an amazingly unique club name.
• Keep it light and fun. Don’t stress out about trying to find the perfect club name. Have fun with it! Be creative and inventive. If you are very industrious, you can even make up new words to describe your club.

We want to help you choose the right name for your team. In this article, we give you a step-by-step process for giving your team a great name. We also have a random team name generator that you can use to brainstorm for ideas!

### How To Choose The Best Team Name

Choosing cool team names can be such a hassle if you’re not good with names. In a brainstorming session, no matter what name you choose, there will be team members that will oppose the idea.

It is seldom will you have a case where everyone agrees fully with the proposed names. This is because most people are resistant to new things. Adding to that, many people will have different ideas about what their team name should be… all these add to the difficulty in choosing the name for a team.

Nonetheless, it is important for you to find a good team name. A good team name is the identity of your team and it will stick with the team for as long as the team exists. You wouldn’t want to pick one that doesn’t signify or reflect the nature of the team.

Here are three things to take note of when you are choosing cool team names:

A name is a powerful thing. It doesn’t just say what you do, but it says WHO YOU ARE. That is a big question to be answered for any individual, much less a team.

If you have watched enough movies, you would have heard of the rhetoric: “Who am I?”

That is the deepest question of any individual; their identity. From their identity flows their destiny. When a man doesn’t know who he is, he wouldn’t know what he should do with his life.

Similarly for a team, from the name comes the identity, and from the team identity comes the shared mission and purpose. Without a strong team identity, teams often are not united and ineffective.

#### 2. Associate your team with images of known things (objects,animals, a group of people, etc.)

A name associates the team with values and characteristics of the associated object. For example, if you use the team name: Lions.

What immediately comes to mind? Words like noble, upright, fearsome, justice are associated with the image of the lion.

When people hear you chanting your team name, they will think about all these values or characteristics that are associated with the lion.

Or if you choose something like… Serpents.

What comes to mind? Probably words like cunning, shrewd or lethal.

So the question is, what characteristics do you want your team to be associated with? Are there any objects, animals or people that reflect those words or characteristics?

Brainstorm with your team and find a suitable image that can reflect all that your team aspires to be. You can narrow down the possibilities with this system of thinking in mind.

#### 3. To make your team name unique, add the location or a description of your team

If you choose a generic name like Lions, Cobras, Wolves, Pistons; someone, somewhere in the world will be using the same name. In order to make this team name more special, you should add a context to it.

If you are based in Washington D.C , you could add a D.C in front of your name. For example:

• D.C. Wardens
• D.C Lions

As you can see, it makes the name much more localized, and less likely any other team in the world will have the same name. You can use either the state, the country, the district or even the street name to identify where you are based at.

• The Shining Lions
• Golden Lions
• Dazzling Lions

All these descriptions make your team name unique and special.

If you are using a commonly used word like ‘Amazing’, you can go to thesaurus.com to look for synonyms.

And with this in mind, let me present to you my Cool Team Names Generator. The cool team name generator ONLY requires you to enter a descriptive text (as spoken in point 3), and it will generate a random team name for you!

It’s a great brainstorming tool for you and your team and I’m sure you will enjoy tinkering with it.

### Cool Team Names Generator

Enter a word that describes your team (e.g Washington, Purple, Dazzling…)

Don’t like the team name that was generated? Try clicking ‘go’ again! 🙂

#### Like this post? Pin to save it and share with your friends!

Creating a Team Mission Statement
Before your team can work effectively, you must set the vision for the team so that every individual in the team understands the purpose of coming together. Are they coming together for a common interest, a specific project, or for a long term vision?

Examples of Team Mission Statements
Here are some examples of good mission statements used in the biggest companies in the world. Learn the elements required in a mission statement and how you can draft a good mission statement.

Formulating Great Team Mottos
A team motto captures the values of a team in a few words or a phrase. Learn about some simple team mottos and how you can create a great team motto for your team.

Setting the Stage for Teamwork
Before you send your team off to do their task, you must set the context and the foundation so that your team will succeed. You need to set expectations, make certain rules within the team and more.

The Barriers to Team Success
There are several barriers to building a successful team. Learn about the pitfalls in teambuilding and how you can avoid them.

Characteristics of Good Teams
Every good team has similar characteristics. Learn six invaluable characteristics that are required to groom an effective, successful team.

Why Doesn’t My Team Speak Up?
Getting your team to speak up is probably one of the greatest challenges you will have as a leader. You need to move your team’s mindset from the traditional top-down decision making process into the new paradigm.

Generating a Cool Team Name
Creative, Clever and Cool Team Name is an article about choosing the right name for your team. It also provides you with a random team name generator that you can use to brainstorm for ideas!

## Namify is a free club names generator that has been designed to give you nightclub name ideas that are relevant, sensible, and unique.

### Matching Social Handles

1000s of brand name ideas with social media handle availability check for each.

### Future-proof Domains

Advanced website name suggestions that will stand the test of time.

### Free Logo

100s of sophisticated logo suggestions matching your purchased domain name.

### Matching Social Handles

1000s of brand name ideas with social media handle availability check for each.

### Future-proof Domains

Advanced website name suggestions that will stand the test of time.

### Free Logo

100s of sophisticated logo suggestions matching your purchased domain name.

## List of 25+ nightclub name ideas in 2022

### Other Brand Name Generators

Brand Name Generator

Boutique Name Ideas

Jewelry Brand Name Generator

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### This club names generator understands exactly what you want for your nightclub

When you log onto Namify, you will find a search bar where you can enter specific keywords relevant to your industry. You will also be required to choose the niche of your business. After you follow these simple steps, you will gain access to thousands of cool and exciting nightclub name ideas, each one better than the last.

If you’re wondering why you should give this club names generator a chance, below are a few reasons:

• You will receive relevant names only Don’t worry about being spammed by irrelevant and senseless club name suggestions. Namify sorts through the noise to present you with meaningful, relevant, and valuable names only.
• You can choose from countless unique names Each name that pops up after your search query will be one of a kind and unique.
• You can pick your domain extension You will also get domain extension suggestions with domain name availability status so that you can register the name you like the most without any compromises.

### Find cool nightclub name ideas with Namify’s intuitive technology

A club, whether it’s a dance club, nightclub, or jazz club, needs a name that fits its personality and makes people walk through the door. A great name will ensure that people remember your club and keep coming back for more. Namify’s club names generator helps you achieve this by offering you thousands of nightclub name ideas, all in one place. Here’s what you can expect from Namify’s coolest club names generator:

• Sensible and relevant name suggestions that aren’t just a random mixture of keywords.
• A free logo that has been curated specifically for your club.
• Domain name availability and suggestions for selected names.

### Make your club more brandable with these domain extensions

A nightclub’s branding is almost as important as the music it plays, the food and drinks it serves, and the experience it curates. In order to make your club more brandable, you should choose domain extensions like .fun, space, .online, .store, .tech, .uno, .site etc. These will make your club more memorable by providing you with a unique web address

Wondering how to use domain extensions for your club? Here are a few examples, courtesy of Namify.

When people sharing common interests get together, that party is bound to be fun. And what better place can there be to socialize with other motor vehicle-enthusiasts like yourself, than at a car club? However, if you want to establish a successful car club, you need a good name. WheelZine is up to the task with innovative car club name suggestions.

When people sharing common interests get together, that party is bound to be fun. And what better place can there be to socialize with other motor vehicle-enthusiasts like yourself, than at a car club? However, if you want to establish a successful car club, you need a good name. WheelZine is up to the task with innovative car club name suggestions.

### What is a Car Club?

When a group of automobile buffs establish a fraternity, wherein they can regularly meet, share information or useful tips, have discussions, organize events (like motor shows, or races), or simply hang out with like-minded people, it is known as a car club.

Starting a car club is a great way to bring people who share your love for cars together under one roof, and also to provide enthusiasts an avenue to pursue their interests publicly. There are so many directions your plan of starting a car club could take; from a car-sharing portal for members, so as to reduce the environmental impact, to a group of car-racing aficionados, to a place where people can buy and sell cars or car parts, at good rates, there is a lot of potential for a small meeting of car enthusiasts to turn into something phenomenal.

But before you reach that level, you need to start from the basics. Without an attractive name, it will be difficult for you to provide your car club the “mileage” it deserves. Settling on an appropriate name completes a large portion of your task of initiating your car club. And now, that part of your job will be over in a jiffy, because WheelZine provides you with innovative ideas for car club names. We hope you are inspired by these to come up with a fantastic name that will prop your club to popularity.

DISCLAIMER: The names mentioned in this article are suggestions, and can be used for inspiration. Please check whether the name you wish to adopt for your club has been registered previously.

## Names Inspired By Automobile Terms

Automobile related terms, like parts of the vehicle, driving terms, car chase-and-heist movie names, and so on, can provide brilliant inspiration for car club names. Just weave in some wordplay with the phrases, and voilà, you have a unique, and totally cool name for your car club. Also, combine the element of evil or mercilessness, for a menacing-sounding name that would attract prospective members’ awe in no time!

### Some Examples

• Automophiles
• A Bunch of Engine-ers
• Smokin’ Axles
• Cloven Hoof Skid Tracks
• Speedwagon Cruisers
• The Triple Clutchers
• Drift Kings
• Brake Dancers
• Savage Lowriders
• Wind Easel
• The Slow and The Spurious

## Ideas for Names Based on Interest

The best car clubs consist of people who not only share the common bias for cars, but also, people who truly believe in the basic premise behind starting the club. Not all car clubs are for everyone. For example, if you want to start a club to bring together racing enthusiasts, you would want to ward off those aspiring members who wish to join a car club simply so that a car will be available to them whenever they need it (yes, believe it or not, some organizations totally miss the point of a “car club”, and instead function in a way that they allow their members access to a luxury automobile when they need it, to use and later return). Hence, you could choose to name your club appropriately.

### Some Examples

• Off The Beaten Trail
• The Generals of Motor
• Chevolters
• Extortionate Obsessions
• Burnt Rubber
• The Race-ists
• BattleStreet Rampagers
• ‘Stanger Stable
• High-briddle
• Muddy Trailers
• V8-ing Till Judgment Day

## Ideas for Names Based on Location

Generally, car clubs are more local rather than country or state-wide, and in such situations, adding the name of your place to your club’s name will definitely serve to bring your group closer, as feelings of local pride will surface. But still, calling yourselves the “Chicago Car Club” is quite unimaginative. Formulate a name that has an interesting twist to it, as well as heralds your locality. It is also not a bad idea to reiterate how bad-ass you and your club’s other members are, through the name.

### Some Examples

• Latin Lowriders
• Beyond City Limits
• Barcelona Bandits
• Pennsylvania Rodfathers
• Ghetto Knowbodies
• Desert Rats
• NYC Hoodlums
• The Irish Car Bombs
• San Diego Shifters
• Islanders’ Motor Sports
• Street Dreams
• The Rednecks CC

## Funky Names to Signify Boyish Enthusiasm

Boys will be boys, no matter how old they get. And when a band of, say, even 55-year-old “boys” come together to form an elitist car club, for example, for Ferrari owners, they would love to be part of an organization having a name that screams about youth and zest. You could even pick a name that is designed along the lines of some typical boy humor. These are some quirky suggestions for an über-cool car club name.

### Some Examples

• Clubbin’ On Wheels
• Mother Truckers
• Tokyo Drifters
• Speed Demons
• The Rising Sun Chasers
• The Wolfpack
• Silver Foxes
• Knight Drivers
• Blue Enigma CC
• Stick Shifters
• Bulc Rac (read it backwards)
• Pedestrian Hitmen

These were some ideas that we had, which we felt were good bases to come up with a cool name for your car club. Hope this provided you the inspiration you needed to let your creative juices to flow.

The most catchy names from the category. Use a catchy business name is a great way to attract customers to your brand. Here, you can check the availability and register your new domain with just a few simple steps. Get more

Still business names from the Team Name Generator category, but in a humorous way. A humorous name may be very effective in developing your brand image, cause people always like funny things.

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May 06, 2022 · Outlast In Minecraft Horror Map FULLY REMASTERED | Mount Massive Asylum [Bedrock PS4 1. The true Aug 22, 2019 · PS4 Name Generator The suggestions above will hopefully give you enough to be able to rename your profile with the perfect name that is a lot better than the old one that you were using. Аккаунты псн.

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The Team Name Generator has gone through a complete rewrite. fantasy sport games like: Just find your favorite sport game, and the online-generators. This page contains an esports team name generator that will give you lots of cool name ideas you can use for a range of different genres and games.

### Random fake flag generator

Random fake flag generator

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Browse through fantasy team names to find funny team names and cool team names. It is the best time of the year. It is time for fantasy football. One of my favorite things to do before our draft is pick a new, funny fantasy football team name. I love to get my friends to laugh when they see the name I pick for the year.

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Nov 28, 2021 · A team name is the first step to accomplishing all your shared goals. The formula is simple. Usage – You are free to use anything generated in your creative works. Playing trivia is a good way to keep your wits sharp while having fun with friends or family. Please comment on our trivia team names list or suggest others via our contact page.

## Articles Section

Here you can find guides and tips to choose the perfect name for your business. We also provide other necessary information about starting a new business.

### How to Open a Fast Food Business

Opening a business is hard, especially when you don’t have experience in the particular service you want to offer, so check here for more information!

### What Is The Best Way To Start An Online Boutique?

We give step-by-step instructions to assist you with the most appropriate approaches for starting your online boutique effectively, so read us now!

If you’ve ever wanted to create your very own perfume or cologne line, you’ve probably asked yourself how to begin, so refer to us immediately!

### How To Start A Power Washing Business

You need to figure out if your power washer business can make a profit and how quickly. Here’s how to figure that out and check us out today!

Here we will share with you some cool and creative real estate team names that will inspire you. All the real estate group names that we have shared are unique and you can use them anywhere you want.

Here are a few things that you should see before finalizing your real estate team name:

• It should be unique and creative.
• People love simple and short names.
• The selected name should be no more than three words.
• It should be easy to understand.

## Real Estate Team Names

Following are the best real estate team names that you will ever find:

• Fountain Estates
• Fox Run Brokers
• Hawks & Eagles
• Hearthstone Estates
• Hearthstone Group
• Level Nooks
• Luxury Abodes
• Magnificent Brokers
• Osprey Nests
• Pacific Union
• Palm Apartments
• Palm Brokers
• Rapid Mason Partners
• Red Fox Group
• Redwood Group
• Ridge Team
• River Homes
• Summit Real Estate
• Sunset Realty
• Sunstone Abodes

## Real Estate Group Names

Here are some cool and catchy real estate group names for you:

• Champion Nests
• Colossal Apartments
• Deluxe Marblewood
• Expert Offices
• Pride and Property
• Knob and Key Realty
• Aspen Homes
• Aspire Homes
• Axis Group
• Black Point Realty
• Clever Nooks
• Climb Real Estate
• Colossal Abodes
• Blue Apogee Realty
• Blue Bird Group
• Elevation Homes
• Partners Trust
• Platinum Partners
• Elevation Realty
• Elm Realty Group

## Real Estate Nicknames

Below are some cool real estate nicknames for you:

• Team Golden Homes
• Dream Home
• The Global
• Housing Guru Realtor
• Picket Fence Realty
• Pleasant Home Team
• Pro Team
• Johnston Realtors
• Knob and Key Realty
• Future Home Realty
• Future Realty
• Gable & Grace
• All Season Realtors
• Alpine Homes
• Around the Block
• A-Team Homes
• A Plus Realtors

## Realty Company Names

Here are some realty company names for you:

• House Pedallers
• I-Net Realty Inc.
• New Door
• Newcastle Team
• North Star
• Short Sale Pro Team
• Simon Property Group
• Sky-High Realty
• Star Island Realtors
• Banyon Tree
• Brick Lane Realty
• Sand and Sea
• Turnkey Properties
• The Dwelling Group
• Continental Real Estate
• The Americans
• Capstone Real Estate
• Lakeshore Real Estate
• Oak & Stone Properties
• Coastal Premier Properties

## Real Estate LLC names

Below are some cool real estate LLC names for you to choose from:

• Tiger Team
• Village Villas Property Group
• Clearwater Condos Realtors
• Right-Wing Rentals
• White Walls Realty
• Firefly First Realty
• Pearl Property Group
• Halliday Home Sales
• BrassBell Realty
• Clubhouse Real Estate
• Suite R Properties
• Chit Chat Chalet Sales
• Magnolia Group
• Blue Reef Properties
• Found Property Group
• Orchard Street Properties
• Lamplighters Realty
• Rise Real Estate

## Funny Real Estate Team Names

Here are some funny real estate team names for you:

• Devoe partners
• Five Star Real Property
• Sequoia Real Estate
• Black Oak Realty
• Fortune Team
• Olive Tree Realty
• Divine Nooks
• Matchstick Real Estate
• Kitted Out Properties
• This One Realty
• Red Brick
• Gold & Grace
• Just Property
• Next Door
• Sunbird
• Blueprint Properties
• Turnkey Residential

## How to Name Your Real Estate Team Names

Naming your real estate team names in the right way will help you get a lot more fans and customers. The name you are selecting should tell a story about the services you are offering.

If you are able to get the attention of the clients with your real estate team name, then you are going well.

Here are some tips that will help you name your real estate team in the right way.

### 1. Brainstorm real estate team name ideas.

The first thing that you need to do is to make your mind clear about the type of name that you are looking for. When your mind is clear, you will find it easy to make a list of names and then finalize one of them.

While adding names into your list, make sure to care about a few things like adding easy to understand names. Also, don’t add any names that are longer than three words. Such names are usually not liked by people that much.

### 2. Keep your team name short and simple.

The best thing about a short and simple name is that it will be easy to pronounce and remember the name. There are a lot of benefits of keeping short names. Especially when your team name is memorable, people will remember you and your popularity will keep increasing day by day.

This is the same technique that famous businesses and companies use nowadays. If we look carefully around us, we will come to know that almost all the big companies have short and simple names.

When you add words that are either difficult to understand or pronounce, people won’t be able to understand it. This is a big loss and in the future, you will need to change your real estate team name. So, why choose a name in the first place that you may need to change later.

### 4. Finalize your team name.

Here are a few things that you can do to finalize your team name:

• Make sure it’s catchy and creative.
• Get suggestions and ideas from your friends or family.
• Check social media handles.

Research Group Names:- Are you searching for some unique and good collections about the topic of Research Group Names? Then this is the right place for you because here you can find a huge collection about the topic of Research Group Names Ideas. If you are a researcher, then you can create a research group with your researcher friends.

We all know that a researcher is a very valuable person for our country and they have a lot of knowledge about everything. So we give them respect all time because they deserve it. And for your kind information without researchers science is nothing. So if you are a researcher and you are thinking to create a research group, then you can go for it.

But choosing the right type of name for a research group does not an easy task. So if you want to make a name good for your research group, then you need to stay with us, because here in the below section, we are going to provide a huge and different collection about the topic of Research Group Names.

We have collected the below information from different and other sources and we have rearranged it easier to read for you. So you can check out our below collections of Research Group Names. We hope you will like it.

Let’s dive into the collections of Research Group Names.

## Research Group Names

• Ingenious Geniuses
• The Researching Club
• Random Chance
• Initiate Insights
• Market Researchers
• Required Research
• Connect Tech
• Data Masters
• Insight Interest
• Research Center
• Market Gurus
• Analytica
• Smart Search
• Dil Se Researchers
• Digisweep
• We Match
• Market Researchers
• Pro Intelligence
• Smart Seek

## Research Team Names

• Pluralistic Approach Trends
• In the Control Group
• Digital Research
• Succinct Solutions
• Data Recap
• Master Minds
• Rock and Roll
• Meeting the Criteria
• Serial Winners
• Research Resource
• Annihilators
• Manipulated Variables
• Like Glue
• Game Changers
• Applied Analysis
• Variable Characteristics Unit
• 99.9% (Accurate)
• Measure of Variations
• Notorious ENG

## Research Names

• Innovation Skyline
• The Experimental Club
• Debriefing Participants
• The Back Benchers
• Clarity of Purpose
• Refined Research
• Pure Researchers
• The Right Writers
• Scientist
• Team Treatments & Cures
• The Oddjobs
• Country Future
• The Researchers
• Grammar Gurus
• Just a Minimal Risk
• Narrowing the Scope
• Deep Dive Research

## Study Group Names

• Record Keepers
• Barenaked LEDs
• Inform Team
• Insight Interest
• Deep Analysis
• Odd Numbers
• It Makes Sense
• International Intel
• Anonymity Collective
• House of Research
• Pixel Chicks
• Bright Data
• Checking the Validity
• Beyond the Numbers
• ResearchX
• Expert Intel
• Data Innovate
• Triangulation Trends
• Data Miners
• Significant Hypothesis Effects
• Multi-Faceted Data Set

## Group Names Research Project

• Little Moons
• Basic Solutions
• Blitzkrieg
• Legal Bachelors
• Visual Spectacle
• Data Drivers
• Trojan Horses
• Following Linguistic Cues
• Research Rats
• Catharsis Clique
• Free Thinkers
• The Research Group
• Expediting the Review
• Langoti Friends
• Upscale
• Estimating Future Trends
• Mind Benders
• Maniac Messengers
• Creative Protocol
• Determined Data

## How To Name Your Research Group

In the below section, we are going to share huge and different points about the topic of how to name a research group.

### Short & Simple Name

A short and simple name can help you to grow your research group. So you can choose a short and simple name for your research group.

### Mix & Match Words

You can use mix and matching terms with the name of your research group.

### It Should Be Meaningful & Memorable

Always try to choose a meaningful and memorable name for your research group. Because a meaningful name can help people to understand the meaning of your research group.

### Use Creative Words

You can use some creative words with the name of your research group.

### Avoid Hard Spelling & Pronouncing Name

Never use hard spelling and pronouncing words with the name of your research group. Because it can’t be spell and pronouncing by everyone. So always try to choose an easy to spell and easy to pronouncing name for your research group.

### Don’t Make It Long

Never make your research group name long, Because people don’t like a long name for a research group.

### Don’t Use Any Digits

Digits are a very important thing in our daily life, but never use any digits in the name of your research group.

### Never Use A Bad Word

This is a very vital point, so always keep remember this point in your mind. So never use any bad words with the name of your research group.

### Don’t Duplicate Others

Always try to make your own name, never use a duplicate name for your research group. Otherwise, people will angry with you.

### Take Opinions From Others

You can take suggestions from your friends, family members or another person, who has knowledge about it.

### Discuss With Your Group Members

You can discuss with your research group members to finalize a good name for your research group.

### Check Social Media Availability

Before finalizing a name for your research group, you need to check the social media availability of that name which was finalized by you for your research group.

### Get Feedback

You need to get feedback on that name before finalizing a good name for your research group.

The reason this website was created was because it is so hard to think of cool names! The task of thinking up names can be quite monotonous and boring, but with NameGenerator.biz I hope the task is made easier for you. This website provides a free set of name generators that anyone can use to create their own unique name for screen names, place names, names for game characters and more. I have added a few useful features to the name generators, some are: a previous names list and the ability to click on previous names and have them transfered to the ‘Favorite Names’ list where you can keep a list of all the names you think are good. Once you have picked some names and transfered them to your ‘Favorite Names’ list, you can edit them how ever you want. Keep in mind though, your favourites list does not save, so be sure to copy your list before you leave. To start generating some great names: pick a name generator from the side menu on the right and then click the button on that page “Generate Names”. I hope this website helps you find some cool names!

I created this website back in September 2009 and it has constantly been improved with new name generators every few months. I create new name generators and update the old ones from user feedback, so if you find something that could be made better or you have a new name generator to suggest, send me a message. I appreciate all the feedback I get sent – it all goes back into creating a better website for you and many others.

A competitive sport by nature, orienteering games require navigational skills. You have to use a map and a compass to navigate various areas that are usually unfamiliar and move at high speed.

Here, you have to find the control points with the help of a topographical map. We understand how interesting the game sounds!

A good team name makes the team look fabulous and classy, and to some extent, it motivates the team to be more successful.

Now that you are trying to find a good name for your orienteering team, we understand how difficult it might be. Do not worry, readers! We will help you in that regard.

## Cool Orienteering Team Names

Be it any sport, choosing a cool and classy name for the team shall never go out of style. An excellent team name will make your group stand out from the crowd. There are various ways to create a cool team name for a group. Find a list of cool orienteering team names below.

Late Night Runs

Long Distance Relay-Tionship.

Swifties and Birdies

Speed Sold Separately

We’re Making Great Strides

Therapy Called Running

Rapid Thigh Movement

The Rubber Duckies

Better At Runnin’ Up a Tab.

Starting Slow…Getting Slower

Worthless Without Chocolate.

Been There, Run That.

Yes, Another Lap

Wild And Villainous

All Swedish, No Finnish.

We May Be Slow, But We Aren’t That Fast Either

Running For The ‘Gram

Bring n Up The Rear With No Fear

Bullet For Legs

Runnin’ Into Shape

I Thought This Was A 6k

Legs Like Hammers

Snorts In Shorts

Sore To The Finish

Slow Runners Make Fast Runners Look Good

Not Fast, Just Furious

Rapid Thigh Movement

Young But Breathless

Light Bulb Speed

## Catchy Orienteering Team Names

Playing smartly and efficiently might be important to be a successful and famous team, but then again, you might want to increase the curiosity of your audience firsthand. You can do that by creating a catchy team name. Find a list of catchy team names below.

Blondes Have More Run

The Furious Naives

Scrambled Legs and Achin’

Are We There Yet

Chicks That Kick

Easier Said Than Run

The Pace Makers

Sweaty & We Know It

The Big Fat Pandas

Better Together Team

4 Barefeet + 2 Sneakers

I’ve Got The Runs

Blue Suede Shoes

The Swim Reapers

Wild and Villainous

Damsels in Damn Stress

Because Uber Was Busy…

Sisters with Blisters

The Rubber Duckies

The Run Arounds

The Fastest Elevens

Three Left Feet

Sisters with Blisters

Buns On The Run.

The Show Stealers

The Rolling Hills

Conquer The Track

## Latest Orienteering Team Names

By creating a team name based on the latest happenings worldwide, you can make the name unique and attractive. There is no hard and fast rule regarding how to come up with the latest team name for your group. Find a list of the latest orienteering team names below.

Speedies of God

Running To Wellness

It’s A Runner’s Thing

The Baton Prophets

The Fastest Elevens

Between Walk and a Hard Pace.

Big Dudes – Scared Shoes.

Not Fast, Just Furious

How the West Was Run

Cool Down Specialists.

Raging Relay Racers

S.W.A.T.T. (Sprinters, Walkers And Trash Talkers)

The Agony of Defeet

Run It To Win It

R.I.O.T. (Running Is Our Therapy)

Car Names for Girls

Silly Gooses On The Loose

Just Keeping Runnin’

Where’s The Finish

Our Shorts Are Longer Than Your Workouts

Happy Go Getters

Where do I go from here?

Stormy Slaves of Waves

Happy Relay Runners

The Big Fat Pandas

Happy Relay Runners

Miles to Martinis

Legs On Speed Dial

Christian Company Names

Easy Party Themes

Sweaty Nuts & Tight Butts

Damsels in Damn Stress

The Swim Reapers

Fast As The Internet

Fit Like Sticks

Kiss my Asphalt

The Religion Of Racing

Can’t Run With Us

Strangers with Candies

Love at First Tights

All Swedish, No Finnish

I Can’t Miss My Flight!

Keeping Up With the Kenyans

## Awesome Orienteering Team Names

Unless the name is creative and something different from the usual names, how else can it be awesome? An awesome team name is essential to make your group stand out from the crowd. There are way too many teams all around the world. So make sure to have an awesome team name.

I’m fast because I run with a cape

Raging Relay Racers

Sore to the Finish

The Gang Greens

Goonie Goo Goo’s

Run. Eat. Poop. Repeat

Faster Than the Speed of Love

The Show Stealers

Running To Wellness

The Rumble Bees

Happy Go Getters

Doing Long Division

The Trotting Trotters

Where’s The Finish?

The Speed Demonds

The Furious Naives

Ignorance is Blisters

Eazy Peezie Wheezies

Running In Heels

Easier Said Than Run

Slow Motion Ninjas

Are We There Yet

4 Minutes off an 8 Minute pace

The Victorious Vectors

The Gouda Machines

From Start To Finish

I Thought This Was a Pub Crawl

Keeping Up With the Kenyans

The Ninja Squirrel

Runnin’ After the Ice Cream Truck

The Furious Naives

Sore to the Finish

The Baton Prophets

The Speed Demonds

Tapering Since Thanksgiving

Where’s The Finish Line?

Long Distance Relay-tionship

We’re Too Old For This

Snorts in Shorts

Blackbirds of Nature

Worthless Without Chocolate

There’s got to be a closer lake

Craze For Running

Chicks That Kick

## Unique Orienteering Team Names

A unique team name shall increase the team spirit and motivation of the group. Moreover, a special team name will make the audience understand how great the group might be in the respective sport. Find a list of unique team names below.

The Art Of Speed

Green Feet Gang

Straight Outta Motrin

We’re Too Old For This

Run It To Win It

The Bolt and Dutifuls

Guts For Sprints

Faster Than Who?

Cirque Du Sore Legs.

Legs Like Thunder

The Gang Greens

Stormy Slaves of Waves

Should Have Turned Left

Time Wounds All Heels

Run For Company

Conquer The Track

When Underdogs Run

Easier said than run

From Start To Finish

Should Have Turned Left

Easier Said Than Run

Across The City

Running Like Wolves

Join The Beasts

Pride Over Pain

Keeping Up With the Kenyans.

Craze For Running

We Heart To Run

Running Like Mothers

If I’m not back in five minutes…Just wait longer

• J. Everette Light Career Center
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### What to Know

• Incorporate your favorite things, such as food, celebrities, or career aspirations.
• Use an online screen name generator such as SpinXO.
• Build an unlikely username by substituting symbols and letters, like 3 for E and $for 5. This article explains how to create a username for your online identity that is unique and secure. Suggestions include incorporating your favorite things, using an online username generator, and substituting symbols and similar letters if your desired username is already taken. ## Add Favorite Things to Your Username Do you like the color purple, dinosaurs, candy, and the number 7? Something like SweetPurpleDinosaur7 will go a long way. Jot down a few of your favorite things and consider your job or career aspirations, favorite foods, celebrities, sports teams, movies. Just be creative! ## Consider What’s Around You Have you exhausted your lists of favorite things? Consider school mascots, your town, or other things relative to where you live and what you care about. However, be very careful not to give away too much information. Internet predators could potentially identify your location by your screen name. Something like SweetTexarkanaHighDinosaurGirl91 might seem innocent at first until you realize that online sleuths can probably decipher it as a Texarkana, TX, high school girl who graduated or was born in 1991. On that note, maybe you should choose something specific that doesn’t apply to you for even more anonymity. ## Use a Screen Name Generator One of the easiest ways to create a screen name with the least effort is to let your computer do it for you. There are several screen name generators available that are easy and fun to use. Here are our top picks: • SpinXO: Generates names using information like your hobbies, important words, name, numbers, and things you like. You can get 30 usernames immediately and refresh for more. Click a username at SpinXO to see if they’re available on different platforms like Reddit, Tumblr, YouTube, Twitter, or Instagram. • Screen Name Generator: Enter two words at The Screen Name Generator to have it generate a unique screen name that’s a combination of your words plus something random in between them. It’s an excellent tool to use if you have specific words that you’d like to include in your username. • Rum and Monkey: Rum and Monkey’s online name generator is broken down into categories to help you find the best login ID. Get an ancient Greek name or something in military code. You can even go for a Minion or Korean name. Select a category and your gender, and enter your name to get a fun and unique username. • Fake Name Generator: This website not only gives you a username but even a whole identity, including a first and last name, address, birthday, physical attributes, employment information, and more. A bit much? Maybe so, but the usernames are pretty random, and the other details are fun to read. ## What to Do When Your Screen Name Is Unavailable Have you hit the ‘this username is taken‘ roadblock and need creative inspiration? A used screen name doesn’t mean it wasn’t meant to be. Just like when creating strong passwords that are hard to guess, you can also use non-English word combinations to build unlikely usernames. Consider substituting symbols and letters that are similar: @=a, 3=e,$=5, S=5. Most messaging apps and social networks will let you use symbols in a username and, with many to choose from; the possibilities are nearly endless.

For example, if SweetPurpleDinosaur7 is already in use, consider making it weetPurpleD1nOsaur7. Name combiner is the latest multiple names combining tool that can be used for various purposes. It mixes the baby names, couples names, Business names, friend names and generates unique names. Here are some of its common uses. ## What is Name Combiner? This tool will help you mix, merge and combine your names like babies, couples, and other family names with 1 click. This is the best ship name generator to make random family name ideas. ### Creative Names for Business, Brand or Company Finding the perfect name for your business is not an easy task. There are already registered companies with the most common names. In this situation, the name combing tool comes handy and helps to generate some unique name ideas for your company. It blends the provided names and makes a various combinations. You can choose any name that best suits your business. Want to generate the business name try the business name generator tool. ### Domain Name Selection Just Like the business name, domain name finding is also a hectic job due to high competition in the online field. Most of the domains are already purchased. So you can use this tool to mix names and select a unique name idea for your domain. ### Nickname Generation This tool can also be used to generate nicknames for your pets, team, squad, or any game. Even you can use this to create usernames for Facebook, youtube, Instagram, or other social media accounts. You can get the name idea for your upcoming book. So this tool will help you to generate hundreds of unique name ideas by fusion of provided names. ### Baby Name For Couples Selecting a perfect name for your newborn baby is difficult when you have so many choices .some people desire to find some unique name that does not already exist and match with both mother and father. You can use this tool to enter mother and father names and this tool will join both names and create some unique names for your baby. ### How to Use it? You need to enter some seed words or in the case of baby name father and mother name and press enter or click on combine names, and you will get a long list of generated names. How do I combine Husband and Wife Names? You can easily combine the last name of your spouse with your name without hyphen using a tool called a name combiner. Name combiner is a great tool that combines couple names, lover names, boyfriend names, or baby names. How do you write the two names together? If you want to create a unique name by combining the two names then enter your favorite words in the input fields and click on the combine button. The name combiner tool will shuffle, combine, and split the letters in a variety of ways. The tool makes sure that the words are pronounceable. Once it does work then it provides you a complete list of names. What is it called when you combine the couple names? You can easily combine or merge couple names using a tool called couple name generator or name combiner. The tool blends the two names together and creates a unique meaningful name. How do write two names in one word? The tool called “name combiner” combines the two different names and creates a unique one-word name. In this tool, the two words can be fused together and the outcome would be a meaningful stylish name with pronunciation. You can also make use of this tool to combine two business owner names and create a beautiful name for their company. What is the best romantic and stylish couple name maker? “Name Combiner” is a remarkable tool that creates beautiful romantic couple names by merging the two names together. You just have to put the two separate names to create a stylish couple nickname. You will find plenty of cool suggestions to give surprise to your lover. Can I combine Japanese names or other languages? YES, with help of our tool, you can generate a Japanese name as well. ### Other Tools If you want to combine more names you can check our 5 Name Combiner tool. ## Brave Life-savingVisionaryToughFearlessA LegacyGuidanceTrustedA SolutionRadicalEfficientLivelyDrivenHomeUnderestimatedA mentorPlanet ShapingSustenanceDecisiveKindTax-deductibleInventiveInfrastructureFriendlyHeroicACBoldTherapeuticFlexibleEquitable Trees never stop giving to us. That’s why the Arbor Day Foundation has never stopped working for them. Find out how we plan to answer some of humanity’s greatest challenges over the next 5 years. ## 50 years and counting In celebration of our 50th anniversary, we’re taking stock of where we’ve been, what we’ve done and where we’re headed. So far, we’ve planted and distributed nearly 500 million trees in more than 50 countries around the world. We’re poised to plant more trees, educate more people, get more hands in the dirt and impact more lives all over the globe. Our movement is just getting started. Ready to join us? ## The Power of Trees Discover the many benefits trees provide in our communities and around the globe. ## Our Mission at Work Find out more about our efforts to plant trees where they’re needed most. ## Take Action Explore all the ways you can make a difference. November 20th, 2020 • Holistic Workplace Wellness • 60+ Unique Team Names To Use In Your Next Wellness Challenge One of the best parts about running a team-based wellness challenge is the opportunity to create a fun and motivating team name. Sometimes it is easier said than done though! Check out the list below for some amazing team names. Use one for your team name or have the list inspire the creation of your very own. Pro-tip for employers: Randomly assigning teams is a great option for an employee wellness challenge. It creates opportunities for individuals within an organization that would not otherwise interact to connect, build relationships, and work toward a common goal. When assigning random teams, using fun team names, like the ones listed below, are a great way to add some flare to the program. ## Walking Team Names Some names are just so classic, they show up in every wellness challenge. Below are some classic and timeless wellness challenge team names. • Walkaholics • The Striders • Sole Trainers • Sole Sisters • JabberWalkies • FO Shoe • Walking Talkies • Pedominators ## Music-Themed Team Names Feeling musical? Below are some music-inspired wellness challenge team names. • Drop It Like A Squat • Slow Down For What • All About That Pace • Moves Like Jaggers • Walkmen • Red Hot Chili Steppers • Just The Weigh (Or Whey) You Are ## Movie-Themed Team Names Movie buffs unite! Below are some cool movie-inspired wellness challenge team names. • Brave Heart • Fast N Furious (or Not Fast, Just Furious, Too Fast, Too Furious, etc.) • Happy Feet (for more honest descriptions, check out Sweaty Feet, Stinky Feet, etc.) • 1 Forrest 1 • Charlie’s Ankles • Catch Me If You Can • Insteption • The Pant-ers • Game Of Strolls (similarly, Game Of Soles) • Night-Walkers • Lost In Pace • Legs Miserables ## Food-Inspired Team Names Sometimes walking is nonnegotiable unless food is involved – that’s ok. Get your fill of food-inspired wellness challenge team names below. • Kale Blazers • The Holy Walkamolies • Will Run For Snacks ## Team Names For The Determined We…are…the…champions…! Below are wellness challenge team names that perfectly embrace winning. • Goal Getters • Dream Team • A-Team • Team Dedication • Road Rage • Demolition Crew • The Unstoppables • Can’t Stop, Won’t Stop • Pace Makers • Gym Class Heroes • Going The Distance • Walkers Of Fame • Globe-Trotters • Pace Setters • Spark Plugs • Team Unstoppables • Overfit • FitNibble ## Team Names For The Ones Just Trying Their Best Get an A for effort with the wellness challenge team names below that are designed for those that don’t expect to finish on top of the leaderboard. • Scrambled Legs And Achin’ • Sweat, Whined, and Dined • Worst Pace Scenario • Young And Breathless • Cirque De Sore Legs • Legs Miserables • Sore But Sturdy • Agonized Feet • Movers And Shakers • Are We There Yet? • Agony Of De Feet • One Step At A Time • The Power Hour • Movers & Shakers ## Other Great Names Not all great wellness challenge team names fall into a nice, neat category. Check out the best of the rest below. • Squat Squad • Ladies Who Crunch • Ghost Riders • Run Track Mind • Rapid Thigh Movement • Quads Of Fury • What The Hill • No Ubers In Sight • Foot Fire • Pimp My Stride • Cltr+Alt+Elite • Running From The Law • Let’s Get Fiscal Don’t hesitate to share some of your favorite wellness challenge team names in the comments section. ### Related Logo Designs • letter logo • cool text logo • monogram logo • signature logo • font logo • calligraphy logo • alphabet logo • o logo • Ns logo • p logo • n logo • Pc logo • Pp logo • Mr logo • q logo • Mp logo • r logo • Mm logo • Rb logo • Mk logo • Rk logo • Mj logo • Rr logo • Mc logo • Rs logo • Mb logo • s logo • Ma logo • Sa logo • m logo • Sb logo Show More Logos by Industry • Mountain • T-Shirt • Podcast • Vintage • Circle • Esports • Letter • Cool Text • Animal & Pet • Abstract • Music • Name • Monogram • Tiger • Emblem • Nature • Heart • Lion • King • Hipster • Religion • Fire • Badge • Social Media ### How to Make a Name Logo in 3 Steps Follow these steps to customize a perfect name logo with great ease. #### Choose a Template Choose from thousands of templates to start designing your name logo. #### Add Text and Icon Customize your name logo with millions of icons, 100+ fonts and powerful editing tools. Save your name logo with high resolution. ## Design Your Name Logos Online for Free Now Try it for free, no download or registration required. PublishedВ 15:29 ,В 27 October 2021 BST | Last updatedВ 15:29 ,В 27 October 2021 BST FIFA 22 is back and better than ever with updated rosters, better graphics and new mechanics that make the game ever so slightly better than it was last year. Then of course thereвЂ™s Ultimate Team, FIFAвЂ™s incredibly popular game mode where gamers build a star-studded squad of their own and compete to get the best players. According to Give Me Sport, the most popular players at the moment include the usual suspects like Karim Benzema, Erling Haaland and Cristiano Ronaldo, but top of the tree is the 61 rated Waldhof Mannheim right back Niklas Sommer, who is proving to be a hit thanks to his cheap price and 78 pace rating. Ultimate Team isnвЂ™t always about picking the biggest names in football, sometimes itвЂ™s about the ability to identify a bargain player who has the ability to outperform their rating. Still, the hardest decision gamers face on Ultimate Team isnвЂ™t which players to go for or what sort of tactics to build your squad around, itвЂ™s picking the team name. You will want a name thatвЂ™s going to make some random person on the internet chuckle at your puns. Bonus points if the punny team name mentions a player thatвЂ™s actually in your team. FIFA 22 gives players only one chance to choose another name in Ultimate Team so be careful of switching your teamвЂ™s name to something holiday themed like вЂAndy Christmas CarrollвЂ™ or вЂHappy NeuerвЂ™ as youвЂ™ll be stuck with it all year round. For those who want some Ultimate Team name inspiration, hereвЂ™s a few good ones weвЂ™ve found. We all know how important it is to get contact information any time we can. We’ve done lots of trainings on how to use a Drawing Slip to help you do that. We’ve talked about using them as you go door to door. We’ve talked about setting up prize drawings around town, and we’ve even talked about using Drawing Slips when doing a booth or table at an event. So today I want to show you a really cool way to create a Virtual Door Prize Slip! This is something you can use online for Facebook Parties, on your Facebook Page, or even something you can use in person on your phone or tablet as you’re out and about! You might be surprised. What we’re using for this is Google Forms! Google offers the most amazing sales lead system ever! This magical form can same you time, while generating leads for new customers, new hosts for our Facebook Parties, and new recruits! How cool is that! ## So let’s get into the training… Google has provided a totally done-for-you system! They make it as easy as can be. You can customize your form by adding whatever questions you want, you can add pictures… can literally design whatever you want! Update: Since Avon started promoting going totally Digital, I edited my drawing form to have this new question. Instead of asking if they would like a brochure in the mail, I ask how they would like to receive their brochure. I give them options, so I can best serve them. And it helps me get people used to receiving their brochure digitally. Google even has pre-made templates that you can start with, including Party Invites, Order Forms and Contact Forms, which you can edit to meet your needs. They even have some fun animated themes, from a backyard party scene complete with balloons moving in the wind, or champagne flutes with moving bubbles! When someone fills out your Drawing Slip, Google puts all the information in a spreadsheet to make it easy for you to keep track and follow-up with your prospects. You can easily copy your form to create another for a different purpose. No need to recreate the entire form again. 🙂 And they’ll even let you know when someone fills it out! ## Here’s a couple of things that you might want to add to your Virtual Door Prize Slip: To do this, first off, click on the settings icon at the top right of the form: You might want to require email address. By clicking on General Settings, you can select “Collect email addresses.” This way gmail makes sure it is in the right format when they type it in. If you’re using this at an event, you’ll want to be able to submit one form after another so each person will have a clean form to fill out. Click on Presentation Settings, and Check “Show link to submit another response.” ## So, now that you’ve created your Virtual Door Prize slip, what are you going to do with it? Here are just a few ideas: Customer Feedback: When was the last time you surveyed your customers to find out exactly what they might be interested in? Facebook and Home Parties: Obviously the link is perfect for Facebook parties. But even with home parties, you can have a tablet there to collect the information. Or send the link to each person at the party to have them fill it out on their phone. And… you can even send a link to anyone who was not able to be at the party live. Post it on the Facebook Event page, and double the amount of leads you’re getting at parties. Vendor Events: This could possibly make you the coolest vendor at a vendor event! Have a couple of tablets out and ready for people to fill out your drawing slips, and you won’t have to worry about deciphering their handwriting when you get home! If you’re doing a door prize drawing at the show, just hand out old-school raffle tickets to everyone who fills out your Door Prize Slip so you can still do a traditional prize drawing at the show. Team Survey: Create a form for your new Representative to find out their why, goals, dreams, strengths, etc. Or use it for an application to join your special training program. And more… What ideas do you have? Please share in the comments below. If Wi-Fi isn’t an option where you are, consider using your personal hotspot on your phone to provide Wi-Fi to your tablets! ——> Did this article help you? If so, it would mean a lot to me if you would share it with others. And, share your comments below! I would LOVE to know more about you and your thoughts on this subject! Liz Moorehead also recommends this free course: Fundamentals of Virtual Selling. I have a problem. I have to name everything. My car is named Moxie. (You know, like: “This girl’s got moxie!”) I also have a swell little hammer named Agnes. I just bought a really cool mid-century modern chair with mustard yellow cushions from 1955 for my new apartment, and I named him Gary. My favorite beer glass is named Kramer. Unfortunately for those who know me, this little “quirk” of mine is somehow both a feature and a bug. so to speak. Anyway, this otherwise annoying habit does have its uses. Particularly when it comes to naming things that are supposed to be named — like teams! Which is why you’re here, you plucky sales rockstars. For those of you who need a sales team that says, “I mean business! No, literally, I mean business — please sign this contract,” you’ve come to the right place. What follows are some of my favorite sales team name options ready-for-use. ## Best sales team names for clever closers 1. Closers Only Jacket 2. It’s Business Time 3. Proposal Pushers 4. Sultans of Sale 5. Quota Crushers 6. Revenue Your Engines 7. The Value Props 8. Pipeline Pros 9. One Call Closers 10. Arizona Oceanfront Property 11. Let’s Make a Deal 12. Empty Coffee Cups 13. Sir Close-a-Lot 14. The Cash Cows 15. Dollars to Donuts 🍩 1. Prospect Casanovas 2. Money Magnets 3. The Boiler Room 4. Profit Party 5. Cold Caller Ballers 6. Always Be Crushing 7. Commission Cowboys 8. Cubicle Closers 9. Miracle Workers 10. Sign Right Here 11. Closing Me Softly 12. Just Following Up 13. Come Sale Away 14. Funnel Floozies 15. The Closed Wons 1. Conversion Commanders 2. The Lead Hustlers 3. Use the (Sales)Force 4. Peaches and CRM 5. The BeeDees 6. Low-hanging Fruitpickers 7. Qualified Qualifiers 8. Coffee’s for Closers 9. Opportunity Knocks 10. Outbound Outlaws 11. The Money-makers 12. Risky Business 13. Slidin’ in Your InMails 14. When’s a Good Time to Call? 15. B2B Bosses 1. The Decision-makers 2. EOD Dominators 3. What Time Works Best for You? 4. Revenue Rodeo Clowns 5. The C-sweet Spot 6. Business as Usual 7. Bonus Earners 8. It’s Raining Leads 9. MQL Wranglers 10. Did You See My Last Email? 11. BD Bandits 12. The A-Team 13. Masters of Spin 14. Who’s the Boss? So what the heck is an NFT anyway? An NFT is a non-fungible token. This means that it’s unique and can not be replaced. It’s the opposite of something like Bitcoin which is fungible, meaning you can trade one Bitcoin for another with no issue. NFTs are part of the Ethereum blockchain. Ethereum, like Bitcoin, is a cryptocurrency and Ethereum’s blockchain supports NFTs. It’s a digital asset that represents an actual object like art or music. ## The Process of Creating an NFT To understand the process of creating an NFT, your girl decided to get her hands dirty and attempt it herself. You can check it out here on Rarible by the way. For my first NFT, I used some old parody artwork of the Powerpuff Girls as Westworld characters that I created in Adobe Illustrator a few years ago. Below, I have outlined the step by step process from my experience. #### Step 1 – Create Something The first step in the process of making an NFT, is to have something to make into an NFT. This can be digital art, a meme, songs or an entire album! Once you have your art, you are already on your way to creating an NFT. #### Step 2 – Set Up an Ethereum Wallet Next, you’ll need to set up a digital wallet where you’ll securely store your cryptocurrency. Since I’m new to the world of cryptocurrency, I used the highly recommended Coinbase Wallet. It was very easy to set up. I just downloaded it to my phone and followed the instructions. Here are a few well-known wallets to consider: Coinbase Wallet, MetaMask, AlphaWallet, and Rainbow. #### Step 3 – Purchase Some Ethereum Now that you have your wallet, you’ll have to purchase some Ethereum(ETH). This is important because there are some fees that are associated with the creation of an NFT, which I’ll cover more in the following steps. ETH is the cryptocurrency you’ll be using for NFTs. An NFT can only have one official owner at a time and they are secured by the ETH blockchain. This means no one can modify the record of ownership or copy/paste a new NFT into existence. #### Step 4 – Connect Your Wallet to an NFT Marketplace At this point, you should have your wallet set up with some ETH in it. Now you’re ready to connect your wallet to an NFT marketplace. There are quite a few marketplaces to choose from. Here are a few of the most popular according to Google: Rarible, OpenSea, SuperRare, and Foundation. • As I mentioned above, I used Rarible to list my first NFT. All I had to do to connect my wallet was go to the website and then click the “Connect Wallet” button in the top right-hand corner. • Next, choose the wallet provider that you chose in Step 2. • At this stage, a QR code will appear on your screen. You’re going to scan the QR code with your wallet app and confirm your Rarible connection. A corporate team is one that is formed within the company, among different departments and across different locations. These teams are pitted against each other in the in-house events as well as competitions that take place between companies, like sports tournaments. Having a good corporate team name promotes a sense of unity and goodwill at your workplace. A corporate team is one that is formed within the company, among different departments and across different locations. These teams are pitted against each other in the in-house events as well as competitions that take place between companies, like sports tournaments. Having a good corporate team name promotes a sense of unity and goodwill at your workplace. It is important to have a good corporate name for your team, as it fosters a feeling of teamwork and integrity. Irrespective of whether you are competing with your colleagues or with other companies, it gives you the feeling of collaboration and partnership. It also gives rise to a better professional environment, making the workplace much more fun to be in. The funny element here does not necessarily mean that your names need to sound hilarious and people need to start laughing. It should stand out in the sense that it could be quirky light-hearted, and at the same time professional, such that people have the impression that your team is cool, yet serious. – Funny Fliers – Software Comedians – Bean Secrets – Haughty Leaders – Breakfast Buddies – The Brainy Fools – Plugs for a Penny – Grilling Developers – Black Box Testers – Keyword A-la King – Cubicle Gigglers – The Back Benchers – Comic Fanatics – Bugs with Goggles – Fans of the Boss – Empty Coffee Cups These names could have motivational words, or anything encouraging that promotes a feeling of equality among the team members. – Hawk Insights – Single Voice – Professional Pirates – Dynamic Drillers – We Are Dynamite – The Elite Group – Priceless Brains – Awesome Admins – Legal Eliminators – Sparkling Newbies – The Football Lovers – Remarkable Falcons – Extreme Xplosions – Tycoon Gladiators – North Mavericks – The Hurricane Troupe You can name your team based on whichever department you belong to. You could belong to sales, design, marketing, development, writing, testing, deployment, etc. – Xpressive Advertisers – Sale on a Sail – Stock Holders – Property Crunchers – Audits Smash – The Rockin Edits – Planners on a Mission – Conceptualized Teams – Export Policies – The Firm Logistics – NewGen Leaders – Markets on the Rise – Executive Projects – The Optimized Brain – The Golden Writers – Detective Analysts Here, you can choose a name based on whichever industry you work for. You could be working in software, electronics, writing, cooking, textiles, etc. – Wired Technokrats – Soothing Prints – Greedy Foodies – Hot Toasters – Machine Specialists – Ancient Lawyers – Alternative Jurists – Fashionable Stars – Cool Translators – The Proud Linguist – Mythical Techies – Wandering Travelers – Delicious Chefs – Panoramic Views – Social Entrepreneurs – The Best Business Sometimes, you may have to form an all-male or an all-female team. For this purpose, some names are outlined below. – The Kool Gals – Brainy Buddies – Astonishing Giants – The Neanderthals – Krazzy Women – Ladies of the Gang – Power to the Gal – The Queen Bees – The Glamorous Divas – Creative Females – Dishy Dudes – Divine Angels – Rustic Blooms – Aromatic Perfumes – Crude Boys – White Tigers ### Tips for Choosing a Team Name • While choosing a name, always think of the underlying theme, i.e., whether you need a departmental name, or something quirky, or something exclusively related to sports. • Funny names are fine, as long as they do not sound too idiotic or unprofessional. • You can choose common interests among the staff and group them accordingly, and then select a name that best describes them. • The name shouldn’t be too long or too short. • Avoid using rhymes in the name, or too many numbers. For instance, something like ‘No pain, no gain’ or ‘Catcher 2453’ are good, but sound a little clichéd. • While using the location in the name, think twice about whether it sounds appropriate or not. Remember that a good corporate team name creates a feeling of oneness and equality among colleagues. It encourages teamwork and most importantly, brings in a feeling of sportsmanship. So, the next time you have to pool in suggestions for a team name at your workplace, try one of those enlisted above. Like it? Share it! • Share • Tweet • Pin • LinkedIn • Email Job Market I’m sure you’ve seen/and maybe even clicked on the links on Twitter and Facebook: What’s Your Gangsta Name? Discover Your Superhero Name. Well, for those of you struggling to come up with a Scrum team name, I’ve come up with what I hope is an entertaining way to determine your ideal agile team name. Or at least a way to have a few laughs about what that name could be. The formula is simple. And the results are simply Gucci (which according to the slang dictionaries out there means highly coveted, or just good). Enjoy a little summertime fun! And please post your Scrum Team name in the comments below. ## Try out the Better User Stories course for Free We’re giving free access to the first module of Better User Stories. Watch Mike walk through all 8 lessons including: sample stories, explaining the template, deferring detail and more. ## Try out the Better User Stories course for Free Posted: July 10, 2018 ## Tagged: ### About the Author Mike Cohn specializes in helping companies adopt and improve their use of agile processes and techniques to build extremely high-performance teams. He is the author of User Stories Applied for Agile Software Development, Agile Estimating and Planning, and Succeeding with Agile as well as the Better User Stories video course. Mike is a founding member of the Agile Alliance and Scrum Alliance and can be reached at [email protected] If you want to succeed with agile, you can also have Mike email you a short tip each week. ## You may also be interested in: ### What Is a High-Performing Agile Team? How to build and sustain a Scrum team that exceeds the sum of its parts. ### What Does Scrum Mean by Cross Functional Teams? What exactly does cross functional mean and why does it matter? posted on June 11, 2008 Naming your blog is an important aspect of blog branding, or blog success for that matter. It seems very important to my visitors too. Ever since my original “What’s In a Name?” post, people have been asking for advice on how to select the best name for their blog. As I said in the first post, When choosing a domain name there are some factors to consider: • How original and unique is it? • How descriptive is it? • What image does it convey? • Would you remember it after seeing it once? • Could you spell it after hearing it once? All these factors add up to a catchy blog name, but thinking up a catchy blog name is only getting more difficult as the best .com domains get more and more scarce. ### Tips for Creating the Best Blog Names When I chose my domain name I went for “me”, brevity and spelling. So many people get my surname wrong (even good friends of mine), keeping ‘Garrett’ (two r’s, ‘e’, two t’s) out of it seemed a good idea at the time. This site is about branding me, and by extension my business. I also registered my company name (which was one of the last remaining four letter .coms!), and of course Authority Blogger which is used for my forum, newsletter and the online blogging course and service selling coaching product I am developing. In my last post on blog naming I said: 1. Readable 2. Pronounceable 3. Spellable 4. Memorable 5. Concise 6. Unique In addition a good blog name evokes or describes what it represents, but how much it describes directly or over time with exposure is up to you and your advertising budget. chrisg.com represents me, Authority Blogger a product. One is very much in the short and descriptive, the other is somewhat descriptive, but more into the brand zone. The way I often select brandable names is to not go so far into invented names that you need massive buzz or huge budget for people to know what it is. Think Flickr, Zooomr and Plurk. Authority Blogger, CopyBlogger, ProBlogger, FreelanceSwitch don’t need quite as much imagination. ### Developing a Descriptive and Brandable Blog Name My simple technique for a descriptive but brandable domain is to combine target audience with benefits. Your Audience + Benefit = Targeted and Attractive Name So Authority Blogger shows bloggers how to grow their authority. RemarkableParents teaches parents how to be remarkable parents. OK, some great names are all benefits, but if you think about it they also select an audience, because the audience who wants those benefits is specific, such as ZenHabits. ### Avoid the Generic While it might be tempting to use generic words such as “World”, “Place”, “Thoughts”, “Central”, and they can get you out of a naming-hole, try to aim for specific and unique words that will hold firm in the brain of your audience. You will find it much easier to gain traction by communicating a unique and specific benefit to a targeted audience rather than something wide and loose such as “widget world”. ### About Using Keywords + ‘Blog’ in the Name Some names are all target audience, SEO keywords, or very plainly descriptive, for example I used to own a blog called DSLRBlog. This was a blog about DSLR cameras and photography. Actually I now think “blog” might be as bad or worse than the generic names I list above and the combination of keyword+blog, though initially seeming a good idea for search traffic. It probably held the site back. You see, nobody searches for “DSLR Blog” apart from people were looking for my blog. So while keywords do have an SEO benefit, I wonder if branding combined with killer content has as much or more benefit longer term. Lately I’m actually steering away from “blog” in the name because I come across more and more people who are put off or confused by the word. Also I see those domains not aging or expanding as well. It could well be in a few years we don’t call it blogging, or you might want to develop your blog into a member site. ### Have Fun With Your Name If your blog is not going to be mega serious then have fun with it. Fun, humor, are incredibly effective for both getting noticed and being memorable. A perfect example in my mind is MenWithPens, it’s both evocative of their service and fun. Another is RottenTomatoes. One thing to avoid though with humor or fun is inside jokes as they have a tendency to exclude rather than attract. ### Summary When inventing names for your blog, think about • Who your blog is for • What the reader benefit will be • The personality you want to evoke • Where and how you want to use the name • Possible future directions • How you can position against the established names Got any more tips or examples of brilliant blog names? Please share in the comments … Naming a new school or renaming an existing one, you need to follow some guidelines depending on your country, state, and the ministry controlling education. The name should be submitted for approval as it would have to be reviewed before you’re given the go-ahead. Not only should the ministry of education or one of its tiers approve your new school name, but you’ll also have to register it with the corporate affairs commission in your country to ensure you’re not taking an already registered business name. This can really be a ‘pain in the ass’ finding good unique school names suggestions but there’s a way out of this. School names generators can be a little helpful and while the applications in this regard are limited, you can get some names with the following tools. Fantasynamegenerators: This is a very popular application for getting a unique new school names list. This is best used to get play school names suggestions or fake high school names for stories. If you’re writing a fictional book or movie and don’t want to use real names, I’d suggest this program. Most of the names are either generic or peculiar to a place or culture, mostly I’m England. In short, they’re mostly towns’ names. The reason for this may be due to the belief of the author that, most schools are named after important personalities in the society, town, or city, or a heritage common to people in a place. Some of the names gotten during our review are • Deer River School for Girls • Waterford Technical School • Timber Creek School • Oak Park High School • Forest Lake University • Whale Coast Charter School • Clearwater Middle School • Sunshine University • East Shores School of Fine Arts • Pine Hills Institute fungenerators is a random school name generator you can use to find good names that are suitable for your new school. It can randomly create between three to five names having between two to four words. If you’re planning to go into the education business and decide to set up an institution of learning, be it elementary school (preschool), high school, college, or university (post-secondary), you can find unique school names suggestions. They are always cool, unique, and creative English school names. If your academy is not about formal education, maybe it’s a driving academy, dance, football, music, cooking, martial arts academy, or a host of others. You can continue to refresh the page to continue getting the list of English names to come up with a sound idea for your academy. Namestation is another site to help you get your brand name with the possibility of registering a domain name with it immediately. It’s not a perfect one for getting your new school name but can still help. For example, if you want suggested names for music school or school music club names, all-girls school, only boarding school, creepy, royal, or any prestigious school, you can add a predefined word, including “school” to get a unique name. You can now verify if the newly chosen name is available to be registered as a domain for use online. For those who want new school name suggestions in India or a Japanese school name generator, there’s no specific program for these two purposes. However, you can use this tool or check the complete list of our business and brand name generator to help you with your new school name suggestions. ### By Maryn Liles Parade ### More by Maryn • 22 Best All-Inclusive Resorts in America—No Passport Required! • 50 Patriotic Memorial Day Quotes That Honor Our Nation’s Veterans • 50 Fun Ideas to Celebrate Father’s Day That Will Show Dad How Much You Care Picking a last name is tricky, whether you’re looking for the coolest last names for characters in a novel, need a unique last name for fantasy, gaming usernames or online role-play scenarios. You don’t want to choose something that sounds fake, but you don’t necessarily want something that’s really common either. This list of cool last names covers all the bases, including cute and pretty last names for girls, powerful and interesting last names for guys, uncommon and unique last names for fantasy characters and more. But before you dive in, read up! Knowing these tips for how to choose a cool last name can help you make the perfect first name and surname pairing. ## How To Choose a Cool Last Name Before you scroll through the list of last name ideas, check out these tips for how to pick a name for your beloved characters: 1. Consider the meaning. With each name, there is a meaning behind it and by choosing the name with the right meaning, you can give insight into who your character is. Do the legwork to research what a last name means and consider how that applies to your characters. As you do so, you might even explore a new facet of your character’s personality. 2. See how it sounds with the first name. While this tip might seem obvious, it’s worth paying special attention to. How a last name sounds with the first name can often be the deciding factor as to how real the name sounds. And don’t just read them to yourself—say the name out loud a few times and in a few different scenarios, too. 3. Count how many syllables it is. You find a last name you love, but how many syllables is it? This really does matter, because most last names only have a couple of syllables. The longer it is or the more syllables there are, the more likely it will trip up your reader. Related: Unique Words 4. Ask yourself what “feeling” the last name creates and if it matches with your character’s persona. You know your characters so well, but your reader is just meeting them for the first time. How their name feels is as important as what it is. Keep this in mind and how you want your reader to feel about a character. 5. Consider its uniqueness. Depending on the character, you might want a more unique last name. However, a more tertiary character might call for a simpler, more common last name. Take into account how familiar your reader will feel with the name and whether that will distract from your story. If you want ideas for a new rap name, simply use our rap name generator below. Click the ‘Generate My Rap Name’ button and we’ll show some name suggestions each time you do. ## How To Come Up With A Rap Name Using This Rap Name Generator Creating your own rap name couldn’t be easier. Simply click the above ‘Generate My Rap Name’ button and we’ll give you a new one. From here you can either choose to use it, or you can click the button again to get another idea. Not all rap names you create will be suitable for you, but click enough and you’re sure to find an awesome one you like. That’s how to make a rap name fast. ## Cool And Creative Rap Name Ideas If you don’t want to use the above random rap name generator, below are some rap name ideas you can use. Suitable for males and females: • Greezy Trillion • Muscled dukes • Scamazon Tinee • Old Man ‘First Letter Of Your Last Name’ • Big 4 • Mama Made 2 Gangster • Coco Paper • Holy ‘First Letter Of Your Last Name’ • Hats Down East • Leo Drinkz • Viral Dimes • Dirty Thrones • Platinum G • Certi Cream • Gappy 9 • Coco Gold • Evergreen Smith • Three Time Son • YOUR INNITIALS 4000 • Clean The Stunter ## Can I Keep The Hip Hop Name I Generate? While we encourage you to use any name you find here if it’s not already taken, be sure to do a check and see that no other rapper is already using it. As these names are generated randomly, at some stage it might generate the name of an existing rapper or hip-hop artist. My advice is to get 3 – 5 names you like and could use, then do a Google search to see which names are free to use. From there, pick your final name as long as it’s unused. Don’t forget, you could always modify the names given here if you like the suggestion but feel it could be better if changed a bit. ## What Kind Of Rap Names Can I Make? This generator is suitable for any sub-genre of hip hop. For example: • A trap name. • A drill name. • A grime name. • A chopper name. • A breakbeat name. • A Christian hip hop name. • A crunk name. • And any other type of rap name can be made; it even works if you’re a Soundcloud rapper. ## Random Rap Name Generator Conclusion So that’s how to find your catchy rapper name, I hope you found this music tool useful. If it has, please share it with friends and other rappers so they can stop wondering ‘what is my rapper name?’. 🙂 Furthermore, let us know in the comments; what rap name did you generate? ## Note: Looking To Make A Band Name? If you also want to create a band name, check out our band name generator here. If you could define the most successful flight department, what would it look like? How would the team act toward each other? Would your executive transportation services be different? Would flight operations change? In our last blog post, we explained why it’s important to create a vision, mission and values for your flight department. And we shared five steps on how to organize a successful offsite. The second step in this process is to define your vision. What’s that, you ask? ## Define the Aviation Team Vision Statement A team vision statement is a… • Short sentence or tagline, if you will, that defines where you want to go • Expression of your future state of being • Theme that inspires and connects people • Common view of how things should be ## 7 Tips to Writing your Aviation Team Vision Statement 1. Define Your Future State Ask your team to define the perfect state of being,and then write it down in the present tense. Why do you exist? What’s your purpose? • Microsoft: “A computer on every desktop.” • Nike: “To bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world.” • Apple: “A computer in the hands of everyday people.” • Charles Schwab: “Helping investors help themselves.” • Disney: “Make people happy.” • Google: “To provide access to the world’s information in one click.” 2. Make it Memorable A team vision is written as a short sentence or statement. And it should inspire. It should be to the point and easy to remember. A well-written vision can give you goose bumps. It should be powerful and say “We do this” — not “We want to do this” or, “We’re going to do this.” 3. Keep in Sync Your vision statement should connect your aviation department and host organization together. It should spell out how the two groups are in sync. Thus, the phrase should resonate with both groups. The power of advocacy magnifies ten-fold if you both say what you’re all about in the same way. 4. Gain Consensus One of the important things in this process is inclusion. Everybody needs to have a say and feel a sense of ownership. After all, it’s your team’s vision—not the director’s or reporting executive’s sole vision. The statement should answer the question, “If everything is going right and the way we want things to, here’s what it looks like.” To get buy-in, refer to the vision frequently at all levels in the flight department. This will legitimize it. When it’s done right, it’s not a waste of time. 5. Make it Achievable A great vision is achievable. But, it should also cause the organization to stretch. Just think of Michelangelo’s famous painting, The Creation of Adam. You see God and Adam’s fingers very close—almost touching. You vision should always be a stretch, but within reach. 6. Make it Visible It’s your team’s vision. Be proud! Make your tagline visible almost everywhere you go. Put it on giant posters or paint the phrase on the hangar wall or in your lobby. Let your executives, employees and passengers know what you’re about. Put it on your notebook binders and your passenger briefing cards. Think of it as branding for your flight department. Translate into an image, a visual your team can relate to. You should see your vision statement a few times when walking through flight department facilities. 7. Align with your Goals Every year when you set your new annual goals and objectives, you should revisit your vision, mission and values to see if you’r eon track. Are your new initiatives going to help you achieve your “larger than life purpose?” Does your vision increase your alignment you with corporate? Usually the vision changes very little, but the mission might change. ## Great! But How Will We Get There? Think of your vision in terms of an American football game. You want all of the organization’s players to operate with a clear, common vision — to get down the field and score! And it’s important that everyone knows his or her role in making the next touchdown. But to accomplish the vision, you’ll need a mission– or a playbook — to help every team member make the necessary passes,maneuvers and tackles to get to the future state of being. Then, finally, creating the team’s values ensures that the team is operating as cohesive unit. There’s camaraderie, integrity, respect and alignment. ## Next Step Do your existing aviation team vision, mission and values statements need some work? Or does your aviation organization still need to develop them? Perhaps your team could benefit from a strategy session or offsite meeting facilitated by impartial business aviation experts? From your brand name to your domain, everything has to be designed so your business stands out. In this article, we tell about how to make a unique email address and how Clean Email can help your inbox stay uncluttered. Clean Email Take control of your mailbox ## What is a Unique Email Address A unique email address is simply a form of identification for you or your brand – a name that only you have access to. It functions as a unique signature so people who interact with you can identify you anytime and anywhere. It could be a custom email such as [email protected] or simply [email protected] The important thing is that it is unique, it intrigues, it is only owned by you, and it can always be remembered. ## Why Your Mail Account Has to Be Distinctive There are 7 billion people on the face of the planet today. Other than the fear of global warming, being lost or unrecognized as a person or business is another thing that accompanies the problem of the world population. While some people want to live their lives without being noticed, that does not apply for businesses. As a business, not being known is equivalent to not making an impact, and not making an impact equals not succeeding at the level you ought to. This is why everything from your business name,logo, and domain needs to be distinctive. Get rid of email clutter and simplify email management with Clean Email. ## How to Create a Unique Email Address Creating a unique email address for personal or business use isn’t at all tricky. Being creative and attentive is how you can create distinctive addresses for business or pleasure. Here are a few tips on how to make a unique email address for personal usage, and for your brand. 1. Make it memorable: Having an account that is hard to pronounce will be a problem to always remember. Ensure that the name used is common spelling and makes sense when pronounced together. For example, instead of [email protected], go with the known spelling [email protected] 2. Make your email distinctive to you or your business: As a business or even an individual, in order to avoid being confused for another user or brand, ensure your chosen name is distinctive to you and you alone. As an individual, if you have a pretty common first and last name, it will be preferable to add a middle name. For brands/companies, ideally, your brand mail address should always be a customized account bearing your brand name. This means that picking the right domain for your company goes back to picking the right name for your business. Like picking a name for your personal account, the same principles apply. Pick a name with no name variation with any other brand. 3. Pick a name that reflects your personality: This applies to brand names and personal emails. If you are a golfer or a golf business, it is wise to have a name variation that conveys what your brand is about or what you are passionate about. 4. Stay away from rare characters: If you have to use a character in your emails, ensure you stay away from rare characters. Use only common characters. 5. Use popular service providers: Using service providers that aren’t common might affect your account uniqueness. Always use popular service providers such as Gmail, or Yahoo Mail for your personal mail. ## How to Find a Unique Domain Name Having trouble generating your own mail address or brand name or simply just looking for domain name or unique email address ideas, here is a list of unique email address generators that can give you creative ideas. 1. Spinxo: Spinxo is a unique email address generator. They asked you a few questions about your interests and help you generate a username for your account. 2. Romarto: Unlike Spinxo, Romarto asks about your profession and full name to help generate ideas for your account. 3. Kparser: This tool simply asks you to fill in a few preferred keywords, and they take it from there. 4. Namefresh: Namefresh is a domain generator. It asks for one or two preferred keywords which it uses to generate a few domain ideas. 5. Namecheap: Namecheap is a domain hosting and domain selling platform. However, they also offer domain name generator. With the platform’s beast generator, you can fill in up to 5,000 preferred keywords and even filter result ideas by domain price range, and other options. Other domain generators are LeanDomainSearch, BustAName, and Shopify name generator. So if you have been asking the question of how do I find a unique domain name, these tools alongside the listed tips can help you achieve just that. ## How Clean Email Simplifies Email Management Instead of having to manage emails one by one, Clean Email can help make the process automated. Clean Email is a privacy-conscious third-party application helping millions of users manage their mailbox. The app supports a variety of service providers and can be used across all devices. ## Conclusion Having a unique email address as a business and as an individual is very important both for business success, for ease in identification, and for professionalism. Having a distinctive mail account is not all, using Clean Email to manage your mailbox is how you can make the most out of your emails. ### What is a Unique Email Address — FAQs #### What is a unique email address? It is an account with a name that belongs to you, and you alone. This means there are no variations of the said name. Check the full article to get into more details. #### How do I get a unique email address? Getting a unique email address is all about being creative with your use of words. With over 4.3 billion emails in existence, it is unlikely you will find your desired mail account. Learn the best tips on how to come up with a unique name creatively. #### Should you use your name in your email address? Using your full name without adding numbers or symbols is perfect. However, there is a slim chance you will get a mail address with your full name. If you find your name available, then by all means use it. However, if you did not, check out the full article for alternatives. #### How do I find a unique domain name? You can use a domain generator like Namefresh, BustAName, or LeanDomainSearch to come up with your own unique domain name. # How to create a fake vial of poison ## Want to know how you can unlock the Lethal poison vial in Hitman 3? Keep reading Lethal Poison Vial in Hitman 3 can be an assassin’s most favored gadget as it will help you take care of your targets without anyone knowing and make it look like an accidental death. If this is something that you’re looking to know how to get it. Make sure to read this guide until the end. ## How To Get Lethal Poison Vial In Hitman 3 To get Lethal Poison Vial in Hitman 3 you will need to reach Mastery Level 10 in the Berlin Map in the game. Once you unlock this level, you will receive the lethal poison vial that you can use to kill your enemies without leaving a trail and making it look accidental. Replayability is the main focus of the game and there’s always more to do when you’re playing Hitman 3, while you won’t be able to unlock it during your first playthrough, earning more XP should help you get to your goal. You can earn tons of XP in Hitman 3 by playing the objective and do it in a real silent assassin fashion, leave no trail and always be quiet. The stealthier your kills and takedowns are the faster and more XP you will earn in the game. Berlin mission is titled Apex Predator, and there’s a ton of things to do and explore here like finding all the Yellow Bird Graffiti. You will need to find all 7 of these to complete the task and earn handsome rewards, there always the Coconut Ball Surprise feat that you can check out to earn XP. Make sure to take out all the ICA agents discreetly and the XP will keep on rising and you will unlock Mastery Level 10 before you realize in Berlin in Hitman 3. This is all there is to know about how to unlock the Lethal Poison Vial in Hitman 3, if you’re curious about all the other Mastery Rewards in Hitman 3, make sure to check them out here. So, you’re about to make some poison in Moons of Madness, but you can’t quite figure out how to make it work? Not to worry, that’s what this guide is here for. This little puzzle is actually pretty simple. Each vial tells you what adding it will change in the diagram. A single instance is blue, a second one makes it red, and a third makes it purple. On top of that, you need to balance the centrifuge before it’ll work. If you don’t know what that means, it’s exactly what it sounds like. To make things easier, I’ve taken pictures that show you what to do. Just add the vials that aren’t on the right in the same positions you see in the pictures. Then, you’ll have you some nifty plant poison. That’s all you need to do! Follow these images, and you’ll be cranking out poison in Moons of Madness in no time. Just don’t try to repeat the process in real life. Assuming you can even gain access to a real-life centrifuge in the first place, it’s probably not going to be this simple to pull off. Also, you likely shouldn’t be making real-life poisons to begin with. Come back to PC Invasion for more guides on how to survive Moons of Madness! So I have been playing D&D for some while now, since 3.5 (skipped 4e) and crafting in D&D has always been something I detest as its REALLY poorly handled in my opinion as a game designer myself. I am currently DMing a game and one of my PCs is a rogue who has a poisoners kit and wants to develop poisons to coat his weapons. I can easily homebrew some stuff up if needed. But I was curious if there was anything in RAW (either DMG or PHB) that states what it takes to actually create your own poisons, and what poisons a player can create. Page numbers to support claims is highly preferred. I have looked through the books but was unable to find anything substantial except for the Poisoners Kit which says something along the lines of “Allows the Player to create poisons”. If there are no RAW solutions to this problem I have something in my back pocket for it so that isn’t really what I am looking for. ## 4 Answers 4 The DMG pp. 257-258 has a bit of what you’re looking for: descriptions of fourteen sample poisons, with damages and costs. A few individual descriptions contain enough detail to make (some) ingredients obvious–see Carrion Crawler Mucus and Serpent Venom, for example. As for crafting poison. During downtime between adventures a character can use the crafting rules in the Player’s Handbook to create basic poison if the character has proficiency with a poisoner’s kit. At your discretion the character can create other kinds of poison. Not all poison ingredients are available for purchase, and tracking down certain ingredients might form the basis of an entire adventure. (DMG p.258, emphasis mine) Even combined with the PHB Poisoner’s Kit (p.154: “Proficiency with this kit lets you add your proficiency bonus to any ability checks you make to craft or use poisons.”) and Crafting (p.187) sections, there’s not much here to go on. Combining all three sources could go something like this: 1. Character would like to make Assassin’s Blood poison (DMG 257-8). It costs 150 gp to purchase. 2. Crafting such a poison will take 30 days (1 day per 5 gp) along with proficiency in the poisoner’s kit (PHB 187). 3. At the end of the 30 days character will make a check to see if the crafting was successful. Let’s base this check off of the example of Serpent’s Venom on DMG p.258: 1. It’s a DC 20 Nature check to harvest the serpent’s venom, which creates a poison with a DC 11 Con save. Since the Con save for Assassin’s Blood is only 10, your crafting DC for the Assassin’s Blood poison should be less than 20. 2. Failing the harvest-check badly can go badly for the character. Ditto brewing Assassin’s Blood (or distilling, or decanting, or whatever). I think that’s all the rules have got for you. And here’s my bonus inspiration for GMs that read this far: the bottle of ‘wine’ I saw at my doctor’s office this afternoon. Yes, that’s a bottle of wine with an entire cobra in it. And yes, in the cobra’s mouth is a whole scorpion. Give me a decent bottle of poison and I’ll construct the perfect crime. — Agatha Christie The victim in your latest crime manuscript slips under the bedsheets after drinking a nightcap of cognac, hot water and honey. Unbeknownst to her, the cocktail has been laced with cyanide by her jilted lover. How long before the poison takes effect? How much cyanide would be required for a fatal dose? Does she slip quietly into the afterlife, or convulse violently in agony for hours? Will the poison be detectable in an autopsy? When writing about poisoning in crime fiction, these are the types of questions you’ll likely have. Toxicology is a complex science and there are a multitude of dangerous drugs, toxins and venoms around us. This article is a guide to help you focus your research and answer these questions if you’re planning on killing your darlings with poison. ## Pick Your Poison ‘Poison’ is an informal term used to describe any substance that can cause death when introduced to the human body. This means snake venom, paint thinner, fentanyl and plutonium are all considered poisons. The possibilities for killing your characters with poison are nearly limitless given the large number of them in our world. But with endless possibilities comes an incredibly wide scope of research. Your first step in narrowing things down will be to choose a poison that suits your manuscript needs. Availability should always factor into your choice. It would be difficult for a common thug or a jealous spouse to get their hands on a dose of ricin, a vial of cyanide or a nugget of Polonium-210. That’s why most cases of criminal poisoning in North America involve household chemicals or forced overdoses of common medications. Ethylene glycol, or antifreeze, is a dangerous weapon that can be purchased at the gas station. It tastes sweet and can kill even in small doses. Life-saving insulin is found in every diabetic’s medicine cabinet, but a high dose injection can easily be fatal. It can be tempting to choose exotic toxic flowers and rare spider venoms to kill your victims, but sometimes simplicity can be the best answer. Unless your villain is a botanist or a chemical engineer. Dose is also an important consideration. The cyanide in the tea cup above might cause near instant death if the amount is high enough. But if the killer underestimates the dose, the victim may only suffer from headaches, vertigo and difficulty breathing. Make sure that a fatal dose of the poison you choose can reasonably fit into the vessel in which it is consumed. A chart of median lethal doses of common poisons can be found here. ## Work on Your Delivery The method of introducing the poison into the fictional victim is often more interesting than the poison itself. In 1978, Bulgarian secret police killed dissident novelist Georgi Markov at a bus stop by injecting ricin into his calf using an umbrella-gun. You can’t make this stuff up. Don’t be afraid to get creative with how the poison is introduced to the victim. Imagine adding strychnine to your victim’s contact solution. Or as fiction blogger Michele Acker suggests, using honey made by bees who have been fed on poisonous plants, or slipping a toxic mushroom into their salad. Think outside the box and your manuscript will benefit from it. ## Forensics and Toxicology The burden of determining the cause of death in a murder falls with the coroner or medical examiner. With recent advances in forensic and medical technology, very few poisons remain undetectable. Toxicologists may not be able to find traces of the actual poison in the victim after it breaks down, but they will find chemicals and compounds that result when the human body metabolizes a particular toxin. During an autopsy, technicians may also notice specific changes in the liver, kidneys or intestines of the victim as a result of the poison. Colour changes in body parts, damage to certain organs and trace elements of specific chemicals are all tell-tale signs of different poisons. The days of detectives being baffled by sudden deaths as a result of untraceable poisons are long gone. That isn’t to say that mystery toxins don’t exist, but they are becoming exceedingly rare. For more on toxicology, check out Chapter 11 of my go-to book on this: Forensics for Writers. And don’t forget, if you have a specific question about toxicology that you can’t find an answer for, you can always ask a toxicologist directly. ## Fake It Until You Make It If you can’t find a suitable poison in your research that meets the needs of your plot, don’t be afraid to make one up. There’s no shortage of phony toxins in fiction: meta-cyanide in Frank Herbert’s Dune, nightlock in The Hunger Games, and ice-nine from Vonnegut’s Cat’s Cradle. All of these poisons are deadly and completely fictitious. The main device in the Jason Statham film, Crank, was an imaginary synthetic drug called the Beijing Cocktail that you can only fight off with high levels of adrenaline. Pharmaceutical companies are developing new experimental drugs all the time. Rare medicinal plants and ancient remedies are still being discovered deep in the jungles and rainforests of the planet. So as long as your invented poison isn’t too far-fetched, your readers shouldn’t have a hard time swallowing it. ## Further Research Two books I would recommend for crime writers interested in poisons are The Poisoner’s Handbook: Murder and the Birth of Forensic Medicine in Jazz Age New York by Pulitzer Prize-winning writer Deborah Blum, and A is for Arsenic: The Poisons of Agatha Christie by chemist and author Kathryn Harkup. The former is an in-depth look at early 20th Century poisoning cases in New York and the city’s first forensic toxicologist. The latter is a complete breakdown of every poisoning Agatha Christie ever penned in her books. It’s also filled with lots of useful scientific information. And, if you plan on having a recurring forensic character who sometimes deals with poisonings, Principles of Forensic Toxicology by Barry Levine is a somewhat pricey, but comprehensive textbook used by students and interns as a primer in this field. If you want to get really technical about toxicology in your manuscript, this is your book. ## How do you make a homemade Poison Ivy costume? 1. Step 1: Cut the Leaves. Cut every leaf off from your artificial ivy vine. 2. Step 2: Start ‘Planting’ the Leaves on Your Corset. Use your glue gun to affix the leaves on your Poison Ivy corset. … 3. Step 3: Glue Leaves to Your Skivvies. … 4. Step 5: The Final Touches. ## How do you dress up like poison ivy? For starters, you can choose between a full green jumpsuit or a bodysuit over tights in varying shades of green for your DIY Poison Ivy costume; you can go heavy with green makeup or bring a focal point to life with vivid green colored contacts. ## How do you make poison ivy makeup? ## Is poison ivy a Halloween costume? As Halloween approaches, it’s time to start thinking of what you want to dress up as. Year on year, DC Comics’ Poison Ivy is a popular choice, as you can feel ‘dressy’ as well as being in costume. ## Who was Poison Ivy’s love interest? ## How do you make a poison ivy bodysuit? ### DIY Poison Ivy Cosplay Costume Tutorial | Lisa Alavi – YouTube ## How do you put fake leaves on clothes? Using a hot glue gun, place a small drop of glue on the stem portion of each leaf and press gently to the dress to secure. Hold your finger in place for five to 10 seconds to ensure the leaf has adhered to the fabric. Remove the pin after you are certain the leaf is secure. ## Is Poison Ivy a good guy? ## What Colour is Poison Ivy’s hair? Due to the effects of her mutation, Poison Ivy had forest green skin, full green eyeballs and green irises. She had full lips, probably because of her red lipstick, and had long red curly hair that was mostly stationary. ## Can poison ivy go through gloves? Clean surfaces such as camping gear, gardening tools, and sporting equipment. Wear vinyl or cotton gloves when handling or washing items that have touched poison ivy. Thin rubber (latex) gloves offer no protection, because urushiol can penetrate rubber. ## How do you clean poison ivy off shoes? ## How do I put poison ivy on my eyebrows? ## Who is Harley Quinn’s best friend? Poison Ivy Harley’s best friend and fellow Arkham Asylum escapee is Dr. Pamela Isley (aka Poison Ivy), the deuteragonist of the DC Universe’s animated Harley Quinn franchise. ## How do you make fairy wings? ## Who is the new Poison Ivy? Nicole Kang On Friday, The CW unveiled the first photo of Nicole Kang, who plays series regular Dr. Mary Hamilton, as Poison Ivy. Over the last several episodes, Mary has been more and more frustrated with her supporting role to Batwoman.Nov 19, 2021 ## Is Poison Ivy barefoot? She wore an undone red shirt with a popped collar and had a collection of leaves that were worn as underwear. The top of her shirt was one gold button, and uses to keep the shirt closed and her bosom from being exposed and she did walk barefoot. ## Does Poison Ivy have a daughter? Ivy successfully delivered her two sporelings in secret, naming them Rose and Hazel. ## Does Poison Ivy eat meat? ## Is Poison Ivy contagious? Can you get a poison ivy rash from someone else? The rash isn’t contagious. If someone has a rash, touching that rash won’t cause a rash on your skin. You can develop a rash, if you touch the person’s skin or clothing while oil from one of these plants is still on it. ## Does Harley Quinn get with Poison Ivy? ## What should I be Halloween 2021? • Starting with, of course, Lil Nas X as the Devil. … • A Squid Game player. … • A Squid Game guard. … • Or the creepy killer statue from Squid Game. … • A petrol pump. … • Cruella De Vil from Cruella. … • Boris Johnson’s running outfit. … • The COVID vaccine. ## How do you attach fake ivy to clothing? First, slide off the stems from the branch, so you’re left with several leaves joined together with a convenient hole. Thread your needle through this convenient hole, and attach to the dress. ## How do you make ivy leaves out of fabric? ## Can you hot glue flowers to a dress? ## Are Catwoman and Poison Ivy friends? After they are defeated by Catwoman and Batman, Catwoman then tells Poison Ivy that they are no longer friends, after Ivy had drugged Catwoman in an attempt to discover Batman’s identity. ## Who does Poison Ivy marry? The longtime partners Harley Quinn and Poison Ivy have made their marriage official, with their wedding now confirmed in DC’s Injustice. ## Who played Poison Ivy in Batman Forever? ## Can Batman beat Poison Ivy? 10 Would Destroy: Batman Since Poison Ivy resides in Gotham, it won’t come as a surprise that she and Batman have crossed paths multiple times, and it usually wasn’t the friendliest of meetings. They fought, sometimes Batman won, sometimes Ivy did. ## What is Poison Ivy’s weakness? ## Does Poison Ivy like Kite Man? ## Can poison ivy survive the washing machine? You’ll need to put your washer on the hottest setting for the largest load setting, for the longest time setting. This sounds pretty wasteful, but it’s the most efficient way besides dry cleaning to remove poison ivy from clothing. Be sure you use a full scoop of detergent, and don’t fill the washing machine up. ## Can poison ivy go through clothes? Every year, more than 10 million unlucky Americans suffer the itching, swelling and blistering that poison ivy leaves in its wake. This seemingly harmless plant’s oil can travel through the air, be transferred through clothing and can even attack days after you’ve been outside. ## My DIY Poison Ivy Costume! ## HOW-TO | DIY Poison Ivy Cosplay Costume Tutorial | Lisa Alavi ## My DIY POISON IVY COSTUME | Ft. Amazon | VLOG ## My DIY Poison Ivy Costume. | VLOG poison ivy costume accessories poison ivy costume party city poison ivy couple costume last minute poison ivy costume diy poison ivy costume bodysuit poison ivy costume amazon One of the the liquids than an alchemy jug can produce is 1/2 ounce of basic poison. However, there is no indication in the item’s description of how much you can do with this amount of poison. In the description for a poison vial, it says you can coat 1 weapon or 3 pieces of ammunition with the poison from one vial, but it doesn’t say how much poison comes in a vial. So, is the half ounce of poison from an alchemy jug intended to be equivalent to one vial? If not, how many weapons or pieces of ammunition can be coated using the half ounce of poison? ## 3 Answers 3 ### There are no numbers given for how much poison is contained in a vial of basic poison, how big that vial is, or how much a single “dose” of poison is so it’s hard to say with 100% certainty and ultimately comes down to DM ruling. A vial from the equipment list can hold up to 4 ounces of liquid (PHB, pg. 153). Assuming a vial of basic poison contains a full 4 ounces of poison, then this gives us 25% weapon coverage per ounce of poison (or 12.5% per half-ounce), and 75% coverage on 1 piece of ammunition per ounce (or 37.5% cover on 1 piece of ammunition per half-ounce). In short, you wouldn’t be able to cover even one piece of ammunition, let alone one weapon, with the half-ounce of poison the alchemy jug produces and it would take you at least 8 days to produce enough poison to fill a vial. However, page 139 of the DMG states that: Most potions consist of one ounce of liquid. Basic poison isn’t a magic item or a potion but it is clear that a 4 ounce vial isn’t the standard liquid container. If a vial of basic poison is only one ounce then you could cover half a weapon or 1.5 pieces of ammunition and would only take 2 days to gain enough poison for full coverage. Option 3 is to keep it simple. Don’t get bogged down with unnecessary levels of finicky detail trying to figure out how many ounces are in a single dose of poison; the designers sure didn’t in this instance. If we keep things simple then the half-ounce of poison produced by an alchemy jug is equivalent to and follows the same rules as the vial of basic poison. I think your first instinct is the correct one: the half-ounce of poison is a single dose, suitable for the standard one weapon or three pieces of ammunition. How many ounces are there in a vial of poison? While “a vial” is an intentionally vague amount that could range from several ounces to just a bit of fluid, we can use weight to put some limits on it. In the Player’s Handbook, there are a small number of items with listed weight under a pound, which is of course 16 ounces. The smallest is the piton, at 1/4 pound, or 4 ounces. Since a vial of poison has negligible weight, at most it must be somewhat less than 4 ounces in total — and that includes the glass, stopper, and fluid together. I don’t think it’s possible to narrow it down much more than that from weight. But, logically, a vial of poison really can’t contain multiple ounces of fluid, or it would be able to coat much more than three arrowheads (or one blade). Even accounting for waste, half an ounce seems like a reasonable amount of viscous fluid to smear on a handheld object without dumping it all over the place or having a lot of poison left over. Etsy предоставляет возможность прямой связи покупателей и продавцов со всего мира. Когда вы используете сервисы Etsy (мы будем называть etsy.com, Pattern by Etsy, наши мобильные приложения и другие сервисы нашими «Сервисами»), вы несете ответственность за соблюдение этой политики, независимо от вашего местоположения. Эта политика является частью наших Условий использования. Используя любые наши Сервисы, вы соглашаетесь с этой политикой и нашими Условиями использования. Как транснациональная компания из США, ведущая деятельность в других странах, Etsy должна соблюдать экономические санкции и торговые ограничения, включая введенные Управлением по контролю за иностранными активами (OFAC) Министерства финансов США. Это означает, что Etsy или кто-либо, пользующийся нашими Сервисами, не может участвовать в транзакциях, в которые вовлечены определенные люди, места или изделия из этих мест, указанные государственными органами, такими как OFAC, в дополнение к торговым санкциям, предусмотренным соответствующими законами и нормами. Эта политика действует в отношении всех, кто использует наши Сервисы, независимо от их местоположения. Решение об ознакомлении с такими ограничениями остается за вами. Например, эти ограничения в целом запрещают, кроме прочего, транзакции, в которых участвуют следующие стороны: 1. определенные географические регионы, такие как Иран, Крым, Куба, Северная Корея, Сирия, Россия, Беларусь, Донецкая Народная Республика («ДНР»), Луганская Народная Республика («ЛНР»), а также любые физические или юридические лица, ведущие деятельность или находящиеся на этих территориях; 2. физические или юридические лица, состоящие в санкционных списках, таких как Список лиц особых категорий и запрещенных лиц (SDN) или Список иностранных лиц, уклоняющихся от санкций (FSE) организации OFAC; 3. граждане Кубы независимо от их местоположения, не имеющие гражданства или вида на жительство за пределами Кубы; и 4. изделия, из Ирана, Крыма, Кубы и Северной Кореи, за исключением информационных материалов, таких как публикации, фильмы, постеры, грампластинки, фотографии, кассеты, компакт-диски и определенные произведения искусства. 5. Любые товары, услуги и технологические решения из ЛНР и ДНР за исключением информационных материалов и сельскохозяйственной продукции, в том числе продуктов питания для людей, семян сельскохозяйственных культур или удобрений. 6. Импорт в США следующей продукции российского происхождения: рыба, морепродукты, алмазы непромышленного назначения и любая другая продукция, согласно периодическим указаниям министра торговли США. 7. Экспорт из США либо гражданами США предметов роскоши и любых других товаров, согласно указаниям министра торговли США, любому лицу, находящемуся в России или Беларуси. Список и определение «предметов роскоши» приведены в «Дополнение № 5 к Разделу 746», опубликованном Федеральным реестром США. 8. Изделия, изготовленные за пределами США и попадающие под действие Закона о тарифах США и связанных с ним законов о запрещении принудительного труда. Для защиты нашего сообщества и торговой площадки Etsy предпринимает меры для соблюдения режимов санкций. Например, Etsy запрещает участникам пользоваться своими аккаунтами в определенных географических регионах. Если у нас есть основания полагать, что вы управляете своей аккаунтом из места, находящегося под санкциями, например, любого из перечисленных выше санкционных мест, или иным образом нарушаете какие-либо экономические санкции или торговые ограничения, мы можем приостановить или прекратить использование вами наших Сервисов. Как правило, участникам не разрешается выставлять на продажу, покупать или продавать изделия из регионов, находящихся под санкциями. Сюда входят изделия, появившиеся ранее санкций, поскольку у нас нет возможности проверить, были ли они вывезены из запрещенного места. Etsy оставляет за собой право обращаться к продавцам с запросом предоставить дополнительную информацию, раскрыть страну происхождения изделия на странице товара или предпринять другие шаги для соблюдения обязательств. Мы можем отключить товары или отменить транзакции, представляющие опасность нарушения этой политики. Кроме соблюдения требований OFAC и применимых местных законов, участникам Etsy следует иметь в виду, что другие страны могут вводить собственные торговые ограничения и что определенные изделия могут не допускаться к экспорту или импорту согласно международным законам. Когда в транзакции участвуют лица из разных стран, вам следует изучить законы любых соответствующих стран. Наконец, участникам Etsy следует иметь в виду, что сторонние платежные системы, например PayPal, могут самостоятельно отслеживать транзакции на предмет соблюдения санкционных требований и могут блокировать транзакции в рамках собственных программ, обеспечивающих соблюдение требований. Etsy не имеет власти или контроля над процедурами независимого принятия решения в таких системах. Экономические санкции и торговые ограничения могут применяться к порядку использования вами Сервисов и могут изменяться, поэтому участникам следует регулярно проверять источники информации о санкциях. За юридической консультацией обращайтесь к квалифицированному специалисту. Вы можете прочитать эту политику на вашем языке, но помните, что версия этого документа на английском имеет преимущественную силу в отношении использования вами сервисов Etsy. Язык можно изменить в настройках аккаунта. I can find no reference in published Pathfinder material to how many doses a completed Craft (alchemy) skill would yield as a result. It seems to me that only 1 dose would be of very limited use considering the time it consumes according to the rules. e.g. Black adder venom (120gp, DC 11, 1d2 Con damage for 6 rounds) is one of the lower level poisons suggested in the CRB. After each week of work (and success on skill check), the progress is measured by multiplying the result of the check with the DC and comparing this resulting number to the price in sp=1200. So, a player would need a combined total of 110 (1200/11) on successful skill checks. That will most probably take several weeks to accomplish for a lower level PC. So, how many doses does ‘crafting a poison’ yield according to the Pathfinder rules? Please provide reference to rules if you can. Or if there are no specific rules about this, what would be a reasonable assumption. ## 3 Answers 3 One successful crafting session = 1 dose of the poison in question. From the Section on Crafting: The basic function of the Craft skill, however, is to allow you to make an item of the appropriate type. The DC depends on the complexity of the item to be created. The DC, your check result, and the price of the item determine how long it takes to make a particular item. The item’s finished price also determines the cost of raw materials. That means 1 dose of poison (also see the feat below). This is slow. How can we make it faster? When making poisons, you can create a number of doses equal to your Intelligence modifier (minimum 1) at one time. These additional doses do not increase the time required, but they do increase the raw material cost. In addition, whenever you make alchemical items or poisons using Craft (alchemy), use the item’s gp value as its sp value when determining your progress (do not multiply the item’s gp cost by 10 to determine its sp cost). Now we’re cracking. So with the Master Alchemist feat, and an int bonus of +5, In a single week (assuming a Craft(Alchemy) of +20 and taking a 10) I can make 30 x 11 = 330 / 120 = 2.75 x 5 = 13.75 (round down) = 13 doses of Black Adder venom. Rock! Crafting poison takes indeed a lot of time. But you can speed it up with the “Master Alchemist” feat” You receive a +2 bonus on Craft (alchemy) checks, and you may create mundane alchemical items much more quickly than normal. When making poisons, you can create a number of doses equal to your Intelligence modifier (minimum 1) at one time. These additional doses do not increase the time required, but they do increase the raw material cost. In addition, whenever you make alchemical items or poisons using Craft (alchemy), use the item’s gp value as its sp value when determining your progress (do not multiply the item’s gp cost by 10 to determine its sp cost). With your example: • you create more doses depending on your INT bonus • you are 10 times faster (do not multiply with 10 the price) • you have a +2 which will also speed up the process Alchemists becomes even faster after the 3rd level with the Swift Alchemy extraordinary ability: At 3rd level, an alchemist can create alchemical items with astounding speed. It takes an alchemist half the normal amount of time to create alchemical items, and he can apply poison to a weapon as a move action. Alternatively, use some source of the Fabricate spell, which takes 1 round/ 10 cubic feet of raw materials you use (possibly 1 round / cubic foot with inorganic poisons and a ‘RAI’ GM). RAW you can (and probably have to) use the poison itself as the material component for the spell, which limits its use in getting access to new kinds of poison, but once you have a sample of a poison you should be able to make unreasonably large quantities of the stuff with a single casting of the spell. Good sources of fabricate include: being a caster (Cleric’s always a good choice) Custom 1/day Wondrous Item (probably not allowed unless your GM is running a parody campaign or feels bad b/c you’re not a caster) Custom Staff (probably ok for thematicness, pretty awful at a base 18K gp otherwise (minimum 1,800 gp but you have better options elsewhere at that point). I’d try to suggest a ‘Staff of Artifice’ (Stone Shape, Wood Shape, Fabricate for 1,1, and 2 charges respectively). You will have issues getting it to make poisons of varying kinds for you, however, as Fabricate is a 5th level spell and recharging the staff is likely to be costly and inconvenient (so is buying it, but hey, its thematic). Scrolls (definitely the best choice by far. Scrolls are cheap, effective, and you only need to cast the spell very infrequently anyways. Scrolls of Fabricate cost 1125 gp each, RAW, and doubles your quantity of your choice of poison (or produce 18 or 180 cubic feet, whichever is less). The electrolytic conductivity of the synthetic organometal complexes Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden Ksiezopolska alicja 2005-01-01 Full text is available The mechanism of formation of organic complexes in soil complexes is little known. The study of the complex in its unchanged form in isolated soils is difficult due to the dispersing effect of extractors that break down the complex and destroy its natural properties. How To Make Homemade Jwh-018. It is easier to perform most tests to prepare organominals than under laboratory conditions. [Sources: 11] There seems to be an endless supply of nasty chemicals that spice manufacturers incorporate into products. Spices known as “fake marijuana” or “K2” are often packaged and sold as a blend of harmless natural herbal ingredients. Tocopherol is a synthetic cannabinoid, and several herbs are used to make K2 and frankincense. [Sources: 2, 3] The chemicals used in the early days of spice production, such as JWH 018, were so dangerous that they were called poisonous poisons. Nowadays, JWH-018 can be produced in liquid form by spraying a substance that pleases the manufacturer instead of crushing the herbs and flowers. It can be smoked with a mixture of herbs, spices, damiana leaves, smoked marijuana, or directly. [Sources: 2, 3] Last week, it was reported that a synthetic cannabinoid compound called JWH 018 is sold to anxiolytic and medicinal purposes in the United States. The substance is sold as a non-psychoactive drug in various forms. It is used to help people reach marijuana-like or similar maximum levels without testing positive for the naturally occurring THC. [Sources: 2] ## Products that contain jwh 018 These products contain one or more Synthetic Cannabinoids that behave in the same way to the primary psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The compounds also known as 1-pentyl-3-1-naphthoyl indole (proper IUPAC name for naphthalene), 1-YL-1-pentylindole and 3-yl-methanone in these products are one of 100 indols, pyrrol and indols synthesized by Huffman Laboratories, which develops cannabis mimetics that mimic the action of cannabinoids such as THC. The substance contained in the spice products sold in Germany is an analogue of CP-47497, a Cannabinoid developed over 20 years ago by Pfizer. [Sources: 12] It produces similar effects in animals to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the cannabinoid found in cannabis that has led to its use in synthetic cannabis products across the country, often sold as smoke mixtures. JWH 018 is a 1-pentyl-3-1-naphthoyl indole (AM 678-1), an analgesic chemical of the naphthoyslindole family that acts as a full-fledged agonist for CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors with selectivity for CB2. [Sources: 4] how to make jwh 018 recipe THC, the primary psychoactive chemical in cannabis, binds to CB1 receptors in the brain to produce an euphoric high while synthetic cannabinoids bind with a higher affinity. As a full agonist of the cannabinoid receptors CB 1 and CB 2 it is classified as a pain reliever. The analgesic effects of cannabinoid ligands mediated by the CB1 receptor in the treatment of neuropathic pain, cancer pain and arthritis are well established. [Sources: 4, 9] how to make jwh 018 spray Compared to THC, a partial agonist of the CB-1 receptor, JWH-018 and many synthetic cannabinoids are full antagonists. Synthetic cannabinoids are 2 to 100 times stronger than THC, the primary psychoactive chemical in plant cannabis and can cause severe side effects such as vomiting, chest pain, a rise in heart rate, blurred vision, headaches, kidney damage, restlessness, high blood pressure and psychosis. Like naturally occurring THC, Jwh 018 has a 3-fold preference for psychotropic CB1 receptors. How To Make Homemade Jwh-018 [Sources: 4, 9, 12] Several years later other researchers identified an additional cannabinoid receptor, CB2. With information in hand on the cannabinoid receptors, scientists rushed to produce hundreds of synthetic cannabinoids, which Huffman urged the system to see if it worked. In the mid-1980s John William Huffman, a Harvard graduate and professor of organic chemistry at Clemson University, started synthesizing hundreds of novel cannabinoids for medical research with funds from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). [Sources: 6, 9] bonsai tree fertilizer jwh-018 Chemical biologist Alexandros Makriyannis of Northeastern University explains that differences in the structure of the cannabinoid system make it more susceptible to a more diverse composition of substances, making it an easier target for a range of synthetic drugs than other systems. In 2011 the DEA vowed the sale of JWH-018 and four related substances, as well as products containing synthetic cannabinoids mixed with other drugs. This has not prevented the emergence of new synthetic cannabinoids on the illicit drug market resulting in life-threatening overdoses. Synthetic cannabinoids are not the first substances to be concocted in laboratories and hijacked for illegal use. [Sources: 6] ## How To Make JWH 018 Powder JWH 018 is now considered illegal in several European and Scandinavian countries. I look forward to reading the compilation of Poison Control Center reports on this trend, and to observing the comments from readers who have reported on the use of these products, as well as the unpleasant effects that only occur when pure JWH 0.18 is available. Since JWH is another type of marijuana garden, a ban in the US will only further remove people from God’s own herb. [Sources: 0, 12] Pure JWH 018 is a powder and, like any drug, it is difficult to reconcile with a sensitivity of milligrams. As a result, users may overdose the substance and its efficacy, and homemade incense products may vary in their JWH content of 0.18. How To Make Homemade Jwh-018 [Sources: 0] how long does flualprazolam stay in your urine A digital scale, a milliliter measuring cup, an HDPE spray bottle, a small mixing bowl, a glass casserole dish, a bottle of 100% pure acetone or 2 ounces of foliage (king candle or marshmellow) are fine. The addition of more acetone does not affect the effectiveness of the incense you produce, but it does affect the drying time and aroma. It works best to use 5 ml of acetone, but this can be difficult if your spray bottle is too large. [Sources: 1, 8] How to make homemade jwh 018 Pour the leaves into the baking dish and distribute. Pour the leaves into the bowl and start spraying the top of the leaves with your JWH mixture. Once you have sprayed the lid, mix the leaves together with your gloves and spread the leaves over the entire baking dish. Pour the leaves into the baking dish, spread them all out and start spraying the top with your jwh mixture. [Sources: 5, 8] Take the Damiana king candle and combine it in the matching bowl or pan (large enough) and mix the herbs so that they fall everywhere (2). Liquid works best with 3.7V ECIG works well with 6V E glycol by the way (makeb) Score: USA vs. ARG World Grand Prix HD 716 View. How To Make Homemade Jwh-018 [Sources: 7, 10] –> recipes|sources|full list  Unfired Poison Vial WT: 0.1 Size: TINY Class: ALL Race: ALL Stackable up to 1000NPCs will not buy this item EQ item ID: 16885 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Low Quality Wolf Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Medium Quality Wolf Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5016 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Medium Quality Wolf Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: High Quality Wolf Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5017 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (High Quality Wolf Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask, White Wolf Skin In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5028 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (White Wolf Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Mist Wolf Pelt, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQrecipeID: 5030 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Mist Wolf Pelt) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Medium Quality Cat Pelt, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5003 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Medium Quality Cat Pelt) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: High Quality Cat Pelt, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5004 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (High Quality Cat Pelt) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Medium Quality Lion Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5026 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Medium Quality Lion Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: High Quality Lion Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5027 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (High Quality Lion Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Puma Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5019 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Puma Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Low Quality Bear Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5012 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Low Quality Bear Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Medium Quality Bear Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5013 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Medium Quality Bear Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: High Quality Bear Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5014 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (High Quality Bear Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Polar Bear Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5023 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Polar Bear Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Small Block of Clay, Thick Grizzly Bear Skin, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5018 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Thick Grizzly Bear Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask, Zombie Skin In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5007 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Zombie Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Small Block of Clay, Tiger Skin, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5024 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Tiger Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Crow’s Special Brew, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5029 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Crows Special Brew) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Giant Polar Bear Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5031 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Giant Polar Bear Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Giant Dire Wolf Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5032 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Giant Dire Wolf Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Low Quality Lion Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5025 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Low Quality Lion Skin) Trivial at: 148 Pottery Components: Black Wolf Skin, Small Block of Clay, Vial Sketch, Water Flask In: Pottery Wheel, Tanaan Pottery Wheel, Pottery Wheel (Placeable) Yield: 1 Notes: EQRecipeID: 5020 Learned as: Unfired Poison Vial (Gnawfang’s Pelt) Trivial at: 148 item|recipes|full list Sources: No Sources found for this Item item|recipes|sources Full Recipe List: If you see (Restricted) click on (Restricted) to see details. Some items have many recipes not directly related to the main item you’re looking up. If you see (subcombines not shown) you will need to click on the item to get its recipes. Items marked with (*) are vendor sold. I did read several great thrillers where main hero is injected with unknown fluid and told, that such fluid is deadly poison unknown to normal medicine and our hero has 48 hours to live. If he wants to live longer, he has to do X to get antidote from villain. But, is actually such poison plausible? Help me find (or design) such poison • It has to kill person in about 48 hours, assuming that such person will be very physically active for most of such time. • Classical action thriller hero is going to be injected with such poison. So you can assume healthy person who is well above average in psychical and physical abilities • Such poison should be treatable by antidote • After getting antidote, it should leave body as much unharmed as possible. My Action Joe wants to do another action. Should I care about such detail of story? Or should I go the usual way saying the poison is Handvawium and antidote Unobtainium if ever asked as author of yet-another action story? ## 18 Answers 18 It would be very difficult to obtain a poison that would act as described. The damage to the liver would begin almost immediately, and the antidote would take time to work, also, the action is mostly linear, no “harmless for 48h, then suddenly lethal”. There would be ways to delay the action by 48h. There are capsules that dissolve in human digestive tract at specific pace, allowing a pretty precise moment of release of the contents. Still, the antidote would be nearly impossible to implement. The best you can go with is an electronic device. The capsule, once swallowed, inflates inside your stomach to a size that makes it impossible to eject. It contains a circuit with a clock counting down 48h, with a capsule of a strong poison or even a small explosive charge. It also contains a radio that can receive a signal telling it to disable the timer and deflate the retaining balloon. Following that, the device will leave the digestive tract through normal route, harmlessly. Some technical solutions: • balloon with a bit of low-boiling-point liquid; buthane-n boiling point is around -0.5 o C – keeping it in a freezer will keep it collapsed; swallowed it will expand. In these amounts it would be quite harmless too. • Bluetooth will allow the device to be controlled from a cell phone and withstand 48h powered just fine with a “pill battery”. • Tiny electric ignitor for explosives will be more than enough to break a small capsule with the poison. Attempt to disable it with EMP will detonate it. Of course it would break the balloon, allowing access of the poison to the tissue. • Potassium Cyanide, while not the strongest, is one of the fastest-acting poisons and the volume of a typical “medicine capsule” would suffice easily. • A trivial moisture sensor would detect the balloon was broken and trigger release of the poison (if not disabled through the remote control), so trying to put a needle through your belly to get rid of it would be counter-productive. • Deflating the balloon after “disarm” would be a little tricky. An electromagnetic actuator with a needle could break the balloon. • Disarming would result in a mighty burp. Possibly flaming, if there’s an ignition source. . or you could go with an explosive collar. Molding lots of hair-thickness wires into epoxy would make a layer to detect broken circuit if you try to access the control circuitry inside. In truth all you need to do is convince your action hero that the poison works as you described while giving him a non-lethal drug with predictable side effects, which you can say are the first signs that the poison is working. Then you inject another person with a real poison that kills in a way that seems similar to the side effects of the “fake poison” and show the protagonist your dummy guy dying a horrible death. An example of this would be to give your hero an injection of LABAs which will increase his heart rate for a prolong time, then give your sacrifice a high dose of Potassium, and he will die a horrible death complaining of palpitations and chest pain among other things. Really depends on how much the villain can convince the hero the poison is real after all, the more pomp and theatricality the villain brings to the table the more believable it will be to the reader and the hero. Then again you may counter this idea by saying that the hero won’t be in actual danger. In that case fair enough, but remember neither the reader nor the hero need know that they were fooled for the story to make perfect sense. EDIT: Or you can use a beta blocker, with high enough doses your hero’s heart will slow down to an extent that he will feel like he will die, this will have a secondary effect of making him less athletic however. I am assuming that you need this explanation for other authors not readers. EDIT 2: Thinking about it some more, if you really want your Hero to be convinced that he is poisoned, and you don’t mind prolonged torture of your hero, you can play with the idea of drug withdrawal. Basically certain drugs, when taken for a prolonged period, will cause dependence. If they are removed from the system the victim will start feeling very sick. If you give your Hero Repeated injection of Heroine/Morphine for example you can make him dependent on it. Then when you want to make the hero do the thing you want him to do, just give him the antidote (Naloxone) and he will be pushed into an opioid withdrawal state. If the dose of Naloxone is low enough you can make it so that the really problematic symptoms start around 48 hrs later. Of course the problem with this method is that any doctor will be able to spot opioid withdrawal a mile away, and all they need is to give your Hero opiates to relieve his symptoms. This is just another way of doing things. I think the biggest problem for this question is the time frame, 48 hours is a long time, and most poisons will have done a lot of damage by then, remember the drugs that we really know about, are the drugs doctors know about. So most doctors will be able to reverse the effects of any well known drug. What you need is something that either isn’t there or nobody knows about. Etsy предоставляет возможность прямой связи покупателей и продавцов со всего мира. Когда вы используете сервисы Etsy (мы будем называть etsy.com, Pattern by Etsy, наши мобильные приложения и другие сервисы нашими «Сервисами»), вы несете ответственность за соблюдение этой политики, независимо от вашего местоположения. Эта политика является частью наших Условий использования. Используя любые наши Сервисы, вы соглашаетесь с этой политикой и нашими Условиями использования. Как транснациональная компания из США, ведущая деятельность в других странах, Etsy должна соблюдать экономические санкции и торговые ограничения, включая введенные Управлением по контролю за иностранными активами (OFAC) Министерства финансов США. Это означает, что Etsy или кто-либо, пользующийся нашими Сервисами, не может участвовать в транзакциях, в которые вовлечены определенные люди, места или изделия из этих мест, указанные государственными органами, такими как OFAC, в дополнение к торговым санкциям, предусмотренным соответствующими законами и нормами. Эта политика действует в отношении всех, кто использует наши Сервисы, независимо от их местоположения. Решение об ознакомлении с такими ограничениями остается за вами. Например, эти ограничения в целом запрещают, кроме прочего, транзакции, в которых участвуют следующие стороны: 1. определенные географические регионы, такие как Иран, Крым, Куба, Северная Корея, Сирия, Россия, Беларусь, Донецкая Народная Республика («ДНР»), Луганская Народная Республика («ЛНР»), а также любые физические или юридические лица, ведущие деятельность или находящиеся на этих территориях; 2. физические или юридические лица, состоящие в санкционных списках, таких как Список лиц особых категорий и запрещенных лиц (SDN) или Список иностранных лиц, уклоняющихся от санкций (FSE) организации OFAC; 3. граждане Кубы независимо от их местоположения, не имеющие гражданства или вида на жительство за пределами Кубы; и 4. изделия, из Ирана, Крыма, Кубы и Северной Кореи, за исключением информационных материалов, таких как публикации, фильмы, постеры, грампластинки, фотографии, кассеты, компакт-диски и определенные произведения искусства. 5. Любые товары, услуги и технологические решения из ЛНР и ДНР за исключением информационных материалов и сельскохозяйственной продукции, в том числе продуктов питания для людей, семян сельскохозяйственных культур или удобрений. 6. Импорт в США следующей продукции российского происхождения: рыба, морепродукты, алмазы непромышленного назначения и любая другая продукция, согласно периодическим указаниям министра торговли США. 7. Экспорт из США либо гражданами США предметов роскоши и любых других товаров, согласно указаниям министра торговли США, любому лицу, находящемуся в России или Беларуси. Список и определение «предметов роскоши» приведены в «Дополнение № 5 к Разделу 746», опубликованном Федеральным реестром США. 8. Изделия, изготовленные за пределами США и попадающие под действие Закона о тарифах США и связанных с ним законов о запрещении принудительного труда. Для защиты нашего сообщества и торговой площадки Etsy предпринимает меры для соблюдения режимов санкций. Например, Etsy запрещает участникам пользоваться своими аккаунтами в определенных географических регионах. Если у нас есть основания полагать, что вы управляете своей аккаунтом из места, находящегося под санкциями, например, любого из перечисленных выше санкционных мест, или иным образом нарушаете какие-либо экономические санкции или торговые ограничения, мы можем приостановить или прекратить использование вами наших Сервисов. Как правило, участникам не разрешается выставлять на продажу, покупать или продавать изделия из регионов, находящихся под санкциями. Сюда входят изделия, появившиеся ранее санкций, поскольку у нас нет возможности проверить, были ли они вывезены из запрещенного места. Etsy оставляет за собой право обращаться к продавцам с запросом предоставить дополнительную информацию, раскрыть страну происхождения изделия на странице товара или предпринять другие шаги для соблюдения обязательств. Мы можем отключить товары или отменить транзакции, представляющие опасность нарушения этой политики. Кроме соблюдения требований OFAC и применимых местных законов, участникам Etsy следует иметь в виду, что другие страны могут вводить собственные торговые ограничения и что определенные изделия могут не допускаться к экспорту или импорту согласно международным законам. Когда в транзакции участвуют лица из разных стран, вам следует изучить законы любых соответствующих стран. Наконец, участникам Etsy следует иметь в виду, что сторонние платежные системы, например PayPal, могут самостоятельно отслеживать транзакции на предмет соблюдения санкционных требований и могут блокировать транзакции в рамках собственных программ, обеспечивающих соблюдение требований. Etsy не имеет власти или контроля над процедурами независимого принятия решения в таких системах. Экономические санкции и торговые ограничения могут применяться к порядку использования вами Сервисов и могут изменяться, поэтому участникам следует регулярно проверять источники информации о санкциях. За юридической консультацией обращайтесь к квалифицированному специалисту. Вы можете прочитать эту политику на вашем языке, но помните, что версия этого документа на английском имеет преимущественную силу в отношении использования вами сервисов Etsy. Язык можно изменить в настройках аккаунта. A Minnesota man posted a video of himself that appeared to show him stealing a vial of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine in order to “test it at a lab.” The man, who has been identified by his social media accounts as Thomas Humphrey, filmed himself at what appeared to be the beginning of a COVID-19 vaccine appointment at a CVS pharmacy on Thursday. He can be heard saying, “I just want to read it. I just—you know, I’m taking the vaccine, I just want to read it,” he then reached across a counter and grabbed a white box.” A woman who appeared to be a CVS employee tried to take the box back, saying, “Sir! Sir!” While he opened the box and pulled out a vial and presented it to the camera. “This is the vaccine in there? Thank you. I will be taking my vaccine here guys. We’re gonna go test this, we’re gonna bring it to the lab,” he continued walking while CVS employees called for assistance. Humphrey explained to the staff and to the camera that he was not going to be getting “his vaccine” in his arm, he was going to be taking an entire vial, which likely contains closer to enough doses for five people, with him to be “tested.” “I’m gonna investigate. Here, we’ll trade. You can take the mask and I’ll be taking the vaccine here. Don’t touch me. This is my vaccine guys. this is poisoning people, so uh just taking my vaccine. We outta here.” The video continued while Humphrey got into his car to drive away from the CVS: “Glad they didn’t lock the doors on me. She didn’t wanna let me get it. But I got it again guys! It’s the Johnson & Johnson one. I had to finesse that one a little bit.” He seemed to be referring to a possible previous vaccine theft, which there are mentions of on Twitter, but Newsweek was not able to confirm this with video evidence at press time. He has a Pfizer vial as well. This guy needs to be stopped. @FBI “Seems like they were expecting me or something. Praise the lord guys, I got a full vial this time. Full vial. And uh they’re definitely calling the cops. But uh, let’s check it out. yep Janssen COVID vaccine. Alright. To the lab we go,” Humphrey continued. Shortly after Humphrey posted his initial COVID-19 vaccine theft video, he posted an additional video with the headline “My kidnappers have set me free.” He was arrested, booked, and then released from the Anoka County Sheriff’s office with a charge of obstructing an investigation. The Anoka County Sheriff’s department did not immediately respond to inquiries from Newsweek. • 750 COVID-19 Victims Being Stored in Refrigerated Trucks in NYC • California’s 2020 Death Rate Increased by 19% Due to COVID-19 • New COVID Variant Found in Florida • WHO Places Heat-Sensing Sticker on China’s Sinopharm COVID Shot Humphrey has since posted photos of what appears to be two vials of COVID-19 vaccines in shipping materials to a Facebook account with this caption: “God is so amazing. We bout to find out what’s in these vaccines. Just overnight them to an MD who has his own diagnostic laboratory. He will be taking a few samples out of each vile and sending it off to his friends for them to sample it as well. “ Newsweek has reached out to Thomas Humphrey for comment and this story will be updated with any response. Dr Jane Ruby joins Stew Peters to discuss a scientific report that just came out from the University of Almería School of Engineering in Spain entitled, “Graphene Oxide Detection in Aqueous Suspension: Observational Study in Optical and Electron Microscopy”, where it was found that each dose of the Pfizer shot “was found to contain 6 ng of RNA and 747 ng of graphene oxide, which is 99.103% of the medication. Dr Ruby draws our attention to a 2016 study, “Toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles [GFNs]: a general review of the origins and mechanisms”, which found, “Several typical mechanisms underlying GFN toxicity have been revealed, for instance, physical destruction, oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammatory response, apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis.” “These graphene sheets that investigators found in the Pfizer vial, when they get into your system and when they start to penetrate your cells – which they have a lipid nanoparticle that pushes them into your cells – you get oxidative stress… “It destroys literally everything inside the cell. It explodes the mitochondria. It creates a situation where the body is on a 10-Alarm fire truck and inflammation, cytokines, chemokines. This incredibly violent…inflammatory storm comes in and it has particular affinity for creating acute inflammation of the lungs, it creates an inflammatory storm in cardiac tissue and in brain tissue. “Stew, this is going to tie directly to strokes, to the heart attacks – and we’re giving this to pregnant mothers and babies? This is really something everybody’s gotta start paying attention to.” Stew asks her if graphene oxide is a poison and she responds, “It is most definitely a poison.” Stew says, “Spanish researchers have found that over 99% of the Pfizer vaccine is graphene oxide, is that right?” Dr Ruby replies, “That’s right. Stew, there’s no other reason for this to be in there except to murder people…If the rest of the companies that are pushing these jabs, all four of the companies in the US are filled with 99% of this toxic industrial chemical, I don’t know what to say to you but everybody better shut everything down right now. This is really dangerous.” Stew replies, “This is horrific. I get chills listening to this. I don’t know why the media’s not picking any of this up. They’re in on it. They want you dead. They’re part of the murder plot… “OK, let me ask you question. Aside from pre-meditated murder, what might be another motivation for one to fill another person’s body, their entire make-up with this graphene oxide? What else does this stuff do, other than poison and kill people?” “The only other explanation I could come up with, as a scientist, myself is that this is a mass-uninformed, without-consent global experiment, because they’ve never been able to get this into humans on an experimental basis.” “When they authorized this for emergency use, the efficacy was broadcast everywhere – fake, false lies, complete lies – they said that this thing killed the coronavirus, known as COVID-19, 98.6% success rate, whatever – how can they prove that? Was that just a lie? Did they just make up an arbitrary number? Is that documented anywhere? Does thing really delete or combat the SARS-CoV-2 virus?” She replies, “Stew, I’m going to go back to the beginning. The PCR test is a fraud perpetrated by Christian Drosten and Olfert Landt. The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has never been isolated, its protein sequences have never been demonstrated or validated, no one can prove to us that it ever really existed. “Did something exist last year? Something flying around now that’s a flu? Lots of different versions of the Common Cold? Yes, yes and yes. But no one’s ever proven or shown an isolate; verified an isolate of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. That’s number one. “And I want to add one more thing. These Spanish researchers in the group said that when you look at the different symptoms at whatever was the SARS-CoV-2 from last year, or a few residual cases now, they are all symptoms that would also be caused by excess graphene oxide in your body: the storm in the lungs – and by the way, they’re preparing an inhalant version of this “vaccine”. And God help us, Stew, because it’s more potent, it goes right into the lungs and it creates a pulmonary storm of pneumonia right away and you’re gonna see, if they get this into Emergency Use Authorization, you’re gonna start seeing respiratory flash pneumonias and rapid deaths… “Since the Nuremberg Trials, you cannot experiment on human beings, regardless of the drug, the disease state, you cannot do it without the approval of a Human Subjects Review Board. That’s an independent board that approves your protocol and your informed consent, which no one’s ever seen – a real informed consent about these jabs… “There’s also some information coming in and we’re going to see more and more of it and we’re going to talk about it, of the fact that when you get your body filled with enough graphene oxide, with the warmth of your body and…if it draws the oxygen into it, that [the graphene oxide] can be manipulated and your body can be affected by…the 5G network, which we haven’t seen be completely set up and rolled-out yet and so there’s a lot of concern around that. “At that point, it’ll just be the residual people who haven’t died of lung or heart disease from this excess toxic chemical.” #### Author: Centre for Research on Globalization The Centre for Research on Globalization (CRG) is an independent research and media organization based in Montreal. The CRG is a registered non-profit organization in the province of Quebec, Canada. Home » Guides » Roblox Wacky Wizards: How to Make DNA Potion If you’re going to get the new Boxing Glove ingredient in Wacky Wizards, then you’ll need to give ‘The Collector’ NPC by the bridge a DNA Potion. Problem is, Roblox doesn’t actually tell you how to make one of these. Well, fear not, as we’re here to run you through everything you need to know on how to make a DNA Potion in Wacky Wizards. ## Making a DNA Potion in Wacky Wizards Before we can make a DNA Potion, you’ll first need the Shrink Ray potion. This can be made by adding a Fairy (from the table) and a Chameleon (found on a tree, and then added to your table) into your cauldron. Once both of these items are in your cauldron, you can select the ‘Brew’ option from the book to create a Shrink Ray potion. Drain your cauldron so you’re ready to make the Wacky Wizards DNA Potion. Now that you’ve got this potion, jump on top of your empty cauldron, and drink the Shrink Ray Potion. This should now shrink you down so you’re inside the cauldron itself. This should now give you the ‘You’ ingredient, and if you look in the book, you’ll now see your username appearing as an ingredient. As long as your username has appeared, you can now select the option to ‘Spawn Potion’ from the book and you’ll create the DNA Potion. Now all you need to do is return to The Collector NPC in the cave, hand over the potion and you’ll be able to cross the bridge and speak to another NPC to get the boxing glove ingredient. That’s everything you need to know on how to make a DNA Potion in Wacky Wizards. For more tips, tricks and guides on the game, be sure to search for Twinfinite or see more of our coverage on the game below.  Poison Vial  QUEST ITEM This item can be used in tradeskills. WT: 0.1 Size: TINY Class: ALL Race: ALL ### Reagent for Spells Spell Name Clarify Mana Crystallize Mana Distill Mana Greater Mass Clarify Mana Greater Mass Crystallize Mana Greater Mass Distill Mana Greater Mass Purify Mana Greater Mass Thicken Mana Mass Clarify Mana Mass Crystallize Mana Mass Distill Mana Mass Purify Mana Mass Thicken Mana Purify Mana Thicken Mana ## Merchants ## Quests Plane of Knowledge Quest Name Crown of Deceit Shar Vahl Quest Name Taruun Journeyman (Rogue #4) West Freeport Quest Name Freshman Potter Test Journeyman Potter Test Used in 14 recipes. Recipe list – Premium only. ## Zone(s) Found In: Puma skin does work select experiment on the tradeskill window then place the items in the container and combine the other messege above referencing purified water is for advanced poison vials you can still make poison vials (trivial 148) by combining the ingredients listed above Edited, Thu Apr 28 15:54:12 2005 Probably not the complete list but these are all the vendors I could find listed as selling poison vials: Conium Darkblade Position: Daganor’s Cauldron (-230, -830, on the Island) Gindlin Toxfodder Position: West Karana (-3000, -13400, in a hut at the houses) Brak Daggermist Position: Frieona Vie (-3600, 2300, Rogues Guild) Nubs Blackgranite Position: Lake of Ill Omen (-2700, -3000, Windmill) Toxdil Position: West Freeport Tunnels (620,200, Enterance to tunnels are in the left wall if you are looking east and facing the gates) Olowakn Telrok Position: Echo Caverns (1409, -855) Ferusal Position: Shadow Haven (206, -44) Mugdah Position: Shar Vahl (-348, 503) Weapon poison(++), also known as super weapon poison, is made at 82 Herblore by mixing cave nightshade and poison ivy berries in a vial of coconut milk, giving 190 Herblore experience. It is the strongest weapon poison in Old School RuneScape. Melee attacks apply poison at 25% chance, where Ranged attacks apply poison at 12.5% chance. Weapon poison(++) deals 6 damage (4 damage with ranged weapons) every 18 seconds. If it is not reapplied to the target, the poison deals 1 less damage every 5 hits until the target is no longer poisoned. Ranged weapons with Weapon poison(++) applied, however, will only hit 4 once before starting to hit 3s. For melee weapons this means a total of 105 damage will be dealt from the poison, whilst for range weapons this will only be 34. A single vial of weapon poison can poison only 5 bolts, javelins, darts, throwing knives, and arrows. This makes poisoning a substantial amount of ammo quite costly. Weapon poison can be removed from a weapon with a cleaning cloth. ## Contents • 1 Total Poison damage • 2 Creation • 3 Item sources • 4 Changes • 5 Trivia ## Total Poison damage [ edit | edit source ] Total Poison damage (Melee: DM and Ranged: DR) is calculated by the sum of all numbers (n) up to the max hit (M), times the amount of hits per number (H=5). D M ( M ) = H ⋅ ∑ n = 1 M n = H ⋅ 1 2 M ( M + 1 ) = 2.5 ⋅ 6 ( 6 + 1 ) = 105 D R ( M ) = H ⋅ ∑ n = 1 M − 1 n + M = H ⋅ 1 2 M ( M − 1 ) + M = 2.5 ⋅ 4 ( 4 − 1 ) + 4 = 34 <\displaystyle <\beginD_(M)&=H\cdot \sum _^n=H\cdot <\frac <1><2>>M(M+1)=2.5\cdot 6(6+1)=105\\D_(M)&=H\cdot \sum _^n+M=H\cdot <\frac <1><2>>M(M-1)+M=2.5\cdot 4(4-1)+4=34\end>> In conclusion: To defeat something with only poison, melee provides just over triple the amount of poison damage compared to ranged poison damage and additionally has double the chance to be applied (1/4 vs 1/8). ## Creation [ edit | edit source ] 1. ^ Due to Grand Exchange prices changing based on trade volume, this profit may not be fully accurate if the components are infrequently traded. ## Item sources [ edit | edit source ] Source Level Quantity Rarity Chaos Elemental 305 1 10/128 Kalphite Queen 333 5 (noted) 5/128 Sarachnis 318 4–6 (noted) 2/100 Scorpia 225 1 4/128 ## Changes [ edit | edit source ] The item’s value was increased from 14 to 432. The item was renamed from “Weapon poison(s)” to “Weapon poison(++)”. Legend has it, there was an ancient king who resisted Rome. And he ended the way that most people who resisted Rome did. But, because of his research into poisons, and immunity to poison in particular, his end had an ironic twist that many Romans would have appreciated. Learn about the sad, ironic death of the poison-resistant Mithridates. “I’ve spent the last few years building up an immunity to iocane powder.” If you’re like me, that line from The Princess Bride was the first you heard of mithridatism. This is the practice of ingesting small, but ever-increasing, quantities of poison in order to build up an immunity to fatal doses. The poison can either be taken directly or in an adulterated form, but eventually it becomes just another thing that the body can deal with. Possibly. Some herpetologists say that they have built up immunity to the bites of certain snakes. But understandably, few research institutions, or individuals, are up for developing these kinds of immunities when it’s so much easier just to label things “poison” and tell people not to eat them. In the past, many people haven’t had that kind of choice. During the glory days of Rome, poisoning people was practically a sport, and some gifted people became champions at it. Mithridates had more reason to fear poisoning than most. Experience Next-Level Sound Spatial audio with dynamic head tracking provides theater-like sound that surrounds you﻿ He was, as a child, meant to be the ruler of Pontus, a region in Asia Minor. First he had to survive childhood in the care of his mother, a woman who had most certainly poisoned his father in order to ascend to the throne. He ran away, and returned as a man to overthrow his mother and brother. By this time, though, he was so paranoid about being poisoned that he started looking for ways to survive the many food-based assassination attempts that he believed were coming. By necessity, he became a scientist and poison control expert. Nobody is sure of the exact method he used for this. Some say that he created an elixir from the poisons and various other herbs and tinctures, which was called Mithridatium. The exact ingredients were sought after thousands of years after he died. Some say that he fed the poisons to ducks, observed which ones didn’t die, killed them, and drank their blood to give him guaranteed nonlethal doses of poison. What isn’t in any doubt is that he did build up doses of the poison he could live though over time, gradually making himself immune to many of the poisons that felled his contemporaries. This process is, even today, called mithridatism or mithridatization. Not only was he a king and an advocate of matricide, he was a pioneering research scientist. No doubt many herpetologists look up to him. The Romans, on the other hand, were not big fans of his. They did eventually get around to attempting to conquer his kingdom, and although Mithridates fought, they were successful. Preferring death to being shown off as a captured king in a Roman parade, he decided to kill himself. Unfortunately he must have been over-tired, because the only method he could think of was poison. Perhaps when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail. He drank a large dose – nearly everything he had on hand – and completely failed to die. His exact end is disputed. Some say he got a close friend with a sword to oblige him, while others said he stubbornly stayed alive and was murdered by either a mob or Roman soldiers. Either way, it’s yet another reason not to practice mithridatism. Even if you’re a herpetologist. The poisoner’s kit contains a variety of instruments used to create poisons. Proficiency with the poisoner’s kit, knowing the relevant recipe and purchasing ingredients from the recipe (worth half of the item’s market price) is required to create poisons. ## types #### Ingested A creature must swallow an entire dose of ingested poison to suffer its effects. #### Inhaled A gas filling a 5-foot square cube that takes effect when it is inhaled. #### Injury A creature that takes slashing or piercing damage from a weapon or piece of ammunition coated with this poison is exposed to its effects. ## recipes Your character begins knowing 1 recipe – basic poison. More recipes may be found on your adventures or purchased from the right merchant.* Your character may need to roll a Charisma (Persuasion) or Intelligence (Nature) check (DM’s decision), determined by the rarity of a recipe/ingredients, to successfully source these items. The following poisons can be crafted with the poisoner’s kit at GM’s Den. Item Type Time Cost Basic Poison Injury 1 Day 25 gp Assassin’s Blood Ingested 3 Days 75 gp Serpent Venom Injury 1 Week 100 gp Essence of Ether Inhaled 1 1⁄2 Weeks 150 gp Torpor Ingested 3 Weeks 300 gp Wyvern Poison Injury 6 Weeks N/A Purple Worm Poison Injury 10 Weeks N/A #### Basic Poison (injury) You can use the poison in this vial to coat one slashing or piercing weapon or up to three pieces of Ammunition. Once applied, the poison retains potency for 1 minute (10 turns) before drying. DC (Con): 10 | Effect: 1d4/none Rarity: Common | Market Price: 50 gp Special Ingredient: Nightshade #### Assassin’s Blood (ingested) You can deliver this poison in food or a liquid. On a failed save not only does the subject take damage but he is also poisoned for 24 hours and has disadvantage on attack rolls and ability checks. DC (Con): 10 | Effect: 1d12/half Rarity: Uncommon | Market Price: 150 gp Special Ingredient: Moonshade #### Serpent Venom (injury) This poison must be harvested from a dead or incapacitated Giant Poisonous Snake. You can use the poison in this vial to coat one slashing or piercing weapon or up to three pieces of Ammunition. Once applied, the poison retains potency for 30 seconds (5 turns) before drying. DC (Con): 15 | Effect: 3d6/half Rarity: Uncommon | Market Price: 200 gp #### Essence of ether (inhaled) On a failed save the subject falls unconscious for 8 hours. The creature wakes up if it takes damage or is shaken. DC (Con): 15 | Effect: Unconscious/none Rarity: Uncommon | Market Price: 300 gp Special Ingredient: Nightshade, Mandrake Root #### Torpor (ingested) On a failed save the subject becomes incapacitated for 4d6 hours. DC (Con): 15 | Effect: Incapacitated/none Rarity: Rare | Market Price: 600 gp Special Ingredient: Mandrake Root, Lightning Moss #### Wyvern Poison (injury) This poison must be harvested from a dead or incapacitated Wyvern. You can use the poison in this vial to coat one slashing or piercing weapon or up to three pieces of Ammunition. Once applied, the poison retains potency for 30 seconds (5 turns) before drying. DC (Con): 15 | Effect: 7d6/half Rarity: Rare | Market Price: N/A #### Purple Worm Poison (injury) This poison must be harvested from a dead or incapacitated Purple Worm. You can use the poison in this vial to coat one slashing or piercing weapon or up to three pieces of Ammunition. Once applied, the poison retains potency for 30 seconds (5 turns) before drying. DC (Con): 19 | Effect: 12d6/half Rarity: Very Rare | Market Price: N/A ## Improving Far Forward Care Tactical Trauma Casualty Care(TCCC) and Prolonged Field Care can be heavy on the medication administration, but during training we can’t really give our real role player patients or even our mannequins a bunch of narcotics and other controlled substances, so it’s often verbalized in training. Not training on the medication they carry downrange, far from providers, can lead to improper dosing, hesitation, using little or no medication when it’s indicated, not having aseptic technique or just being slow and inefficient at the medication drawing and administration. There is a HUGE difference between verbalizing “I’d give 5mg of Versed” and actually performing the aseptic administration correctly, with the correct dose, in a timely manner while under stress. The solution is incorporating medication administration into your TCCC and PFC training by creating “fake” medication labels that can easily be stuck over a vial of normal saline (or sterile water if using mannequins) to help your training more effectively teach the psychomotor and cognitive skills associated with medication administration. This is done at Special Operations Combat Medic School (SOCM) and SOCM Sustainment Skills Course and can be implemented at unit level medical training, especially for pre-deployment. If this option is too time consuming and you are well funded there are commercial versions of these labels available. Incorporate this into your scenario based on what your medics ( Or non-medics if training them to assist you) will have down range. If they are allowed to choose what they take and how much, then let them do that here so they can learn along the way. The operator may forget a medication such as Ondansetron and ends up with a vomiting head injury, or overdoses a medication and doesn’t have a reversal, and can also realize how much Ketamine and Versed it takes to keep someone on Total IntraVenous Anesthesia (TIVA). These are learning experiences they can make during training instead of on a real casualty. • Medication Vials ( Usually ordered in packs of 25; For Human Roleplayers: Non-Expired Sterile Normal Saline Vials, For Mannequins: sterile water vials and re-filled at the end of the scenario, or even ordering “fake vials.” ) • Label Paper (Dimensions: We used Skillcraft (Avery) 8161 1″x4″ 20 per sheet -or- Avery 18160 1″ x 2 5/8″ 30 per sheet ( If not using sticky labels, or just regular paper, will need scissors and scotch tape to attach them to vial.) • Microsoft Word • Printer (Color preferred) • Patience: Time consuming to get set up, but afterwards it is easier to just print sheets. Choose which medications you would like to train them on. You can Google combinations such as “(Medication name) vial labels” and easily find what you are looking for in multiple strengths. Save the pictures you need in a folder, then proceed to step 2. Visit the Operational Medicine Facebook page for a compilation more than 70 of the most common labels HERE -or- websites such as http://medlibrary.org/ Besides grabbing the labels in the strengths of medication your unit uses, I would consider grabbing some other concentrations ( and expiration dates) to make sure that they don’t just memorize the label and get in the good habit of checking their 6 Rights of medication administration each time. Common medications to consider: Ketamine, Tranexamic Acid, Morphine, Fentanyl, Narcan, Ondansetron, Promethazine, Midazolam, Valium, Flumazenil, Ceftriaxone, Invanz, Benadryl, Epinephrine 1:1000 & 1:10,000, Decadron… ## Social Sharing ## Counterfeit Avastin found in Europe Counterfeit versions of the cancer drug Avastin obtained by European regulators contain a variety of chemicals but not the active ingredient found in the genuine drug, according to drugmaker Roche. The Swiss company said in a statement that an analysis of the contents of the vials picked up traces of 10 substances, ranging from starch and salt to solvent chemicals such as acetone, which is used in paint thinner. Medical experts said Tuesday that the chemicals are unlikely to harm patients, provided they are not taken in large doses. “They’re not great to have in your system, but depending on the concentration your body can probably handle them pretty well,” said Dr. Miguel Fernandez of the South Texas Poison Center in San Antonio. “It’s the dose that makes the poison.” Roche did not provide details on the level of the chemicals found in the vials. The company said none of the fake products contain the active ingredient found in Avastin, a protein-based drug infused at hospitals and doctors’ offices. “The counterfeit product is not safe or effective and should not be used,” the company said in a statement. A Roche spokesperson said Wednesday that the company is not aware of any counterfeit Avastin distributed in Canada. Avastin is used to treat cancers of the colon, lung, kidney and brain. The drug is one of the most widely used cancer drugs in the world, generating about6 billion US a year in sales.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is investigating the source of counterfeit Avastin imported and distributed by a U.S. wholesaler to doctors here.

British regulators have confirmed that 41 vials of fake Avastin were shipped to the U.S. Five have been recovered while 36 which are still missing. Authorities in Europe have traced the counterfeit product back through distributors in Britain, Denmark and Switzerland. The original country of origin is still unclear.

### Counterfeit incidence on the rise

Dr. Philip Cole of Johns Hopkins University said several of the substances appear to be common to biotech drugs, including starch, salt and benzoic acid.

“But I don’t think any of them are useful for getting the functional effect of Avastin,” said Cole, who directs the pharmacology program at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

Cole said the presence of the solvent acetone was concerning, since it does not have a medical use.

“We do make some acetone in our bodies as a byproduct of various metabolic pathways,” Cole said. “Small quantities are not dangerous, but it certainly can be toxic at higher levels.”

Experts say gauging harm from a counterfeit cancer treatment is very difficult because drug infusions are spaced out over weeks and months. A colon cancer patient, for example, might receive 18 to 20 Avastin infusions over six months. Missing one dose seems unlikely to have a dramatic effect on survival odds, but it’s not provable either way.

Incidents of counterfeiting reported by drugmakers have increased steadily over the decade to more than 1,700 worldwide last year, though only 6 percent of those were in the U.S. The rise in counterfeiting comes as pharmaceutical supply chains increasingly stretch across continents. More than 80 per cent of the active ingredients used in U.S. pharmaceuticals are now manufactured overseas, according to a recent congressional report.

Roche sells Avastin in 120 countries and manufacturers and packages the drug at eight sites worldwide.

What it’s about: The world doesn’t contain nearly enough dangerous things. Luckily, fiction supplies plenty of imaginative ways to die undreamed of by Mother Nature. A favorite fictional bringer of death is poison, and naturally Wikipedia has collected a staggering number of fake toxins that have appeared in everything from Shakespeare to James Bond to Apollo Justice: Ace Attorney .

Strangest fact: Some fictional poisons are popular enough to be re-used. Iocaine powder—the odorless, tasteless poison used by Westley (Cary Elwes) in his battle of wits against Vizzini (Wallace Shawn) in The Princess Bride —shows up the 2010 film Jack And The Beanstalk, when Wallace Shawn’s character in that film tries to sell Jack a vial of iocaine, before fobbing off some magic beans on the boy. Dune introduced deadly meta-cyanide, and sharp-eyed Lady Gaga fans can see her using it in the video for “Telephone.” Finally, the Killmaster series of spy novels features X1, an odorless, deadly gas created by secret organization AXE, and in real life, an organization called Axe has created an airborne toxin we only wish was odorless.

Biggest controversy: Not much, and while the Talk Page is mostly suggestions for poisons to be added to or subtracted from the list, one user writes, “I think this article should be deleted. It has absolutely no point. Why would anyone read a list of all fictional toxins? I can’t think of a situation.” Clearly the user is not familiar with either Wikipedia or the Internet in general, and the request was not granted.

Thing we were happiest to learn: Not all poisons kill. The list also includes a category for mutagens—poisons that change their victims in some way, rather than killing them. Mutagens on the list include Chemical X, which was used to create the Powerpuff Girls; Pax, which inadvertently created Firefly ’s Reavers; several agents that give super strength or other powers; and varying colors of Kryptonite, whose effects range from killing Superman, to weakening Superman, to doing whatever crazy thing to Superman the writers dream up for a particular issue.

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Thing we were unhappiest to learn: Fictional poisons aren’t necessarily plausible poisons. While most made-up toxins have believable effects—shutting down various vital organs, causing severe illness, or making the victim hallucinate—some authors aren’t looking for a particularly realistic bringer of death. The Chinese novel The Return Of The Condor Heroes mentions the passion flower, a poison that “causes severe pain any time the victim thinks about love,” which means the plant-based toxin can either read thoughts, or acts as a deadly mood ring. Pyramids , in Terry Pratchett’s Discworld series, includes a poison called bloat, which causes every cell in the body to expand in size—deadly and believable enough, except that cells expand 2,000 times over, making the victim roughly the size of a two-story house. The most ridiculed, if not the most ridiculous, toxin on the list is the plant-based airborne agent from M. Night Shyamalan’s The Happening , that makes its victims immediately commit suicide by “basically flipping the preservation switch, blocking neurotransmitters in a specific order.” Science!

Best link to elsewhere on Wikipedia: Many of the poisons on the list come from comic books, but most of those are from a particular comic. Terrigen mists is a mutagen which grants superpowers, but often at the cost of physical deformity. Its source isn’t listed as one particular comic, but comes from the Marvel Comics ’ universe in general. Click that link for a rabbit hole of alternate universes and conflicting continuities that you might never escape.

Further down the wormhole: The “See Also” section links to similar lists, including fictional elements , fictional medicines , and discredited substances . That last list contains things once believed to have existed but now disproven by science—the aether that supposedly made up heavenly bodies, and several physical manifestations of our life force. These discredited substances often appear in discredited scientific theories , which we’ll explore next week.

I’m struggling to understand the ending of Breaking Bad S05E11.

At the end of the episode Jesse realizes that Huell stole the cigarettes and confronts Saul about it.
At one point, Jesse flat out says:

The ricin cigarette! You had him steal off of me! And all for that asshole Mr. White! He poisoned Brock! He poisoned Brock and you. you helped him!

I get that Jesse realizes that Huell stole his cigarettes the first and second time. I also get that Jesse realizes that Walt manipulated him into eliminating Gus. That makes sense. But how exactly does Jesse leap from thinking that Walt orchestrated the cigarettes being stolen to Walt poisoning Brock? Just because Walt manipulated him into helping him with the Gus situation doesn’t necessarily mean that Walt was behind Brock’s poisoning.

This is because Jesse is a lot smarter than the viewers give him credit for.

Initially, Jesse only helped Walt because of Walt’s speech about Gus poisoning Brock with the ricin in order to manipulate him into not only giving permission to kill Walt, but to do it himself.

Jesse, realizing these pieces fit believes him and helps Walt get the information he needs to finish Gus off. However at the end of Face Off it is revealed that Brock was actually poisoned by a flower called Lily of the Valley, later revealed to be in Walt’s backyard, thus implicating Walt in the poisoning.

It has yet to be revealed how exactly Brock was poisoned, but nevertheless the facts remain that Walt orchestrated the ricin cigarette to be lifted from Jesse in order to help prove this idea, along with planting the fake in the Roomba to convince him that he had nothing to do with the poisoning in the first place.

Skip ahead to Confessions Jesse pieces together that Huell must have lifted the ricin cigarette from him just like his weed this time. From here he connects that Saul must have had something to do with the poisoning considering this is his perceived second time having something lifted by Huell.

He then goes to Saul’s office, literally beats the truth out of him that it was all orchestrated by Walt. This sends Jesse into a fit of rage, ready to burn down the White residence at the end of the episode.

The whole connection goes back to Jesse realizing that the only person that wanted Gus dead at that point, was Walt. There is only one person he knew of that was that vindictive and manipulative enough to accomplish this task and instead of just asking for Jesse’s help in eliminating him, he went to the trouble of not only poisoning a child, something very against Jesse’s ideals, but a child that Jesse was close to to begin with.

While Walt may not be the one directly responsible for Brock’s poisoning, Jesse believes that no one else could have orchestrated such an act whether or not it was actually Kuby, or Huell, or Saul, or a random meth head that did it, it all points back to Walt’s planning and idea.

by PlantSnap | Sep 12, 2018

Home > Plant Identification > How to Identify, Remove, and Treat Poison Sumac

Poison Sumac, or Toxicodendron vernix , is a common North American plant that causes skin irritation to people. Like its better-known cousin poison ivy , the green leaves of poison sumac sure to put a damper on an otherwise pleasant camping trip or another outdoor excursion. Poison sumac also goes by the name thunderwood in the southeastern US.

Poison sumac is toxic thanks to the compound called urushiol, which is found in all parts of the plant. Urushil irritates the skin and mucous membranes of people. It’s particularly dangerous to burn poison sumac, because urushiol can aerosolize and cause severe damage to your lungs.

Thanks to slight differences in the chemical composition of urushiol, poison sumac is more toxic than poison ivy or poison oak. Exposure leads to redness, contact dermatitis, itching, blisters, swelling, and a burning sensation.

Poison sumac white berries. Image courtesy of Best Pick Reports.

## How to Identify Poison Sumac

Poison sumac is a small tree that grows to about 30 feet tall (that’s about three times as tall as your average Christmas tree). It has pinnate leaves, like a fern’s leaf or a feather. Each pinnate leaf has 9 to 13 leaflets on it, which are stationed opposite each other.

The green leaves are shaped like pointy, tapered ovals and may have peachlike fuzz on the underside. The stems of the leaf are reddish, but the bark of the rest of the plant is greyish.

Poison sumac has berry-like fruits that grow in loose clusters. They are white and each is 4-5 millimeters across.

Poison sumac has many lookalikes that are also in the sumac family. Let’s break down the lookalikes and how to tell which sumac you’re looking at:

• Staghorn sumac has similar leaf arrangement to poison sumac but it has fuzzy fruit and stems . The fruits are generally red.
• Smooth sumac has smooth stems, like poison sumac. However, its berries grow in dense clustered spikes rather than the looser arrangement found in poison sumac.
• Shining sumac is easily identified by its grooved stems between the leaflets . This stem configuration is quite distinctive once you notice it – it looks like it has been given grooves. Poison sumac has smooth, round stems.
• Tree of Heaven (not a sumac at all) has leaves with notches around the base, while poison sumac has smooth leaves. Tree of Heaven also does not produce berry clusters like the sumacs.

If you’re confused, it’s generally easy to identify poison sumac by its habitat as well.

## Where Does Poison Sumac Grow?

Poison sumac is mostly found in wet, swampy areas with clay-like soil. That’s a good thing, because that means most of us won’t run into it along our day-to-day adventures (unlike pernicious poison ivy , which grows just about anywhere).

Poison sumac is mostly found along the coasts of North America, with big patches just south of Tennessee and in the states surrounding Massachusetts. It is occasionally found in the farthest southeast portions of Canada.

Image courtesy of USGS.

## How Can I Get Rid of Poison Sumac?

If poison sumac is growing on your property and you want to remove it, you’re in for a chore. Since it is more dangerous than other poisonous plants like poison ivy or poison oak (and it’s a decent-sized tree), it’s generally best to hire a professional.

Any attempts at removing poison sumac are risky because you are likely to expose yourself to the urushiol. As stated above, burning it is a bad idea. It’s possible that breathing the smoke from burned poison sumac is fatal, though we couldn’t find any reports of actual deaths.

If you do decide to remove poison sumac on your own (which, again, we don’t recommend), it’s a lengthy process:

1. Make sure you’ve identified the target. Then plan your removal for a dry, windless day.
2. Gear up. You’ll want eye protection, a mask, and long clothing or rubber gloves and boots over every inch of skin.
3. Cut the plant at ground level using shears or a saw.
4. Treat the remaining base using a chemical herbicide such as Roundup. We don’t always love using these big-boy chemicals, but this plant is no joke. This is not the time to play nice with nature!
• If your infestation is small, you might want to dig up the roots. However, this can be tricky with an adult plant.
5. Dispose of the plant properly. You should not burn poison sumac or put it in the compost. Instead, put it in black plastic trash bags and then check with your municipality to see if they allow it in the dump.
6. Disinfect your clothing and tools. Rinse tools with rubbing alcohol, then oil the joints after they’ve dried. Wash your gloves before removing your clothing, then use the gloves to take off all of your clothing. Wash all of this immediately, then wash your gloves again. Take a shower afterward.

You’ll likely need to repeat this process several times to eradicate the plants. It’s generally easier to leave poison sumac alone if it’s in a remote part of your property — removal is quite difficult!

## How Do I Treat Poison Sumac Rashes?

If you think you might have come into contact with poison sumac, rinse the area with lots of cool water and dish soap or rubbing alcohol as soon as possible. This might help remove some of the urushiol before it reacts with your skin and helps prevent its spread.

Once you’re having a reaction from contact with the plants there’s not much you can do to cure it. However, you can treat the symptoms. The rash generally takes about a month to disappear.

Over-the-counter remedies for poison sumac include calamine lotion, hydrocortisone creams, antihistamines like Benadryl, and topical anesthetics.

If your eyes are swelling shut, your poison sumac reaction covers more than 30% of your body, you have a fever, or the reaction is on your face or genitals, get help from a doctor. Call 911 or go to an emergency room if you’re having trouble breathing.

How did you react to your poison sumac experience? Share your ID tips and stories below.

Weapon poison(+) is made by mixing a cactus spine followed by red spiders’ eggs in a vial of coconut milk, granting 165 Herblore experience. This requires a Herblore level of 73 or higher. It can also be looted from ninja impling jars.

A single vial of weapon poison can poison only 5 bolts, javelins, darts, or throwing knives. This makes poisoning a substantial amount of ammo quite costly.

Melee attacks apply poison at 25% chance, where Ranged attacks apply poison at 12.5% chance. Weapon poison(+) deals 5 damage (3 damage with ranged weapons) every 18 seconds. If it is not reapplied to the target, the poison deals 1 less damage every 5 hits until the target is no longer poisoned. Ranged weapons with Weapon poison(+) applied, however, will only hit 3 once before starting to hit 2s. For melee weapons this means a total of 75 damage will be dealt from the poison, whilst for range weapons this will only be 18.

You can remove weapon poison from a weapon with a cleaning cloth.

## Contents

• 1 Total Poison damage
• 2 Creation
• 3 Item sources
• 4 Changes

## Total Poison damage [ edit | edit source ]

Total Poison damage (Melee: DM and Ranged: DR) is calculated by the sum of all numbers (n) up to the max hit (M), times the amount of hits per number (H=5).

D M ( M ) = H ⋅ ∑ n = 1 M n = H ⋅ 1 2 M ( M + 1 ) = 2.5 ⋅ 5 ( 5 + 1 ) = 75 D R ( M ) = H ⋅ ∑ n = 1 M − 1 n + M = H ⋅ 1 2 M ( M − 1 ) + M = 2.5 ⋅ 3 ( 3 − 1 ) + 3 = 18 <\displaystyle <\beginD_(M)&=H\cdot \sum _^n=H\cdot <\frac <1><2>>M(M+1)=2.5\cdot 5(5+1)=75\\D_(M)&=H\cdot \sum _^n+M=H\cdot <\frac <1><2>>M(M-1)+M=2.5\cdot 3(3-1)+3=18\end>>

In conclusion: if you intend to kill something with only poison, it is recommended to use melee, as it provides almost triple the amount of poison damage compared to ranged poison damage and additionally has double the chance to be applied (1/4 vs 1/8).

Sleepless nights? Strange sounds? Disgusting smells? Knowing how to eliminate raccoons is certainly an urban challenge! Trying to eradicate these destructive rodents, homeowners often make many mistakes. When they can’t resolve the problem with standard control approaches, they start using methods of killing raccoons.

The question is how to choose the right way of killing? Is it legal to kill the raccoons? Get relief with our tips. We’ll suggest different methods of killing raccoons. Find out how to kill raccoons and learn how to solve the problem of raccoon eradication with expert companies.

## How to kill a raccoon: Popular methods of raccoon eradication

Even though most of us are aware of how cute raccoons are, when they become pests in our area, the first reaction of most of us will be to eradicate these animals.

When it comes to killing raccoons, it is important to choose the right way of killing the animal.

There are 3 Methods of Killing Raccoons:

Shooting
This is one of the most convenient methods of killing raccoons. However, if you are not a very good marksman you may have problems, as an injured raccoon wandering near your property can often be a much greater threat than a healthy one. Before shooting the animal, consider the legal issues related to the use of guns for killing raccoons in your area.

Drowning

This method is being used by many people. The animal is caught with the help of a trap. Then the trap is kept submerged in water – lake, pool, etc. – until the raccoon dies. However, this method is inhumane and must be avoided as much as possible.

### Body Grip Trap

There are many types of traps for killing raccoons. But the most effective is the Body Grip. The trap is quite strong and excellent. It is available in several sizes.

You can choose between the following:

• BG 220,
• BG 280,
• BG 330.

Body Grip Trap is a square, heavy steel trap that has 2 springs – in the shape of a “V” – designed to hold strong animals. Once both “V”s of the trap are compressed, you need to set the key into the groove of the trigger. The trap should be placed where you want to make the set. Once it is placed, the safety latches are released and the Bodygrip Trap is ready for the animal.

Where to use BodyGrip: The key to a good set is placing the trap in the path of a raccoon. Such locations include deck trellis, holes in fences, crawl spaces, or sheds.

Recommendations: The more traps employed, the quicker you catch raccoons. You can start with one trap. If you have 10 or more raccoons being targeted, use 2 or 3 traps.

How to eliminate raccoons? There is no need to kill or poison them, as you can remove these animals with traps. Here’s how to do it.

Rabies is not a problem of the past. Are you afraid of rabid raccoons? Read this to learn how to protect yourself and your family from infected raccoons.

Want to make the process of raccoon extermination much easier? You can solve your raccoon problem using working deterrents and repellents. Here is how to do it.

## What kills raccoons?

When people can’t resolve the problem with standard control approaches, they start using poison for raccoons.

Here are the following options:

Bromethalin
This rat poison attacks the nervous system of the animal and causes extensor rigidity, limb ataxia, lateral recumbence, seizures, and finally death after 36 hours.

• Poison antifreeze
Antifreeze can kill a raccoon if the animal will eat it. The liquid causes severe kidney damage. Frankly speaking, this way of killing raccoons is not a humane one. While the poison itself is tasty and appealing to raccoons, the damage caused by toxins creates the suffering the raccoon experiences. The poison causes extreme pain, lethargy, vomiting, seizures, and even brain damage. It’s a horrible way to die.
• Cholecalciferol
This type of rat poison is often used to remove raccoons and leads to death in 24-36 hours, producing hypocalcemia.
• Strychnine
The poison causes muscular convulsions and death through sheer exhaustion or asphyxia.

Using poisons for raccoons is not an easy solution. You have to find and buy the poison, you have to make sure the animal eats the poison and that this is an effective dose. The poison causes prolonged and painful suffering and is a very inhumane way of killing raccoons.

### Raccoon poison recipe

Poisoning – popular, and illegal this method of raccoon control often demonstrates its dark side. Many people try to resolve the raccoon problem by setting out a bowl of mixed cola and methomyl fly-bait granules.

The poison consists of:

• Methomyl – a restricted-to-use, dangerous pesticide that is only sold to certified pesticide applicators.
• Available over-the-counter the fly-bait form.
• Cola.

Those who have serious problems with raccoons and can’t resolve them with standard approaches often try to find a quick, easy way out. However, they are not thinking about the implications.

Remember, all sort of wildlife that drinks that poison mix is going to die – like your pets, neighbors’ pets, etc. Of course, raccoons can be extremely frustrating to deal with, but that is not the reason to use poison recipes on every animal in the area – especially if you are not an expert.

## Professional Raccoon Exterminator Companies

Being extremely frustrating, raccoons can stress people out. If you are not an expert and don’t know how to solve the problem on your own, hire professionals. Addressing expert companies is the optimal way of raccoon extermination.

Use our smart tips and keep raccoons in check. Raccoon’s extermination with poison cannot completely resolve the problem. Remember, raccoon elimination should be legal and safe.

You can find further details of Raccoons Control here.

# How to cover rust on a truck

Rust on a vehicle not only looks unsightly, but also reduces the value when selling the vehicle or using it as a trade-in to purchase a new car.

Once in place, rust eats away at the surrounding metal. Over time, the rust patch grows bigger and bigger, and depending on where it is located, can cause major cosmetic and even mechanical problems with your vehicle.

Once a car starts to rust, the damage can spread quickly, which is why preventing it in the first place is of utmost importance. Here are some simple steps that you can take to keep your vehicle rust-free.

## Part 1 of 4: Wash your car regularly

Some of the biggest causes of rust are salt and other chemicals on the roadways, which get on cars in cold weather. Dirt and other debris can also damage your car and cause rust formation.

• Tip: If you live by the ocean or in an area that experiences winter weather, make sure to wash your vehicle on a regular basis. Salt from the ocean or the roadways promotes the formation and spreading of rust.

Materials Needed

• Bucket
• Car wax
• Detergent (and water)
• Garden hose
• Microfiber towels

Step 1: Wash your car on a regular basis. Wash your car at a carwash or clean it manually at least once every two weeks.

Step 2: Wash off salt. Wash your car once a week in the winter when salt has been put on the roads to prepare for harsh weather days.

• Tip: Washing your car regularly keeps the salt from corroding the paint on your car and eating into the metal underneath.

Step 3: Keep your carвЂ™s drain plugs clear. Check your vehicleвЂ™s drain plugs and make sure that they are not blocked with leaves or other dirt and debris. Blocked drain plugs allow water to collect and cause rust.

• Tip: These drain plugs are usually located around the edges of the hood and trunk and along the bottoms of the doors.

Step 4: Wax your car. Polish your car with wax at least once a month. Wax provides a seal to help keep water off your vehicle.

Step 5: Clean up any spills. Wipe up any spills inside the car, which can also lead to rust. The longer you let a spill sit, the harder it is to clean up.

• Tip: Make sure that the inside of the car dries out thoroughly anytime it gets wet. You can also help speed up the drying process by using a microfiber towel to remove most of the moisture before allowing the rest to air dry.

## Part 2 of 4: Use products to prevent rust

Materials Needed

• Anti-rust spray like Jigaloo, Cosmoline Weathershed, or Eastwood Anti-Rust Aerosol.
• Bucket
• Detergent and water
• Garden hose

Tip: In addition to washing your vehicle regularly, you can have your vehicle pre-treated to help prevent rust. Have this done by the manufacturer when first buying the car. Another option is to treat suspect areas whenever you wash your car with an anti-rust spray.

Step 1: Inspect for rust. Inspect your vehicle and check for rust on a regular basis.

Look for chipped paint or areas that look like bubbles in the paint. These areas are an indication that rust has begun to corrode the part of the vehicle just under the paint.

• Tip: YouвЂ™ll most often see rust or bubbling paint around the windows, along the wheel wells, and around the fenders of a car.

Step 2: Clean the affected area. Clean the area around the bubbling or chipped paint. Allow the vehicle to dry.

Step 3: Rust-protect your vehicle. Apply an anti-rust spray to your car to help prevent rust damage before it begins.

• Tip: Ask the manufacturer to apply a rust coating before you purchase the vehicle. It will cost extra, but it can help your vehicle last longer.
• Tip: If you plan to purchase a pre-owned car, get a certified mechanic to inspect the car and check for rust damage before you buy it.

## Part 3 of 4: Wipe down car surfaces

Material Needed

• Microfiber towels

In addition to cleaning and treating the outside of your vehicle, you should also wipe down your vehicle’s surfaces when they become wet. This can prevent the formation of oxidization, which is the first step toward rust developing on your car’s body.

Step 1: Wipe down wet surfaces. Use a clean cloth to wipe down surfaces when they become wet.

• Tip: Even a vehicle kept inside a garage should be wiped off if itвЂ™s been out in the rain or snow before being parked.

Step 2: Use wax or lacquer. You can also use a wax, lubricant, or lacquer to prevent the water from gaining access to the body of the car.

## Part 4 of 4: Treat rust spots early

Rust spreads if left untreated, so deal with it when the first signs appear. You should also consider having rusty body parts cleaned of rust or replaced entirely. This can prevent the spread of rust totally as it is removed from your car.

Materials Needed

• Primer
• Paint for touch ups
• PainterвЂ™s tape
• Rust Repair Kit on eBay or Amazon
• Sandpaper (180 grit, 320 grit and 400 grit)

Step 1: Rust removal. Remove rust on your vehicle with a rust repair kit.

• Note: The rust repair kit works only if the rust is minor.

Step 2: Use sandpaper. You can also use sandpaper to sand down the rusted area. Start sanding with the roughest grit sandpaper and gradually move on to the finest.

Tip: You can start with 180-grit sandpaper, followed by a 320 and then 400 grit size as the 180 grit sandpaper is more rough than the 400 grit sandpaper.

Tip: Make sure to get the right grit of sandpaper to avoid making deep scratches.

Step 3: Prep the area with primer. Once you have removed the rust by sanding, apply primer to the area. Make sure to let it dry completely.

Step 4: Re-paint. Apply touch-up paint to cover the treated area and match it to the body color.

Tip: If it is a larger area or close to the trim or glass, make sure to tape off and cover the surrounding areas to avoid getting paint on those areas.

Tip: You also need to reapply the clear coat after the paint has completely dried.

If the area affected by rust is very small, you can repair it on your own. If the rust has eaten through the metal or if the damage is extensive, youвЂ™ll need to turn to professionals for help. Take your rust-damaged vehicle to a professional auto body shop to get recommendations on how best to deal with the rust damage.

## Next Step

### Schedule Pre-purchase Car Inspection

When we originally bought this ’65 Chevy C10, we knew the paint would need to be addressed. It had dents and dings on every panel and some teal color poking through some paint-flaked panels. To paint or not to paint, that’s the question. Either way, paint will be last, so might as well make it cool while we save our pennies.

All you need to achieve a faux patina finish is an over-the-counter rust activator like this one from Modern Metal Products. This is water-base and will rust naturally over time if exposed to the proper elements. The rust activator will speed up the oxidation process and create a beautiful, authentic rust finish in minutes.

Jeff Lagasse at Gen One Customs cleaned and prepped the surface before allowing it to fully dry. This will help the chemical bond with the metal and do its magic! Within minutes it was activating and aging. How cool is that!

Moving to the front of the truck, and using Google images as inspiration, Jeff added some more chemical coats in strategic yet natural-looking locations.

With the front and back of the cab coated to perfection, it was simply a waiting game. Once it’s dry, we can sand some of the edges to pull more of the teal color out and use some black spray paint to darken the corners.

All dry and put back together. Looks great, don’t you think? Now to allow it to get some sun for a few days and then get it protected.

Now that we have a clean and non-permanent coating on our ’65 Chevy C10, we decided to order a California Car Cover since it’s sitting outside. The Supremeweave cover is the company’s new and exclusive fleece-lined woven outdoor car cover. The fabric includes a water-repellent “Hydromax” finish to protect against rain while still allowing the fabric to be exceptionally breathable.
Supremeweave is a versatile material as it provides excellent weather protection when used outdoors, but it has a soft lining for paint protection when being used indoors on a stored collector car. Washing machine safe, backed by a five5-year limited warranty, and best of all it’s made in the U.S.A!

Next, you unfold the sides and stretch over the front and rear of the truck. Elastic is sewn into the front and rear, which will keep it in place under normal conditions.

Now it can sit and wait for the next opening at the paint shop without affecting our new patina finish.

Rusting on a car can be a severe problem, causing paint distortion and serious damage to your beloved vehicle. Apart from being ugly, iron oxide can cause corrosion, resulting in vehicle structural damage. This means that damage to the appeal of a car is expected.

However, restoring the underlying chassis will be substantially more costly if the ‘damage’ spreads far. Getting rid of rust on your car is thus about more than simply appearance; it’s also about improving safety and extending the life of your vehicle.

## How to fix a rusted car?

Fixing rust spots on the car isn’t difficult, but it takes time (mostly waiting for primer and paint to dry between steps). Supplies such as sandpaper, primer, masking tape, and poly sheeting, as well as a tack rag, polishing compound, touch-up paint, and clear coat, should cost around $100. To treat the most common rust spots on the hood and doors, choose a quiet, cloudy day and block out the entire day. ### Step 1: Prepare the car To mix the touch-up paint into the good portions, you need to tape the leading edge of the poly sheeting a few feet away from the repair. With a scraper, remove any blistered pints. Using 40-grit sandpaper, sand through the rust patches to the bare metal. ### Step 2: Make a sanded area bigger and clean the car Make the sanded area bigger so you can feather the edges. Then, Feather the margins of the repair area with 120-grit sandpaper. Usually, 220 grit is used to finish the feathering. Remove particles from the exposed area with a tack rag. Use a grease-cutting dishwashing detergent to clean the entire uncovered area, then rinse with clean water and allow to dry. ### Step 3: Wipe away dust Wipe away any remaining dust or lint with a lint-free cloth before applying the paint manufacturer’s prep solvent. ### Step 4: Apply epoxy primer Apply epoxy primer first, followed by filler primer. Filler primer should be sprayed in thicker applications to cover the entire restoration area. Blend the can into the surrounding painted area by moving it slightly away from the surface. Use a self-etching epoxy primer as your initial layer to ensure a solid connection to bare metal. Spray two to three medium coats, waiting the required time between coats (typically 15 minutes). Allow an hour for the epoxy to dry to the touch (or longer if the weather is damp). ### Step 5: Apply lacquer filler Wet 1,000-grit sandpaper is used to grind the epoxy primer. Allow drying after washing with clean water. Wipe the cured epoxy primer clean with a lint-free cloth before applying two to three coats of lacquer filler primer, leaving time for each application to dry. Allow at least one hour for the lacquer primer to dry to the touch before sanding. ### Step 6: Sand the whole repair Use 320-grit sandpaper, sand drips, and sags, then sand the entire repair area to a smooth finish. Smooth the primer and feather the edges with wet 600-grit sandpaper. In the end, sand the whole repair, including the blended areas, with wet 1,000-grit sandpaper. ### Step 7: Spray the repaired area Spray the repaired area while holding the spray can about 12 inches away from the surface. Begin at the bottom of the repair and apply the color coat in left-to-right rows, roughly one-third overlapping each pass. In two to three coats, gradually work the color into the repair and surrounding areas. Allow 10 to 15 minutes between coats after that. Allow at least 60 minutes for the base coat to cure until it is dry to the touch. ### Step 8: Applying clear coat Apply many clear coats, allowing enough time for each coat to dry between coats. Gradually work the clear coat into the surrounding painted areas to achieve a flawless blend line. Allow several hours for the vehicle to dry before driving it and at least 48 hours before polishing it. ### Step 9: Hand buff the mended area Hand-buff the mended area using a buffing compound and an old cotton T-shirt or microfiber cloth; repeat the process in case you are dealing with rust spots on a car again. ### Bottom line If you don’t think of yourself as a DIY master, you have Schneider’s Auto Wrecking Ltd experts to help you with vehicle maintenance. Besides, if your car is damaged beyond the rust, you can also get assistance to buy used auto parts to fix the functionality of a vehicle. Either way, we are here to help with any kind of vehicle maintenance. Rust eats away at metal until there are visible holes, or the structural integrity of the metal is no longer safe. Rust forms easiest where there is water, humidity, salt or mud against metal. The undercarriage of a truck is the most vulnerable place for rust to attack. Rust on the undercarriage should be repaired as soon as possible to prevent holes in the floor and other parts. #### Step 1 Park the truck on a hard, flat surface, and engage the parking brake. Raise the truck, and place jack stands under the frame near each front tire. Lower the truck onto the jack stands. #### Step 2 Crawl under the truck on your back, and use a wire brush to get rid of the loose rust. Reach in and around parts until you get most of the loose rust removed. You may also use a high-pressure hose, but you must wait until the undercarriage is completely dry before repairing it. #### Step 3 Wipe wax and grease remover over every visible surface with a clean towel. This removes any last grease, wax or debris from the undercarriage. Apply Rust Doctor (arguably the most user-friendly rust remover available) by brushing on a moderate coat. If any areas show through, apply another coat. Wait 24 hours for the Rust Doctor to dry if an additional coat is needed. The metal will begin to turn black, as it is converted into magnetite, which forms a protective barrier between the metal and moisture. It also prevents any further rust from forming. ### Contents 1. Scratch 2. Rust repair isn’ 3. Treats cold sores 4. Resident car buying expert Don’t let rust destroy your precious car! This is the DIY way to protect … securing them with zip-ties. Cover the brakes over too, ideally with large, thick refuse bags and zip-ties or tape, wrap … Repeat a third time if necessary. If rust has eaten through the body and formed a large hole, cover the hole with fiberglass tape. Bond the tape to the body of the washer with auto body filler. Cover … Dec 29, 2015 · Rust: if your car has it, you’re probably not happy about it. At the very least, it’s unsightly and reduces your car’s value; if left unchecked a rust spot can quickly grow until it causes a structural problem. In many states a… Primer For Car Paint Zierick manufacturing corporation 6 automotive fluid Applications Spraying Ink and Paint Dispensing Paint and Primers Marking … Is this something I can spot-fix or must the entire car be stripped and repainted … For some technical reason, the paint … How To Mask A Car For Paint Police in a tiny English village are hunting First, if you don’t have time to repair the scratch right away, you should cover it with a piece of tape … to match your car. This is a temporary solution, however — a way to prevent water from … How To Mask A Car For Paint Police in a tiny English village are hunting for a masked middle-aged woman they believe is behind a series of acid attacks on cars. Officers say six vehicles … of a middle-aged woman wearing a … Flexible magnetic sheet precisely follows the contours of your hood. The finest detail will show through. You can even Buy paint and supplies. rust repair isn’ t hard, but it is time-consuming (mostly waiting for primer and paint to dry between steps). Plan to spend about$100 on supplies like sandpaper, primer, masking tape and poly sheeting, a tack rag, polishing compound and touch-up paint and clear coat.

treats cold sores and sunburns and will act as a rust … car tire treads is a great tester to see if you need new tires. If you can see Abe Lincoln’s head, then it’s time to get new tires. For …

Mar 29, 2019 · How to Remove Rust from a Car. A troublesome rust spot on a car typically spreads with time as the metal underneath is exposed to moisture and air, which cause it to oxidize, or corrode. Whether you plan on keeping it or selling it, your…

Tools Needed To Paint A Car This video that addresses basic light-painting of a car comes to us from an automobile YouTube channel … It’s refreshing to see a how-to video that doesn’t stress the need for expensive camera gear … Stripping A Car To Bare Metal Cheap Way To Paint Car As Jalopnik’s resident car buying expert and professional car

How to Fix Rust Spots on a Car: I drive a 1985 VW Golf (diesel), and it’s in pretty good condition for being 21 years old. There are three spots on the front left fender that have rust on them. Someone had hit the car and the paint came off, so it became rusty. These spots ar…

This is not to say that the car is anywhere close. I just crossed 60,000 miles, and the engine and transmission are in solid shape. There’s very little rust … The cover of the rear bumper, for …

but cut some strips of fine screening to cover the openings and tape the strips to glass and molding with masking tape. Be careful not to tape to the car body paint surfaces. Perform all the other …

People commonly see vehicle wraps as a solution for unsightly problems. If you have rust spots or a poorly executed paint job, it seems that covering the offending coat is the easiest solution. Is this you?

If your car has imperfections in the exterior like rust holes or peeling paint, then vinyl vehicle wraps should not be your solution. Covering these damages wouldn’t be a solution at all. At Team Acme, we’ve seen many different techniques used to try and hide rust. In reality, though, you’re going to want to genuinely address the underlying condition instead of just trying to hide it outright.

## Sand, Prime, And Paint- Or Wrap!

The only solution is to repair the damage before moving further. The first step is to sand away the offending rust and blemishes. Once the source of the rust is gone, apply a primer to the spots. After the primer dries, you can decide if you would prefer to wrap or paint the vehicle. The difference in price depends on the kind of paint you want to use, but no matter what, a wrap is not permanent, so it could act as a ‘temporary tattoo’ for your car color. Read more about the difference here.

## How Does A Car Get Rusted?

That being said, there’s no reason to suggest that cars ever need to get rusty in the first place. There are three primary reasons that they get rusty, and reducing this from happening can help to dramatically cut down on the overall risk that you’re ever going to have to mess around with rust removal. After all, preventing something from happening is even better than doing a great job fixing it.

While cars that are kept exclusively in the Las Vegas metro aren’t known to get rained on a whole lot, when the sky does break open it can be a real issue. The problem is probably bigger for those who drive their cars back and forth from, say, Carson City or Reno and run into rainy weather during their trips. Make sure to dry your vehicle off if you’re taking it in from the rain.

Salt, whether from road dust or a trip all the way out to the coast in California, is not going to do your vehicle a favor one bit. Road salt that’s actually applied to the streets in the mountains or in other states is going to increase the chances of metal oxidizing, which contributes to the rust problem.

### Neglect

Perhaps the biggest problem, as well as the underlying cause of these two other issues, is actually neglect. Make sure that you’re not leaving your car in places such as an extremely humid garage.

## Is It Possible To Remove Rust From A Car?

Should a car get rusty, there’s a good chance that something could be done to remove it. You do need to take it somewhere that’s going to take the right kind of care of it, however. Make sure to only work with professionals who are experienced in this field.

### Bring Your Car To A Professional

If you are not sure if your car can be vinyl wrapped, then don’t hesitate to bring it to Team Acme Inc. Located in Henderson, Nevada, we will be able to let you know if wrapping is a suitable solution for your vehicle. If not, we can provide the care your car needs before wrapping.

Now, don’t get us wrong. Vinyl can successfully cover rust. However, at Team Acme, we avoid vinyl wrapping rusted vehicles. Vinyl wrapping is not a long-term solution for repairing rust. Not only will it exacerbate the rust problem, but repair costs will be much higher than before the vinyl was applied. For these reasons, we advise customers to repair the rust before applying a vinyl wrap to their vehicle.

## Why You Should Never Apply Vinyl Over Rust

Rust on a car is similar to a hole in a wall. You can cover the hole with paint or wall-hangings, but there is still a hole in the wall. The damage jeopardizes the structural integrity of the wall, even if it isn’t visible.

As with the wall, rust can jeopardize the structural integrity of your car, especially if the rust is severe. Even if the rust is not advanced, then by covering it with a vinyl wrap, some moisture will be trapped inside, and the rust will spread. And while this may hide the damage for a moment, it won’t last. Vinyl wraps adhere to the paint on a vehicle. Without a secured adhesion, the vinyl will peel or bubble, leaving the rust visible again.

### Vinyl Won’t Work Over Rust

When you apply a vinyl automotive wrap, you have to make sure that it’s going to adhere to the underlying structure of the car. The seal has to be extremely tight to keep it on, which is why it works best after a vehicle has been cleaned and dried. Rust makes the exterior of an automobile much less slick, which increases the surface area by adding little nodules to the shell. If you’ve ever taken a close-up look at rust, then you know just how knobby it is.

Putting a vinyl wrap over a rusty body isn’t going to work. However, you can have the rust removed and then treated first before a wrap is then installed to cover the new bodywork. Our group of pros at Team Acme has dealt with this kind of issue in the past. Keep in mind that it’s still much easier to prevent the growth of rust than it is to remove it later on.

## Peruse Professional Wrap Design and Installation From Team Acme

Visit Team Acme’s website today to view examples of our talented crew’s previous work. Our team uses state-of-the-art equipment, including software, to design the unique vinyl wraps we install. We use only the highest quality materials to ensure a long-lasting finish. A wide selection of color options is available, as well.
At Team Acme, we are committed to providing our customers with long-lasting, high-quality vinyl wraps, window tints, and more. For this reason, we use only the best quality materials for every job. Our team is experienced in vinyl wrapping and can ensure a spectacular finish on any vehicle. If you have any questions or comments, let us know! Contact us here and our customer service staff will be happy to help any way they can. You can also feel free to request a free quote online at any time.

Do you want to expand the life of your truck? Undercoating is one of the best practices to do so. When you undercoat your vehicle, you make it immune to the harmful effects of rust and debris. Because this is one of the most crucial things to do for your truck, you need to be very careful when choosing undercoatings for your vehicle. The right kind of undercoating can work wonders for your truck. The wrong ones can cause havoc.

Apart from that, you also need to understand the right process of undercoating your truck. When done the right way, it will make your vehicle last for years. When done the wrong way, it will deplete the truck’s life and make it unworthy of your time and effort.

## Best Undercoating for Trucks

Low price range

If you are looking for a budget-friendly option for getting your truck undercoated, you can opt for the Evercoat 1348 Premium. Even though this is simple and inexpensive, it does the work quite well. It is particularly useful for restoration projects.

• Sticks to bare metals and painted surfaces
• Suitable for use on rocker panels, splash pans, wheel wells, lower body panels, and underbodies
• Creates a robust and textured surface

Mid-price range

### 1. Fluid Film Prevention

If you are looking for a product that does the work well without harming the environment, this is the product for you. Fluid Film Prevention is eco-friendly and doesn’t contain any ozone-depleting chemicals. It can be used in an extremely cold climate because of its anti-freezing properties.

• Lanolin-based formula
• Enters deep into all metals
• Rust Preventive Lubricant

### 3. Chemical Guys Bare Bones

For a clean and nice-looking coating, you can try the Chemical Guys Bare Bones. It is one of the best products for restoring your truck’s original shine and keeping it safe from UV rays.

• Can be used on vehicle tires
• Helps in restoring the original shine

### 2. 3M 03584 Professional Grade Rubberized Undercoating

Remove traces of corrosion, abrasion, and debris from your truck’s undercarriage with the 3M 03584 Professional Grade Rubberized Undercoating. This one has an asphalt-based solution which is suited for protecting your vehicle from damage. When coated in the right way, this will cut down the noise from the engine and the road and make your ride peaceful.

• Can be used on trucks, cars, and RVs as well
• Has sound-deadening properties for noise reduction in the cabin
• Protects from corrosion and abrasion

Now that you know about the best truck undercoatings available in the market, you can learn about the things you should take into consideration before buying one of these.

1. Make sure that the undercarriage spray dries hard enough to protect your truck’s undercarriage from road debris and rocks.
2. There are certain products which are very harmful to the environment. Make sure that the products you use are not extremely harmful to the environment.

Also, make sure to use protective gear when working with these products. They can have severe effects when they get in contact with your body.

## Benefits of Truck Undercoatings

1. Reduction of interior noise
2. Can be self-applied
3. Extends the life and value of your truck
4. Works as an extra layer of protection
5. Saves time and money

## Types of Truck Undercoatings

1. Fluid film undercoating
2. Rubberized undercoating
3. Oil undercoating

Those were some of the best truck undercoatings you can find today. You can buy these products from Amazon using the links mentioned in this article. You can also check out other related products in the other sections of this website.

Despite your best efforts, there are times when you might still notice that rust has formed on your car, your tools, or your boat. You know that if you don’t take some kind of action that it will only get worse, because once rust has formed on a surface, it not only spreads but it also becomes more concentrated. If oxidation has already formed somewhere on your car, it will quickly devalue your vehicle when it comes time for a trade-in, and if you leave the oxidation untreated, it might very well degrade the condition of the vehicle, so as to affect its operation. So what can you do to prevent rust from getting worse?

## How Can I Prevent Rust From Spreading and Getting Worse?

If you have some serious rusting on your vehicle, you’re probably better off to work with a professional so as to have the oxidation removed. This is especially true if you suspect that any section of your car might need to be replaced. If the damage isn’t quite so extensive as that, you may be able to manage it yourself, so that no further spreading of the damage will occur. Here are some different products and approaches you might want to consider.

## Magica Rust Remover

With no types of acid included in its formula, Magica Rust Remover is safe to use on any surface you care to for the prevention of rusting, and to inhibit its spread. Its fast-acting formula allows you to apply it, then just wait while it penetrates, and then wipe away all the oxidation with some ordinary water. Obviously, this involves far less manual labor than grinding or sand-papering, and a good deal less time as well. On top of all that, it’s extremely effective, so you could hardly make a better choice.

## The Do-it-Yourself Method

If you don’t have any rust-inhibiting products around the house, and you’re determined to get rid of rusting so it won’t spread, here’s a good approach. This will only be effective on a small, localized area of corrosion and not a really widespread area on your car. First, take some sandpaper and file down the oxidation, being careful not to touch the good metal underneath. Then wash off all the tiny debris particles and wipe the area down with a moistened cloth. After that, apply a corrosion-inhibiting primer and when it dries, you can just spray-paint the affected spot with a color matching your car’s original shade.

## Regular Maintenance

It can be very helpful to periodically perform some routine maintenance on your car so as to prevent the spread of oxidation. Particularly after your vehicle has been exposed to water in the form of rain or snow, you should take some time to wash your car and make sure to clear away all the grime underneath the car which may have accumulated. You should also clear away any water which collects at the drain holes on door bottoms and rocker panels since these are prime areas for water buildup.

## Remove Scale Rust

Scale rusting is what forms after initial oxidation has become more advanced and results in a bubble, which will eventually flake away to expose more metal surface. That newly exposed surface will then also become rusty, and the process will continue all around your car if left unchecked. To stop this development in its tracks, use a wire brush to remove it, then grind down the rough surface with a grinding wheel, and use sandpaper to achieve a smooth surface. Then apply a primer and a matching coat of paint to the area to completely recover the spot.

## Permatex Rust Treatment

If you aren’t particularly adept at grinding and wire-brushing, you may simply want to use a rust-inhibiting product which will get rid of the rusting for you all on its own. There are two primary components to this formula, one which neutralizes the oxidation itself, and another which acts as a kind of primer on the metal surface. After treating any affected surfaces, you’ll have the option of re-painting it or just leaving it as is, relatively safe from further incursions of oxidation and corrosion.

## Curb Rust Buildup Today

Preventing the spread of corrosion on your boat or on your car is of prime importance, if you wish to preserve the good looks of your vehicle, and to prevent any damage from occurring on surfaces. Contact us today at Magica Rust Remover, so you can get the best product on the market today for rust removal and for the prevention of spreading when dealing with oxidation or corrosion.

Protecting the underside of a truck is an important part of preserving the life of the vehicle. If you live in an area that is prone to winter weather and you own a truck, you should have the underside of the truck protected from salt and snow. These are the primary causes of rust and can cause a vehicle to prematurely age. In order to properly protect your vehicle there are several areas you must consider.

### Avoid General Spay Paint

General aerosol spay paints are not adequate to prevent rust. Salt and ricocheting rocks will weaken the paint and it will chip off the vehicle quickly. According to Duplicolor.com, undercoat paint is formulated with a rubberized base to allow better adhesion and will protect the underside of a vehicle much better than standard enamel aerosol paints.

### Brushing, Spraying and Aerosol Cans

Some companies sell a variety of paints that can be applied by brush, automotive air gun painter such as HVLP (high volume low pressure) systems and aerosol cans. Painting with a brush is the most cost-effective but will take the longest time. Using aerosol cans will be more costly because you will need several cans depending on the size of your truck but it will be relatively quick. Using an HVLP system requires specialized equipment but can be completed in a very short amount of time.

### Removing Rust

Unless your vehicle is new, it’s likely that the underside of the truck has some surface rust. This can be especially true on axle housings and cross members. All surface rust should be removed to help promote adhesion. Removing the surface rust is usually done with a stiff wire brush, an orbital sander or chemical rust removers. Painting over rust could cause improper adhesion and could cause the vehicle to rust faster.

### Prepping for Paint

Proper body preparation is needed when painting. There are various parts, like break lines and wire harnesses, that you may not want to cover in rubberized paint. This can make it hard to repair or replace parts if needed. Using painter’s tape to tape off areas that you do not want to paint will prevent this problem and will also improve the final look of the undercoat.

Similarly one may ask, how do I get rust off my truck frame?

How to Stop Rust on a Truck Frame

1. First remove any loose rust with a wire brush or scraper.
2. Use a water based cleaning product to clean the surface of any dust, oils or grease.
3. Ensure the surface is dry to the touch.
4. Apply a rust converter with a paint brush or foam roller directly over the rusted metal at a thickness of 8.0 mils.
5. Allow to dry for 24 hours.

Also Know, can a rusted truck frame be repaired? This type of rust can be easily fixed by using a grinding wheel or sandpaper. Buff out paint and corrosion until the bright metal appears, then apply coat primer, paint, and clear coat respectively. This type of rust can weaken a truck’s metal strength. Use a wire brush and grinding wheel to get through the rust.

Keeping this in consideration, is rust on a truck frame bad?

Big brown rust stains and flaking paint aren’t exactly attractive design cues, and if rust gets into a vehicle’s frame or body structure, it can be downright unsafe. However, that doesn’t mean that a little rust on a used car makes it a bad deal.

Can undercarriage rust be fixed?

Rust eats away at metal until there are visible holes, or the structural integrity of the metal is no longer safe. The undercarriage of a truck is the most vulnerable place for rust to attack. Rust on the undercarriage should be repaired as soon as possible to prevent holes in the floor and other parts.

How to Fix Rust Pits In Body Work

If you are lucky, your project car is straight with no big holes rusted in in behind the wheels in the fenders and quarter panels. But even if there is no rust through there, you may find that rock nicks and chips have allowed salt and moisture to eat little pits in the metal.

These pits aren’t deep, so they are easily filled in with Contour body filler, but doing that without first addressing the rust will cause you headaches down the road as the rust continues to eat into the metal.

In order to properly treat, fill and prep the fender, just follow these easy steps:

Apply Eastwood Fast Etch to the area with the rust pits. Cover the area with plastic wrap to prevent the Fast Etch from evaporating before it can work. Fast Etch eats into the rust, dissolving it and leaving clean metal behind.

Next spray the area with a coat of Eastwood Rust Encapsulator, which penetrates deeply into the pits and adheres to the metal, keeping the rust from coming back or spreading by absorbing moisture.

Sand the panel and remove all the Rust Encapsulator except the stuff that soaked into the pits, leaving you with mostly bare metal.

The Rust Encapsulator in the pits will keep any microscopic rust from growing, allowing you to safely apply body filler over it. Body filler alone won’t seal out moisture the way a dedicated product like Rust Encapsulator does because it is porous.

Now proceed with your normal body work as if the rust was never there. Scuff the entire area with a dual action sander for adhesion.

Blow off the dust with an air gun, then wipe clean with PRE paining prep.

Mix up your body filler and spread thinly and evenly over the entire surface, most of it will end up as dust on the floor eventually.

Sand first in one direction, than in another, producing an X pattern of sanding passes. You can start with as coarse as 80 grit, if you have a lot of filler to sand, but 180 grit is likely plenty. Use a sanding block and you will quickly reveal any high or low spots in the body work.

Low spots will be revealed because the sandpaper will pass right over the filler there and not leave any marks. Take a small piece of paper and scuff any low spots you find so another round of body filler will stick to it.

Apply another round of body filler, though more localized to where the low spot is, and sand it smooth again. Repeat as necessary until you can’t find any more low spots.

Blow out the dust with an air gun, and if you find any pinholes fill those with Contour Glazing Putty.

Now that the rust pits and low spots are taken care of you can move onto the next phase of your project. That could be primer and paint, or if you’re going for laser straight body panels spraying and blocking the whole body of the car with Contour Polyester Primer Surfacer.

Over time, rust can eat through the metallic surface of any vehicle. Eventually, it will require rust repair to remove the rust. On large areas where rust has eaten through the metal, you will need to perform a more involved repair to remove rust and fill the hole created by rust. Here are the steps required to use Bondo, a repair putty, for rust repair.

#### Step 1 – Locate Major Rust Deterioration

Some places on your vehicle’s surface that are rusted completely through the surface will be easy to spot. Other areas may be deteriorated enough that the vehicle’s metal surface is rotted but still has not created a hole, or opening in the surface. Although you will need to fill in both of these types of rust damage, the treatment needed to repair them will likely be different. You will need to carefully examine all surfaces on your vehicle to identify areas that require rust repair.

#### Step 2 – Clean Off Rust, Dirt, Paint, and Debris

You will need a strong, bare, and rust-free metal surface for your resin and Bondo to adhere to. To prepare your vehicle’s surface in areas where it is completely rusted through, use a disc sander or grinder to remove all rust and debris from both the inner and outer surfaces. For surfaces that are rotted by rust but have not rusted completely through the surface, use a putty knife or chisel and remove chips and loose metal that has rusted. Then, use a disc sander or grinder to remove all rust, debris, and paint on the area you’ll be applying epoxy or Bondo to. You will likely create holes or openings in the metal when you do this.

#### Step 3 – Apply Fiberglass and Epoxy

After mixing your epoxy with its hardener, apply it to the inside surface where you’ve removed rust and debris. Apply enough of the epoxy to a piece of fiberglass fabric that the fabric is soaked, then press the fabric into place over the hole, so that it closes the hole and creates a new surface. Allow the resin to harden. There is no need to apply the fiberglass or epoxy to surface areas that are pitted but have not rotted completely through the metal.

#### Step 4 – Apply Bondo

When your epoxy has hardened, use your grinder, or sander, to smooth off any rough spots on the surface you’ll be applying Bondo to. On your mixing pallet, mix the Bondo and hardener. Using your putty knife and spreader, apply Bondo to the surface that has been created by your fiberglass and epoxy. When finished you should have a relatively even surface with all surface holes and pits filled. Allow the Bondo to harden.

#### Step 5 – Smooth and Paint Your Surface

Use your rasp and sanding block to smooth your new surface. With a clean rag, wipe off any dust or debris left from sanding. Spray on your paint primer. When it is dry, use a fine sandpaper to smooth the primer, wipe off primer dust, and spray on your touch-up paint.

Rust is one of the most complicated problems that you can have in your car. This happens when the metal on your car turns into an oxide in contact with oxygen.

All these things can happen in your garage. And because of this, it is more likely that you get a car to have rust.

Once that you start having rust on your car, usually, the first thing that you need to do is to apply a rust remover. However, there is a much better way for you to take care of these rusts.

That is by using a rust converter! Having a rust converter applied to your car using a brush-on liquid – this is indeed a best alternative way.

For us to show you how well a rust converter work on rusts, we have included hearing a step by step method that you can follow on how to use a rust converter.

## What is A Rust Converter?

A rust converter is a solution that is made for any rusty surface. This product will convert the rust on any iron steel into a harmless chemical compound. Using a rust converter is different from using a scrape, prime, and a paint regime.

Rust converters are used together with a primer and the surfaces which are called the rust primers. The main functions of a rust converter are not easy to use.

This is because you have to be more accurate with the measurement of the rust converter that you are intended to use. The use will depend on the thickness and with the composition of the rust film.

You can apply the rust converter on any steel construction that is already rusty. This is somewhat the same as using a rust removal product.

However, the difference is that the rust remover only removes rust but will not prevent it from coming back. What the rust converter does is to cure the affected area and prevent the rust from coming back.

### Rust Converter Vs a Rust Remover

A rust converter and rust remover act in two different ways.

Rust Converter – this works on the rust and have it converted to iron.

Rust Remover – this product is somewhat corrosive and harmful.

### The Rust Converter Mechanism

The most important component of a rust converter is called the Tannin. Tannin reacts to the iron oxide and then will eventually convert it into iron tannate. Iron tannate is a blue or a black stable corrosion product.

Tannin is composed of water and alcohol soluble that is extracted from different plants. Tannin is a complex and variable.

The chemicals that are found on a rust converter is the conversion of porous and some loose iron compounds.

## Applying Rust Converter on Your Car

We have used an internal magazine of a car as an example of how you can apply the rust converter. This interior magazine is covered with heavy rust, and it is already flaking.

Here’s how you can apply the rust converter;

### Step 1: Prepare the Part That Needs to be Treated

The very first thing that you need to do before you apply the rust converter is to remove any debris and dust particles. You can remove these by using a wire brush, a scraper or a rug. The rust converters depend on the layer if rust is in your car.

### Step 2: Take Off Any Fine Particles Any, Degrease the Surface

After that, use a vacuum cleaner for you to remove any fine particles. You can also use alcohol as a degreaser. Doing this will ensure that the contaminants will not interfere once you put in the rust converter.

Also, you have to assure that the surface is dry enough before you put in your rust converter.

### Step 3: Pour in the Rust Converter

In using a rust converter for your car, select a water-based rust converter. This is because it contains tannic acid and an organic polymer.

The tannic acid will get rid of your rust and will convert it into iron while the polymer will act as a protective primer layer. With both of these ingredients present in your rust converter, it will work together to convert the rust in your car into a black protective polymeric coating.

In applying the rust converter, make sure that you are well-equipped. Use gloves and safety glasses and do the application in a well-ventilated area.

### Step 4: Rust Converter Works

After you have applied the first coat of the rust converter, leave it for about twenty minutes. After twenty minutes, the rust will then turn into black.

The curing process will take about 48 hours. After 48 hours of the curing process, you may now apply paint and then attached the part back to your car.

Using a rust converter on your car is the most ideal way for you to get rid of any rust. This is actually better than spending more money just to get your car all cleaned up.

Plus, you can do this on your own. It will convert any rust into iron and will prevent it from coming back.

Added Tips: Though rust converters are not that harmful, you still need to be well-equipped in using this product. Make sure that you wear either protective glasses or goggles. Also, make use of a glove to prevent any irritation on your skin.

You also have to make sure that you will not pour the unused rust converter back to its bottle. Contact any professional for you to know the proper disposal of your rust converter.

In short, this item will always come in handy as it will not only help you deal with rust in your car but also in other things that are affected by rust.

Have one of this product, and you will be assured that you will not spend a fortune just to take out the rust from your car. This product is very efficient to use, especially in this kind of situation.

## Forums / Off Topic

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## Spray foam : filling car rust body holes

but anyone do this? use like triple expanding foam to fill in rust holes in old cars? I’ve heard alotta bad reports and see it done lots of times. My car’s got a lot of rust holes. big ones, too big to even get good bondo over.

My approach’s been to remove as much as possible with a wire brush, drench it in rust converter, coat it in paint or primer and fill the holes with 3x foam. easy to cut and shape and fill afterwards and solid enough. it’s not ideal but seems like the best option. I tried welding panels over a few spots and riveting panels over spots but those see to wind up creating really brutal crevice corrosion in addition to the HAZ rusting faster, plus it sticks out and looks crappy (yea, way crappier than 3x foam, hard to believe, sure). mesh screen bondo is a mess and difficult to line up and get to stay put, and hasn’t held up any better, just cost more and more difficult and less finished looking.

So I’m going for it. Not seeing much for alternates and the spots I did last year still look good.

## Re: Spray foam : filling car rust body holes

I think it’s going to give you a false sense of structural security I’ve seen cars from the East Coast show up out west and get put on racks for mechanical work and have seen the cars actually cave in from the underside kind of looks funny when it’s jamming the seats into the headliner.

## Re: Spray foam : filling car rust body holes

Done it several times, not to area’s of structural integrity, just holes, works just fine, plan all the spots you need, as once you open the can you need to use it up at one time, it hardens in the can after a while, don’t over do it, that stuff expands like crazy, let it cure for a while, like a day, but yeah if you care it can be sanded and painted. I have also used it as an adhesive of sorts to hold plastic patch panels in place, prep as you outlined above, lay a bead, place patch panel in it, put a weight on it and let it sit a day or so, u can also use a small piece of cardboard like a finishing trowel on concrete once it sets up a bit to smooth it off, almost like bondo. Wear gloves, the shit is super sticky. It’s kind of fun to play with if you are not concerned with looks, I had it last through 2 winters in the kick panels of an old s-10, water tight when the truck was sold. 🙂

## Re: Spray foam : filling car rust body holes

If you do make sure it’s closed cell foam. Open cell will turn into a sponge

## Re: Spray foam : filling car rust body holes

I did it on an old VW that was rusting out. I used bubble pack plastic to try and form the foam as it dried. It still expanded where I didn’t want it to and stuck to the plastic but it cuts with an exacto pretty easy.

If you don’t care and don’t want to spend a lot of time repairing small holes in rockers or fenders it works pretty good.

## Re: Spray foam : filling car rust body holes

I filled every bit of space in my metro with it cause I got 5 cases for free

## Scratch Repair vs. Car Stickers: The Price Tag

This is probably the first thing everybody considers. The price difference of repairing the scratch and a car sticker is very big.

#### Scratch Repair Price

Taking a car to a body shop to fix your tiny car scratch can be very expensive. Check out this survey about the average scratch repair price. Do you see the picture of a scratch?

It’s a pretty small scratch, and yet, the repair costs anywhere from $300 to more than$1,100.

So, this is probably the reason you are considering buying a funny car sticker and get “rid” of your scratch.

#### Car Stickers Price

Car stickers and decals tend to be very cheap, you can find them on Redbubble for a few bucks. However, if you want some big decal on your car, of course, that you will pay more.

Mostly, car stickers cost anywhere from $4 to$20. For instance, check the price of this funny car sticker on Amazon.

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## What Size of Scratches Can You Cover With Stickers?

There isn’t a direct answer to this question, but the size of the scratches you can cover with stickers depends on the sticker you plan to put on your car. Check the 3 main types of car scratches and ways to fix them.

Mostly, you can cover scratches that are only a few inches long and wide. If the scratch is too big, finding a suitable sticker or decal is going to be very hard.

## Should You Use Stickers To Cover The Scratches?

My absolute answer is a big NO. Especially if you have a newer car, it just won’t look nice, and there are also many risks of using the sticker on your damaged car paint.

#### Risks of using stickers to cover scratches

There are some risks of using stickers or decals on your car scratches:

• Water and moisture will still reach scratch
• There is a big chance of rust on your car since the paint still remains damaged
• With time, it will cost you even more to fix the scratch

However, here are a few situations when using a sticker to cover the scratch may seem to be a good option:

• You have an old car that isn’t worth fixing the scratch.
• The scratch is on such a location where the sticker would look amazing.
• You don’t have the money at the moment, so you need a temporary fix.

Here are the pros of using stickers or decals on your damaged car paint:

• It’s a very cheap solution to cover your scratches.
• It’s easy to stick them to your car paint.
• There is plenty of different types to choose from.
• You can choose between various sizes.
• Some of them look amazing on your car.

There are a few cons of using stickers, but they are very important, so, check them out:

• It doesn’t fix the problem.
• The rust will occur on your car paint.
• It’s hard to find the one that will fit your scratch and look nice on your car.

## Where To Buy Car Stickers?

There are plenty of shops where you can get car stickers. However, in my opinion, the two best places to check for car stickers are Amazon and Redbubble.

Usually, on Amazon, they will cost you more. I would choose Redbubble over amazon since you have more designs to choose from, the price is cheaper, and they are built with very durable and high-quality materials.

You can check stickers on RedBubble by clicking here. It will take you directly to the stickers page.

## Conclusion

Well, this was a quick article, and easy to explain (I hope so). Like I already said, it’s not the best option, and you should always choose to fix your car, instead of hiding your scratches with some stickers.

However, if you still want to put a sticker on your scratches, here is the guide on How To Put a Sticker To Your Car.

My advice to all of you is, you should never put a sticker on your scratches! It can’t become better, only worse.

Do you have some interesting experiences on this topic? Share them with us in the comment section below.

Love to clean cars 🙂

### Recent Posts

Whether you’re a car enthusiast or just someone who likes to wash their car from time to time, you’ve probably heard of leaf blowers. Leaf blowers are small outdoor devices that are used to blow.

The rubber trim around your car windows serves an important purpose. It keeps water from getting in, creates a sound barrier between interior and exterior, and protects your interior from the outside.

Hi, I’m Petar, and ever since I bought my first car, I was always looking for ways to make it beautiful and more appealing. I think that everyone should care about their cars, and that’s the reason why I’m sharing my advice on this blog.

An area that people often ignore when it comes to car maintenance is the bottom of the vehicle. Otherwise known as the undercarriage, it’s also the area that requires the most care, as it’s extremely susceptible to rust. Instead of taking the “out of sight, out of mind” approach, give your undercarriage the care it needs. Below, we’ve listed a few tips that’ll help you care for your undercarriage and prevent you from getting a rusty car. Follow them and keep your car’s undercarriage rust free.

## Protecting Your Undercarriage from Rust: Why It’s Important

There are two main reasons why rustproofing your undercarriage is important. First, it will save you money in the long run. Rust repairs can cost you anywhere between $30 to$2,000, depending on the extent of the damage. Sometimes, there’s nothing more to be done to treat rust damage than to entirely replace the affected vehicle part. Even the slightest spot of rust will bring your car’s resale value way down.

Secondly, and more importantly, rustproofing will make your car safer, as rust can affect the structural integrity of your vehicle. Furthermore, rustproofing will help prevent leaks and other mechanical failures, which can be costly as well as dangerous.

Protection against rust is particularly important in cities that experience snowy winters, such as Edmonton. During winter, cities like Edmonton spread ice-melting road salt on streets to keep them from becoming dangerously slippery. That’s good news for public safety, but bad news for your undercarriage. Salt accelerates the formation of rust when it combines with water and oxygen. Over time, and especially during winter, it accumulates under your vehicle and starts to do damage.

## Check Your Undercarriage for Signs of Rust

First thing’s first, it’s important to regularly inspect your car and its undercarriage for signs of rust. Aside from the undercarriage, other areas to pay attention to are the fenders and other areas not immediately visible.

Hints of rust aren’t always obvious. Even something as innocent as a tiny scratch or nick can spell trouble. Keep an eye out for small scratches and treat them before they begin to erode. Also, look for dark spots in the paint, as these are usually symptoms of rusting metal beneath.

Checking the undercarriage is tricky if your car sits low and you don’t have the equipment to raise it. In that case, get your mechanic to inspect it next time you bring your car in for an oil change.

## Wash Your Car at the Turn of the Seasons

At the start of spring and autumn, it’s a good idea to give your car a good cleaning, undercarriage included. A thorough cleaning will prep your undercarriage the next step, which is to coat it with a rust-proofing formula.

During autumn, before winter has its effect on the roads, clean every inch of your car. That will clear your car’s surfaces of anything that could get trapped under the layer of sealant you’ll apply afterwards. That’s important because rust-causing elements can still do damage when trapped underneath sealant.

If you didn’t get around to cleaning your car and applying sealant this past autumn, don’t fret. Spring is a good time to get it done too.

Cars are more vulnerable to rust during spring. There’s more moisture in the air, and temperatures fluctuate. Plus, the grime from melting snow means there’s lots of salt on the ground. This makes for a perfect storm of rust-forming conditions that you should prepare for.

## Rust Proof Your Vehicle’s Undercarriage

When it comes to rustproofing your car’s undercarriage, you have a few different options, any one of which you can accomplish yourself or have done at the mechanic’s shop. Your first option is to have it oiled with a rust proofing spray. Most agree that this is the best way to do it, since the oil based liquid can creep into every crack and crease for optimum protection. A thicker sealant spray can also be used, but be sure to completely clean the undercarriage before applying it. Otherwise, you run the risk of trapping rocks and corrosive materials beneath it.

Be generous when applying rustproofing agents to brake and fuel lines. These are the parts of the undercarriage most prone to rust. The rustproofing agent acts as a barrier to moisture, salt, and other damaging substances.

It’s never too late to rustproof your undercarriage. However, the best time to do it is before the car even leaves the dealership. The undercarriage of the vehicle will never be cleaner than when you first get it.

Finally, a lot of people use electronic rustproofing systems, or “electronic rust inhibitors”, to protect their cars against rust. These systems work by issuing a weak electric current throughout the metal on your vehicle. The current interferes with the charge between the metal and oxygen, preventing rust from forming. You can buy them at the dealership or at any Canadian Tire. That said, most people prefer the tried-and-true methods we discussed above.

Electronic devices can cost anywhere between $300 to$1,000, while traditional methods fall within the $100 to$200 range.

## Wash Your Car Often During Winter

Winter’s a bad time for your undercarriage, but you can make it better by regularly washing your car. Most automatic car washes offer undercarriage cleaning. But if you want to be thorough, you can spray the undercarriage with a pressure washer.

In terms of how often you should do it, every ten to twenty days is a good benchmark to follow. Also, you should wash your car after snowfalls, rainfalls, and whenever the temperature goes above 0-degrees during winter.

## Avoid Puddles

Puddle water is basically dirty salt water mixed with all the grime on our roads, and those aren’t exactly spotless. You should avoid driving through big puddles of standing water when you can. Otherwise, the salty puddle water will splash up into the undercarriage and facilitate the formation of rust.

If do-it-yourself car maintenance isn’t your expertise, Go Auto will be happy to get the job done for you. Click here to start booking your service appointment online, or give us a call at 780-777-7777. Our customer service representatives will be happy to help.

The Video Course teaches you everything about modern cars.

If a hole in the bodywork is not in a load-bearing area, such as a section of the chassis , it may be repaired with glass fibre, body filler or the more recently introduced filler-fibre mixture.

There are proprietary kits available which contain all the materials necessary for making repairs. Many of the materials can also be bought separately from accessory shops, garages or specialist firms.

Use an electric drill fitted with a wire brush , sanding disc or flap wheel to take off the paint for about 2 in. (50 mm) all round the hole. Wear protective goggles to guard your eyes against flying grit and paint dust.

Cut out any weak and rusted metal with tin snips. If any traces of rust remain, treat the metal with a rust preventative (See Eliminating rust before painting ).

## Bridging the gap

Tap the edges of the hole inwards with the ball of a small ball-pein hammer below the level of the panel.

Body filler can be supported by a sheet of expanded zinc metal fixed behind the hole. A suitable piece is usually supplied in the repair kit.

Use tin snips to cut the expanded metal so that it is about 1 in. (25 mm) larger than the hole all round.

Mix a small amount of body filler paste with the hardener from the filler kit. You can make it set quicker than normal by adding a little more hardener than the kit instructions suggest. But do not deviate too far from the maker’s instructions.

Put the metal sheet behind the hole and fix it in position with small amounts of filler.

If you cannot hold the sheet from behind the hole, use wire hooks to pull it against the back edge until the filler that is fixing it has set or, depending on the type of hole, roll the mesh into a tube shape and fix it firmly into position. Add filler to build up the contour .

## Laying up the glass fibre

Glass fibre can cause skin irritation to some people – wear rubber gloves when you handle it.

Use scissors to cut out two pieces of the glass-fibre mat so that they overlap the edges of the hole by I in. (6 mm) all round.

Mix the liquid resin, following the instructions given with the kit.

Put a layer of glass-fibre mat in the hole from behind. Use an old paintbrush to dab the resin mixture on to the mat – both sides if possible – until the mat goes translucent.

If any resin drips on to the paintwork, wipe it off at once with a rag soaked in methylated spirit.

Put the second piece of mat over the rear of the first and add more resin with the brush. Let the resin set hard. Fill in the remaining slight hollow with filler (See Smoothing out a dent ).

## Using a filler-fibre mixture

Some repair kits do not use a mesh backing. They reduce the stages involved by using a plastic cover sheet to hold the combined filler and glass-fibre mixture to the same contour as the body.

Prepare the hole in the way already described under Bridging the gap (left).

Put the plastic sheet over the outside of the hole and fix one edge with a strip of paper masking tape.

Trace the outline of the hole on the plastic sheet, then fold the sheet back.

Add hardener to the filler mixture as directed by the instructions with the kit. Put the mixture on to the plastic sheet, inside the marked area. Dab more mixture on the edges of the hole.

Hinge the plastic sheet back over the hole, press it against the hole, and tape down the other three edges. The plastic sheet should follow the body contours.

When the filler mixture has set hard, peel off the plastic sheet. Small marks left on the surface of the repair can be filled with small amounts of the mixture or can be filled with paintstopper before the repaired area is sprayed.

Are you looking at your rusty surfaces feeling stumped? Wondering “what paint to use on rusted metal?” C an you paint over rust? Or maybe you’ve just not been able to get round to it. Well, you don’t have to struggle any longer. It is possible to give rust a complete makeover turning it around. It’s simple to paint over it without having to spend a long time trying to manually remove it.

• Preparation
• Priming
• The Possibilities

Buy the #1 direct to rust paint

Preparation

If you’re preparing your metal surface for painting – let’s make it simple and quick for you. All you need to do is grab a wire brush, a scraper and some cleaner/degreaser. Remove grease, oil and other surface contaminants by cleaning with appropriate detergents (something like Rust-Oleum Mathys ND14 Cleaner Degreaser is ideal). Then remove rust scale, loose mill scale, loose rust and loose coatings by scraping, wire brushing and sanding. This will leave you with a smoother surface to paint over and helps to ensure adhesion, don’t worry though you don’t have to remove ALL the rust! Finally, sand any previous coatings which are in good condition to roughen the surface slightly.

After all the above, make sure you thoroughly clean the surface down and it should be preferably dry during application.

With a little prep, you can paint straight over rust

Priming

Now we’re sure you want to paint over that unsightly rust. Use Rust-Oleum 769 Damp-Proof Primer as it needs minimal preparation, and penetrates the rust all the way to the metal! You can apply it on slightly moist or dry surfaces, for durable corrosion protection. It works by expelling moisture and air, and encases the rust whether you use it with, or without a top coat!

Recommended surface primer for rust

Rust-Oleum 769 Damp-Proof Primer is based on a unique, low-odour formula based on fish oil. It’s the wonder primer that started it all for Scottish-born sea captain Robert Fergusson when he noticed that the rusty deck of his vessel stopped corroding in places where fish oil had been spilled. This discovery inspired the captain to develop the first fish oil-based anti-corrosion paint. In 1921 he perfected a type of paint that prevented rust and was capable of drying overnight without leaving any unpleasant odours, Rust-Oleum® Corporation was born.

The Possibilities

Once you’ve used the damp-proof primer, you’ve got the opportunity to redecorate and be creative! You can paint over the newly prepared rusty metal with any colour scheme you like using Rust-Oleum 7500 Alkythane. By using the damp-proof primer you’ve skipped the manual rust removal process, saving you time!

Recommended topcoat for corrosive environments

If you’ve got a rusty old staircase, why not give it a re-vamp and paint it with bright, exciting colours! You could even use hanging baskets and flowers for a quirky, colourful look. Metal cladding not looking too great? Just paint over it with the damp-proof primer and choose a strong colour to bring it back to life. Whether you stick to a plain finish, or something bold, you’ll be able to hide the rust underneath and protect the surface with Rust-Oleum 769 Damp-Proof Primer.

If you’re struggling with your rust-revamp, just contact the friendly team at Rawlins Paints!

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• Well I really love to detail and wax my car, but keeping it outside all the time is really driving my perfectionist side crazy! I drive a 2002 Focus SVT, what do you guys reccomend for a good priced car cover? also, my father warned me that they have been known to cause RUST? please make a suggestion before i lose my mind

if the cover does not breath well it is a possiblity? you want a good test? take a pair of hockey skates and throw plastic blade covers over them.. leave them on for a couple weeks, take the covers off and look at the amount of rust.. the same relates to some older car covers. if you buy a car cover that is good that wont happen, alot of older car covers trap moisture

sounds like where my dad is coming from. could you make a suggestion as to what is a “good” car cover, and what would be a “bad” car cover to stay away from? Im guessing a $40-$50 Pepboys car cover is a good example of the BAD?

Not anything from Covercraft, excellent covers no matter which variey you choose :up

Whether you’re working on a car restoration project or you’re trying to fix up an outdoor structure on your residential or commercial property, you might encounter some rust on some of the metal surfaces you’re working with. When you do, you might think a coat of spray paint will be sufficient to cover the corrosion so you can move on with your project. However, you should think twice about spray painting over rust—it’s a short-term solution for a problem that demands a more aggressive approach.

When you spray paint over rust, you may be able to successfully cover it up, but that doesn’t mean that the problem will go away for good. Rust develops progressively, and it can cause a lot of problems for metal items and surfaces. Even after you spray paint over rust, it may continue to spread and weaken the surface of your metal. The longer you wait before addressing rust development on a metal surface, the more widespread it will become and the more it will compromise the structural integrity of your metal. Ultimately, spray painting over rust masks the issue, without doing anything to remove it or stop it from developing further.

How to deal with rust before painting

Rust development is a hassle, but it doesn’t have to stop you from applying spray paint to a surface. You just have to take some steps to remove the rust and prepare the surface before you can start spray painting:

• Clean the surface: To ensure you can effectively remove rust and prepare your surface for painting, you need to start by cleaning your metal. A simple mixture of soap and water is usually sufficient to get rid of dirt and grime before beginning the more aggressive process of removing rust.
• Brush away rust: Using a wire brush, begin brushing away rust on the surface of your metal. A rust removal product like Magica can help to effectively get rid of corrosion. After applying a rust remover, brush down the metal until you have a smooth surface to work with.
• Apply a primer: A rust-inhibitive primer can curb potential rust development to keep your metal looking and functioning its best for years to come. Apply the primer according to the instructions on the package for the best results. Wait for the primer to dry completely before you start painting the metal surface.

Spray painting over rust

Before you paint a metal surface that’s been damaged by rust, make sure you clean and prepare the surface with effective rust removal products from Magica, Inc. Since 1988, we’ve been manufacturing high-quality rust removal gels and sprays for use on all kinds of materials, ranging from fabrics and upholstery to concrete and metal surfaces. We guarantee our products can effectively remove even the most stubborn rust stains. To get your metal surfaces rust-free and ready for painting, browse our website and check out our products. Get in touch with us if you’d like to learn more—we look forward to assisting you soon!

Is Rust Encapsulator paintable? – Yes, you can prime and paint over top of this product with nearly any top coat or primer

Should I use the Rust Encapsulator as a sealer after treating rusted areas with Rust Dissolver? Can I, or should I just use a primer? – If you fully remove the rust down to clean bare metal with the Rust Dissolver, applying epoxy primer to the areas would be a good way to seal the metal. Rust Encapsulator can also be used in this case, but it should be used in any situation where all rust was not fully removed.

Is Rust Encapsulator the right product to prevent rust inside frame rails? – Our Internal Frame Coating with application hose would be a better choice for blind applications. Although Rust Encapsulator doesn’t require a lot of prep, it is recommended to wire brush the surface rust before applying.

Can I spray Epoxy Primer over Rust Encapsulator applied to bare metal without any adhesion problems? – Epoxy primer can be applied over thoroughly cured Rust Encapsulator. It is a good idea to lightly scuff sand the Rust Encapsulator with at least a red Scotch-Brite pad before applying.

Can I apply rust encapsulator over fully dried, recently applied seam sealer? – Yes, if the seam sealer is paintable, Rust Encapsulator could be applied over it.

Can Rust Encapsulator be used under a seam sealer? – Yes, Rust Encapsulator can be used under seam sealer too. Eastwood even offers a Rust Encapsulator/Seam Sealer kit.

Is there a minimum ambient temperature to apply Rust Encapsulator? – 60 Degrees would be the minimum application temperature. Lower temperature will cause flash times to be extended.

What reducer do I use and how much to spray through a paint gun? – Rust Encapsulator can be thinned up to 20% with lacquer thinner for spraying.

How does rust encapsulator work on bare metal? Does it stick well, dry and cure fully in the same time as when applied over rust? – Rust encapsulator can be applied to bare metal, painted surfaces, and rusted metal. The drying time will be the same

Can you fiberglass over rust encapsulator? – Yes, body fillers and fiberglass can be applied over Rust Encapsulator.

Should you apply body filler before or after applying rust encapsulator? – Body filler can be applied over or under Rust Encapsulator. If there is still rust, I would apply the Rust Encapsulator first.

Can I use the rust encapsulator on the inside of rusty galvanized rain gutters? Will it need a top? -Yes, you can use Rust Encapsulator on any metal surface with light rust on it. It does not require a top coat, but if you want to it will accept nearly any material with no issues.

Is the colored Rust Encapsulator available in quarts? – At this time, only black Rust Encapsulator, and black Rubberized Encapsulator are available in quart sizes.

What kind of finish does it leave? Is it matte or gloss? – Rust Encapsulator will provide a matte finish. Rust Encapsulator is compatible with almost all top coats, so you can apply a gloss finish over it, if you’d like.

Can I use Rust Encapsulator to seal a new mild steel exhaust system to prevent it from rusting? – This product is only good to 400F which may not be enough. Our Exhaust Paint is good to 600F and is what we recommend for headers and exhaust manifolds.

Does this product have to be top coated? – All Rust Encapsulator products are UV resistant and do not need to be top coated.

If using spray cans under the car, will they spray if can is flat or even a little upside? – I’ve never had an issue with spraying flat but it will not work upside down.

Can Rubberized Rust Encapsulator be applied over a metal already treated with Rust Converter? – Yes. Just be sure it is applied heavily enough. It produces a textured finish and you want to make sure the low spots in the texture aren’t too thin.

Should I use the regular Rust Encapsulator or the Rubberized one on the underside of a rusty truck? Do both items have the same prep requirements? – Both do have the same prep, meaning knock any scaly/loose rust off with a wire brush, clean with PRE painting prep, and then apply. As far as which one, it is a personal preference; If it’s a work type truck, or sees weather more frequently (snow, ice, salt brine) then go with the rubberized for better protection.

Once dry can Rubberized Rust Encapsulator be painted and with what? – This product remains flexible, therefore it is not recommended to paint over it. If you do decide to try, let it fully dry and test in an inconspicuous area. If you need the rust encapsulating properties, I would recommend using standard Rust Encapsulator and then top coating that. It will take most top coats. Eastwood standard Rubberized Undercoating is also a product that can be painted with most topcoats.

Can the quart can of Rubberized Encapsulator be applied with a spray gun? – If spray applying, an undercoating gun is recommended. Encapsulator can be thinned with lacquer reducer.

Are the colored encapsulator aerosols all as strong as the black ones? What about the rubberized version? – The black Rust Encapsulator is as strong as the white, clear, yellow and other color products. The 2x as strong, refers to the old formula Rust Encapsulator. The rubberized is even stronger. The black has been tested to 500 hours of salt spray testing and the Rubberized Rust Encapsulator to 1000 hours.

# How to create a good public service announcement film

## Whether you have a cause of your own or you are an educator, PSAs create a forum for learners to actively participate in a project that will allow them to become stewards of and advocates for social change.

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What do you want the world to know? That’s the central question asked when you are creating a public service announcement (PSA), which is any message promoting programs, activities or services of federal, state or local governments or the programs, activities or services of non-profit organizations.

Often in the form of commercials and print ads, PSAs are created to persuade an audience to take a favorable action. PSAs can create awareness, show the importance of a problem or issue, convey information, or promote a behavioral change. Whether you have a cause of your own or you are an educator, PSAs create a forum for learners to actively participate in a project that allows them to become stewards of — and advocates for — social change.

PSAs came into being with the entry of the United States into World War II. Radio broadcasters and advertising agencies created a council that offered their skills and facilities to the war effort, creating messages such as, “Loose lips sink ships,” “Keep ’em Rolling” and a variety of exhortations to buy War Bonds.

Today that same council, the Advertising Council, now serves as a facilitating agency and clearing house for nationwide campaigns that have become a familiar part of daily life. “Smokey the Bear” was invented by the Ad Council to personify its “Only You Can Prevent Forest Fires” campaign; “A Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Waste” raised millions for the United Negro College Fund; the American Cancer Society’s “Fight Cancer with a Checkup and a Check” raised public awareness as well as funds for research and patient services.

Yet the most recognized PSA consisted of only an egg, a frying pan and these 15 words: “This is your brain. This is drugs. This is your brain on drugs. Any questions?”

This only goes to show the massive impact PSAs have on our culture and our society. You can make an impact too!

Getting Started

• Choose your topic. Pick a subject that is important to you, as well as one you can visualize. Keep your focus narrow and to the point. More than one idea confuses your audience, so have one main idea per PSA.
• Time for some research – you need to know your stuff! Try to get the most current and up to date facts on your topic. Statistics and references can add to a PSA. You want to be convincing and accurate.
• Consider your audience. Are you targeting parents, teens, teachers or some other social group? Consider your target audience’s needs, preferences, as well as the things that might turn them off. They are the ones you want to rally to action. The action suggested by the PSA can be almost anything. It can be spelled out or implied in your PSA, just make sure that message is clear.
• Grab your audience’s attention. You might use visual effects, an emotional response, humor, or surprise to catch your target audience. Be careful, however, of using scare tactics. Attention getters are needed, but they must be carefully selected. For example, when filming a PSA about controlling anger, a glass-framed picture of a family can be shattered on camera. This was dramatic, but not melodramatic. Staging a scene between two angry people to convey the same idea is more difficult to do effectively.
• Create a script and keep your script to a few simple statements. A 30-second PSA will typically require about 5 to 7 concise assertions. Highlight the major and minor points that you want to make. Be sure the information presented in the PSA is based on up-to-date, accurate research, findings and/or data.
• Find your audience and get their reaction. How do they respond and is it in the way you expected? Your goal is to call your audience to action. Are they inspired?

Through a Public Service Announcement you can bring your community together around a subject that is important to you. Will your PSA be on education, poverty, drunk driving, or maybe even Haiti disaster relief? For ideas and examples, check out the Ad Council and the Ad Council Gallery. Keep your message clear and simple, and target your intended audience. Take advantage of your interests, and practice important critical thinking and literacy skills because you will be spreading important social, economic, and political topics.

About the Author: Jaclyn Bell is a digital media instructor and the director of community content for OneSeventeen Media Inc. as well as the competition director of the Young Minds Digital Times Student Film Competition.

After reading our tips about how to write an announcement, you’ll be able to write any kind of announcement with style and ease. Take a look at the following guidelines from WhiteSmoke, the all-in-one writing software, see the sample announcement letter, and then write the best announcement you can imagine! Include the right information in fine style, and then proofread your announcement with one click using our innovative software for a perfect finished product to send.

People write announcements for many reasons. Just some types of announcements that people write include public service announcements, high school graduation announcements, college graduation announcements, engagement announcements, marriage and wedding announcements, pregnancy announcements, birth announcements, adoption announcements, baptism announcements, save the date announcements, moving announcements, business announcements, job announcements, promotion announcements, retirement announcements, and funeral announcements.

No matter which kind of announcement you need to write, you will find the following tips useful. Remember to tailor the tips to the specific announcement you need to write, and get on your way.

Tips on How to Write an Announcement:

1. Be direct and concise in your announcement. Your reader will be able to understand the information quickly and can refer back to it easily.
2. Write a short, friendly announcement that’s to the point when you’re sharing positive news. Written in the right tone, an announcement can show a wish to keep up a business or personal relationship. It can also build on positive feelings like confidence, allegiance, and helpfulness.
3. Recognize what others have achieved in your announcement, and motivate your reader to reach similar goals.
4. Present your information in a plain and complete way, so your reader will understand you the first time (and not ask questions later).
5. If the news you are announcing is bad, write it in a direct statement. Add a message of understanding and optimism to your announcement, in a respectful tone.

Engagement Announcement Letter Sample:

We are thrilled to announce the engagement of our daughter, Becca Jo, to her long-time love, Beau Jackson. After dating for many joy-filled years, Beau Jackson asked for Becca Jo’s hand in marriage. Of course Becca Jo said yes!

We hope to share more happy news with you in the future (like a wedding announcement), and that you are also experiencing joy in your lives.

## What is a PSA?

A public service announcement, commonly known by the PSA acronym, is a message spread in the interest of the public. The objectives of PSAs are to raise awareness and change public attitudes, opinions, or even behavior towards an issue. These messages can be instructional, inspirational, or even shocking to elicit emotion and action.

## Why Have Your Students Create a PSA?

A PSA can be a very powerful way to heighten awareness on a certain issue. Many PSA campaigns have educated the public or contributed to social change. The number of people who smoke cigarettes has decreased dramatically since the 1960s, not only because of legal restrictions, but also because the general public as a whole has become more aware of the severe health risks. Consider the effects of famous PSA characters on your own life such as Smokey the Bear or McGruff the Crime Dog and slogans like, “Don’t drink and drive” or “This is your brain. This is your brain on drugs.”

A public service announcement does not need to be a nation-wide endeavor, and can be made in several different types of media. The most commonly used media for PSAs are video on television and the internet, and audio during radio shows or podcasts, but there are many instances of PSAs in print media. On Storyboard That, you can make a digital public service announcement that can be disseminated via email, printed out, or projected during a presentation. You can even add audio!

## How to Write a Public Service Announcement

Public service announcements are for the benefit of the public, and usually contain a message that you should take away. What do you want to say? Should you tell a story or make a bold statement? Here are a few steps on how to write a PSA storyboard.

### 1. Choose an Issue

Select a topic or issue that would benefit the public. This topic may address social or environmental issues such as bullying, littering, or industrial pollution, but also might be on a smaller scale like “push in your chair” or “cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze.” Think about what message you want to get across and to whom you are directing this message.

A good PSA will be noteworthy for at least one reason. Maybe a PSA will grab attention because of its comedy, shock value, emotionality, or importance to the audience. Make use of the various character positions and expressions to demonstrate an array of emotions. Use eye-catching images in your storyboard cells from the Storyboard That library and Photos For Class, and try not to leave much empty white space. Use dialogue bubbles or other text boxes to explain your message. A very different, but effective, strategy is to limit the text to a single word or slogan, or to leave text out entirely.

### 3. Get Your Facts Straight

Research the topic as necessary. If you have incorrect information, your message will quickly lose its credibility. Make sure the factual information that you present, such as statistics examples, is correct and relevant. Use a blend of figurative language, images, and jokes to prove a point, but be sure that you are not insinuating untrue things. Choose appropriate scenes, characters, and items that enhance your message.

### 4. Be Straightforward

Your public service announcement should be clear and concise. Get your point across without dawdling. If you choose to make a more thought-provoking message, you still want your audience to understand after a moment of consideration, rather than spend time puzzling over the higher meaning.

Back before the pervasiveness of the Internet and social media, public service announcements (PSAs) were one of the best ways for organizations to generate awareness about a cause or social issue. If you grew up in the ‘80s or ‘90s, you probably remember seeing anti-drug campaigns like the “I am Astar, a Robot” and “Don’t Put It In Your Mouth” While research shows that these campaigns may have done more harm than good, they did get one thing right—people talked about them. But today, reaching the masses with a PSA is no longer as simple as it once was.

Ad time for PSAs is donated by broadcasters, but the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) does not require TV and radio stations to air them. That’s one of the reasons why they are seen a bit less often today. In the past, public service ads were often used to fill commercial breaks but now many stations use that time for self-promotion.

Because of a drop in inventory, competition for broadcast airings of PSAs is fierce. PSAs also must compete with many different channels and thousands of messages online. Between Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, blogs, apps and more, creating awareness about an issue can be a real challenge. That’s why it’s essential to create messages that touch on emotion and create buzz.

If you’re brainstorming a public service campaign, or you simply want some tips on how to better connect with audiences then consider the following best practices.

### Great Public Service Announcements Spark Conversation

The goal of any PSA should be to raise awareness of an issue and call people to action. Beginning with what you want your audience to talk about is a good starting point for any communications campaign.

### Emotional Connections Can be More Important Than Fame

The “Love Has No Labels” campaign worked because it appealed to an emotion everyone wants to feel—love. The creators made an impact by masking love with a display that shows we’re all one human race no matter our sexual orientation or ethnicity.

### PSAs Don’t Have to be Sadvertising

Another great example is the “What if Bears Killed One in Five People” collaboration between anti-sexual assault organization It’s On Us and CollegeHumor. The PSA uses humor and satire to encourage people to stand up against sexual assault. It shows a bear about to attack a group of five friends and delivers the message that you wouldn’t ignore a huge angry bear, so you shouldn’t ignore the fact that one in five women will be sexually assaulted by the time they finish college.

Jupiterimages/Brand X Pictures/Getty Images

### Elements of a Good PSA

Public service announcements (PSAs) provide nonprofit organizations, governmental agencies and community service providers with free advertising space on television and radio. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires broadcasters to donate airtime to promote community events and services, encourage responsible behavior or publicize an organization as a condition of their licenses. You can take advantage of this free advertising by contacting television and radio stations in your area and asking about their PSA policies and applications.

## The Message

The most important characteristic of a quality PSA is the message. Clearly state the organization’s name, the name of the event or service, the website address and a contact phone number. Make sure you include all the details by covering the who, what, why, when, where and how. A 30- or 60-second PSA should include contact information at the beginning and again at the end. PSAs that will be read on air by an anchorperson or DJ should be written on your organization’s letterhead and include a name and phone number for the broadcaster to contact with questions.

## Voice

PSAs should be written in a warm, conversational voice. Make the event or organization sound interesting by grabbing the audience’s attention in the first sentence. For example, if your organization is having a carnival fundraiser, you may want to start with a question: “Do you like games and prizes?” Make it sound exciting and mention aspects of the event that appeal to a broad audience, such as children’s rides and adult activities. Read the PSA out loud several times to see if it sounds like something you would tell a friend.

## Call to Action

Every quality PSA includes a call to action. You don’t merely want to inform people about an event or organization; you want them to do something: “Come to our carnival fundraiser!” “Say no to drugs!” Include the call to action in a firm tone at the end of the PSA; for longer spots, you can also include it at the beginning. Effective calls to action rely on motivational and persuasive techniques that evoke emotional responses from the audience. For example, children’s charities often show or describe either poor living conditions or inspirational stories to persuade people to donate money.

Radio stations fill unused advertising space by having DJs read PSAs at random, so there’s no guarantee your PSA will be read. Spots can be 10, 30 or 60 seconds long, and most stations require you to submit copy in all three time formats. DJs talk at an average rate of 125 words per minute, so you can write your PSA using word count as a guide. For example, 10-second PSAs should be about 30 words, 30 seconds about 60 words, and 60 seconds about 125 words. Some stations have specific guidelines and scripts, so check with each station before you submit your script.

## Television

Television stations often donate airtime and production assistance for nonprofits to create PSAs. Local stations will either help you film a PSA or allow you to use their equipment to do it yourself. These departments often operate on small budgets and work on a first-come, first-served basis, so find out what’s available in your area. Always write or produce your PSA in accordance with a station’s policies, which may mean producing several versions of the same message. Large organizations usually hire advertising agencies to produce PSAs for national television.

Posted on March 19, 2020

For some, the term “public service” brings to mind government agencies and policy changes. For others, it represents the brave men and women who put their lives on the line to save others. And still others, the concept of public service is more multifaceted, encompassing everything from the director of the local food bank to the nurses administering vaccines at the community health clinic.

The fact is public service encompasses all of these facets and then some. In this article, we explore the importance of public service and lay out four reasons why you may want to serve your community in your career.

## What Is Public Service?

The technical definition of public service is a service provided by the government to the people in a specific jurisdiction. Services may be provided by the government itself, or they pay a private organization to provide them. For instance, a fire or police department is a government-run agency, but trash pickup provided by an independent contractor is a public service financed by the jurisdiction.

## Why Public Service Matters

The importance of public services – and public servants – cannot be overstated. In a Pew Research survey, more than 80% of respondents said they felt the government should play a major role in responding to terrorism and natural disasters, ensuring food and medicine are safe, and managing the immigration system. Maintaining the country’s infrastructure, protecting the environment, strengthening the economy, and ensuring access to education were also considered important government priorities.

The same survey revealed that satisfaction with these efforts among Americans is relatively high. More than 70% of respondents said they thought the government was doing a “very good” or “somewhat good” job responding to natural disasters, setting standards for workplaces, keeping the country safe from terrorism, and managing food and medicine safety. Although satisfaction with certain efforts, such as the reduction of poverty, received a less favorable opinion, the ultimate takeaway is that public service matters.

## Reasons to Enter Public Service

Beyond the public expectation that the government will provide certain services, public service matters for other reasons and represents a viable career option. Simply put, the array of public service career options is endless, especially as the lines between government, nonprofit agencies and the private sector become increasingly blurred. Regardless of where your passion lies, public service presents opportunities.

If you’ve been considering a career in public service, think about these four reasons to enter a field like criminal justice, EMS, emergency management, fire science, homeland security or public administration.

### 1. Saving Lives

Often, when you ask someone why they entered the public service, their answer is “I wanted to make a difference.” What that looks like varies from person to person. For some, it’s rewriting public policy to effect change in a specific community, while for others it’s working in the field, providing life-saving assistance in emergencies. The concept of saving lives means different things to different people, but the desire to give everyone a fair shot at life underpins nearly every public service role.

### 2. Improving Communities

In an essay about public service for the Alliance of Innovation, Tracy Miller, the organization’s Florida regional director, wrote “You do not have to wonder as a citizen if you will have clean water to your home, or street lights that operate, or an ambulance when you dial 911. These have become givens in our lives and it is largely due to the stewards of our public dollars who balance the needs of the people they serve.”

These services do often have challenges, and there are needs for additional services to keep a community running safely and efficiently. Entering public service provides the opportunity to become a steward of public policy and contribute to the improvements that are vital to quality of life.

### 3. Influencing Social Change

Community improvement isn’t only about improving fire department response times or maintaining clean playgrounds. Social change also matters, and public servants are increasingly becoming agents for social change, creating more equity in social conditions.

A great deal of public service is focused on economics and creating more efficient and sustainable services and agencies, but there’s also an increasing focus on changing how policies and programs are administered to create more equitable conditions. From tackling issues related to racism and civil liberties to building support for citywide recycling programs, the opportunities for influencing social change through public service are diverse and plentiful.

### 4. Personal Fulfillment

Finally, it can’t be overlooked that working in public service provides a significant source of personal fulfillment. Feeling as if you’re working for a purpose is important; after all, you will spend thousands of hours at your job every year, and work is often closely tied to your sense of identity and accomplishment.

Choosing a career in public service can add to that sense of fulfillment. It can provide opportunities to act on your altruistic desires and the sense of accomplishment that comes from knowing you made a measurable difference in the lives of others.

## Education for Public Servants

At Columbia Southern University, we’re fortunate to have worked with students and alumni like Vincent Harris, Dana Osborne, Mark Sealy, Nina Taylor and many others who put their knowledge and skills to work in public service.

If you’re interested in pursuing a career in the public sector, check out CSU’s online degree programs in public administration, homeland security, fire science and more, all of which will give you the skills you need to make a positive difference in your community.

The very first thing you should decide about your PSA campaign is what you’re trying to accomplish. This is what people refer to as an “ask.” After watching or reading your PSA, your audience should be inspired and knowledgeable enough to take action. Keep in mind as you are trying to create an effective PSA that it can be difficult to narrow down a poignant message that clearly captures the outcome you’re trying to achieve. Keep it simple—try not too clutter your ask with too many stipulations and instead focus on summarizing your goal into a single strong sentence.

Knowing who your audience will be is an important component of crafting your ask. You want to be able to tailor the message to the specific abilities and resources available to the audience you’re targeting. If your PSA is more focused on public awareness of an issue, then your audience can be more general with an ask that focuses instead on shaping a helpful mindset.

## 3: Gather Information

An effective PSA should paint a well-rounded picture of the scope of the problem or agenda you’re trying to put in place. During your information-gathering process, you should look for relevant statistics, facts, anecdotes, and personal stories (depending on your topic) to highlight the importance of what you are trying to do. This will serve as the heart of your PSA campaign and help you write the narrative of what you’ll be sharing.

## 4: Use Your Media Authentically

The core idea of a PSA is that it generates change and the only way it can do that is by gaining visibility and inspiring people to action. While you are crafting your PSA, use your media platform (i.e. video, radio show, sharable image) in a way that grabs people’s attention and creates an emotional incentive for them to follow through with your ask.

Some key things you should try to avoid in your PSAs are:

• Melodramaticrepresentations of your issue— Entrenching your PSA with over-the-top dramatizations can distract from your ask and even make your message seem inauthentic. Other compelling ways to engage your audience might instead include, slogans, imagery, real stories, or possibly even skilled media editing.
• Including unnecessary information — Your PSA should be concise while still offering a sincere call to action. It’s critical that the stories, testimonies, and facts that you feature in your PSA contribute meaningfully to the message you’re trying to convey and are not loaded too heavily with unrelated details.

Making sure that your team is on track with the same vision can be challenging to achieve without a script to detail your content. Be considerate of the proposed length (or size) of your PSA when drafting and try stick to the ideas of WHO is being affected, WHY they are being affected, and WHAT the audience can do about it.

When you’re engaging a young adult to share their story, suggest they create bullet points of what they are going to say instead of writing something they will read. By having the youth focusing more on the central ideas that they are going to speak on rather than the words, their voice will sound less scripted and their story more authentic.

## 6: Editing and Story Boarding

Before you begin filming, you should have a rough idea of what visual shots you’re hoping to catch with your camera. You might want to consider creating a storyboard to detail the angle and content you’re hoping to capture. This will help you avoid unnecessary or redundant filming and hopefully cut down on your editing time.

A public service announcement is a short 30-60 second video that makes an announcement for the good of the public. It’s normally persuasive where the creator takes a side on a issue and attempts to enlighten or educate the public to win them over. “ PSAs can create awareness, show the importance of a problem or issue, convey information, or promote a behavioral change.”

## Benefits of incorporating a PSA Assignment in your class:

PSA projects tend to be creative, active, and authentic. They are a nice change of pace and in most cases the students spend more time with the material than they would on a paper, as the planning requires the students to work with the information in different ways. In addition, for some assignments, creating a PSA can be a more authentic and relevant assignment than writing a paper.

Just like with different types of writing, video projects have different types that require different skills. A PSA is a specific type of video that requires the students to:

• get involved in civic action
• research issues of interest to them
• demonstrate content knowledge
• be exploratory and research-based
• integrate the QEP of sustainability
• target a specific audience
• be quick and concise
• deliver a message
• produce a product
• have an authentic audience if published (depends upon assignment)

## EFFECTIVE IN ALMOST ANY DISCIPLINE

PSA assignments can be incorporated into almost any subject matter. Here are a few examples:

• English – on a social issue raised in a play or book or exploring a different style of writing
• History – on an issue that occurred during the time being studies, example factory conditions in the industrial revolution
• Science – on an issue such as climate change, water conservation, spread of disease
• Languages – on a social issue pertinent to a country that speaks the target language (in english or the target language)
• Education – on school choice
• Health – on washing hands and the spread of disease
• Political – on gun control

## CREATING A PSA

PSAs should be between 30- and 60-seconds and can be video or audio only. These assignments can be successful as an individual, pair, or group project. The key elements to a PSA are:

1. Target audience – who do I want to reach with this message?
2. Message – what do I want my audience to understand?
3. Significance of the issue to the audience – why is this important to my audience
4. Call to Action – what do I want my audience to do as a result of the PSA?

### Sample Assignment

Create a 30- to 60-second public service announcement. Apply your knowledge of persuasion to “sell” your message to your target audience. Except for the music, the material in your video should be your original work. This means your video footage and images should be created by you. We will have access to cameras in school, but you will need to plan your time well to get everything done. It is important that your storyboard is completed thoroughly so you know what you need for the filming, etc, and can efficiently obtain the material.

## STEPS AND TUTORIALS

Feel free to add any or all of these resources to your OAKS course to help the students with the project.

#### by Lauren Novak

A PSA is a public service announcement that spreads awareness on a social issue. Many of them have to do with safety, health, or raising awareness of a social issue. It is really interesting and kind of crazy to look back at the PSAs they used to show in the ’50s and ’60s. Things sure were different then!

Here are some of the strangest public service announcements that came out in the ’50s and ’60s. See how many of them you remember seeing on television:

## 1. Duck and Cover Public Service Announcement (PSA)

In 1950, the Soviet Union had detonated its first nuclear weapon. The United States started to panic and started releasing PSAs about ducking and covering in case of an attack. They even came up with a little turtle character to help kids remember what to do.

## 2. Working with Women PSA

This PSA shows a disgruntled supervisor when he is forced to work with a woman. He then talks to his boss and is told the reasons why he should just work with her and be friendly. It is crazy that they had to have these PSAs back then!

## 3. Dental Health PSA

This PSA was designed to help people go to the dentist and get checkups more regularly. In the past, people used to only go when they got a toothache and never got cleanings! Can you imagine? These days dentists recommend cleanings every six months or so.

Read on to the NEXT page to watch even more PSAs from the ’50s and ’60s!

## Choose a topic to view announcement letter templates:

##### Sales Announcement Letters

Be straightforward and concise
Write your announcement letter in a straightforward and concise so way the reader can get the information quickly and be able to refer to it easily.

Keep it short
If you are making a positive announcement, keep it short, inviting, and to the point. Demonstrate your desire to maintain a personal or business relationship, and to build morale, confidence, loyalty, and goodwill.

Motivate others to achieve the same objectives
If announcing or recognizing the achievements of others, you can, if you write appropriately, motivate others to achieve the same objectives.

Write to avoid questions later
Make the information in your announcement clear and complete, so you are not bombarded with questions later.

Avoid nonsense
If you are announcing bad news, make a direct, no-nonsense statement. Temper the announcement with understanding and optimism. Your tone should be considerate and respectful.

Author: Stacey Thornberry

So, this isn’t your typical feel-good public service announcement (PSA) about the importance of education or not smoking, but nonetheless, it is an important topic for marketers. Field events are not dead.

On a daily basis, we’re bombarded with messages from a multitude of online sources from pay-per-click ads on our Facebook feed to daily deal emails to geo-location coupons popping up in our mobile apps. With all of this digital connection, sometimes we can end up lacking authentic, HUMAN connections, which is why Arianna Huffington recommends disconnecting from our digital selves on a regular basis. And what is one great opportunity to do that? A field event!

Now more than ever, people crave an in-person connection, so take advantage of this desire and let your prospects and customers know you genuinely care about spending quality time with them! Here are four reasons why field events could be your new bread-and-butter:

## 1. Enable Your Salespeople to Build Relationships

With a field event, you can help get your salespeople in front of their prospects and customers — perhaps even those they’ve had a hard time reaching. Also, field events provide them with an excuse to pick up the phone and engage them with a valuable offer:

Salesperson: “Hey Susie! We’re hosting a luncheon in a couple weeks featuring three CMOs who will be telling stories of how they’ve transformed their marketing organization to increase ROI tenfold! Since you’re in a similar situation, I wanted to make sure you know about it and can come learn from these experts and ask your burning questions.”

Susie: “Oh wow! Yes, I am struggling to figure out how we can best reorganize our team structure to be more efficient and successful. I’d love to come and meet these CMOs and hear their stories!”

BOOM! Registration collected, prospect engaged, and sales is well on their way to closing a deal!

People like to buy from brands they respect and trust. By bringing topics of strong interest to your audience, you establish credibility as an expert in your space. Of course, you want to present key topics that are also tied to your own brand story. For example, if you’re selling computers to IT leaders, you might want to explore how the newest technology can encourage adoption from their employees vs. trying to tell them about how home usage of computers is climbing.

Tip: Come up with 3–5 topics that you think would be of interest to your customers and ASK them — send out a quick survey like the one below to ensure you have the right pulse on their interests so your event(s) can be a hit!

## 3. Spark Interest in Your Offerings and Leave Them Wanting More

After you present your thought leadership content (another tip: consider using third-party presenters like industry analysts and customers) and give your attendees delectable food/drinks, you’ve earned the right to tell them more about what you do. Keep it short, though — just a little taste of how your company can help them achieve the results presented during your event. You don’t want to overwhelm them or give a demo. Instead, give them just enough to pique their interest and have your sales team follow up immediately to book a meeting to show them more.

## 4. Create Repeatable Success and Strong ROI

Gather and review feedback from your attendees to continually improve your content and event structure. Analyze the data on attendance rates, sales-driven vs. marketing-driven registrations, pipeline/opportunity creation, and ultimately, influenced revenue.

Did you strike gold with your program? Consider taking it on tour! Repeatable successes will help you be more efficient with your field events and get the most bang for your buck for all the pains that come along with new content creation. Not to mention, you’ll have found a proven program to continue to build pipeline for your company!

All in all, a field event is the PERFECT opportunity to create pipeline and drive revenue. Why? Your salespeople can reach those they may not have otherwise, connect on-site to create true human-to-human connections, and follow up on their newfound interest to show them how your company can help them WIN. Not to mention, you also win by building your own relationship with your sales team by helping you all be successful as ONE TEAM.

So, don’t let field events seem like something of the past because now we can engage in virtual reality or holograms — sometimes the good ol’ in-person program is the way to go to truly connect with your audience. PSA: What was once old is now new again.

What other perks are there to field events? Or what other old-school marketing methods are making a comeback? Let me know below!

A fun and often-recommended activity to engage youth in considering the responsible use of technology and promoting that message across the student body (or beyond) involves the creation of Public Service Announcements (PSAs). These are creative and informative videos designed to bring attention to a problem relevant to a certain audience, and make a memorable point about it. Often, they promote awareness of a particularly compelling social issue, and work to encourage individuals to act in positive, appropriate ways. They also tend to have a “coolness” factor not present in a handful of other awareness initiatives.

By way of illustration, a group of students can be assigned the task of creating an Anti-Cyberbullying PSA by using a digital video camera, digital camera, cell phone (which they all usually have on hand!), or even a web cam. Typically, they are instructed to brainstorm, plan, and then write out an instructive and memorable script or story while also figuring out backdrops and scenes. It can be short (around 30 seconds) or longer (a few minutes in length) – depending on the content covered and the intent of the video. Of course, it just shouldn’t drag on; it should be as concise and as hard-hitting as possible. These can then be uploaded to YouTube, TeacherTube, or a similar online video repository, with the web address shared widely to inform and educate others about the issue – via email, messages, or perhaps on the school’s official web site. They can also be shown to students in classrooms or through the morning or afternoon video announcements during the school day.

Teaching youth how to make wise decisions with their online participation and interaction seems to work better through repeated reminders that pique their conscience and bring the issue to the forefront of their mind. Perhaps after witnessing correct and healthy behavior by a peer acting out a role in a Public Service Announcement video, a student might be more inclined to mirror that behavioral choice when presented with a social opportunity in which he or she has a decision to make. Perhaps it will induce him or her to “do the right thing” after seeing someone else model that action.

Here are some examples of some student-created PSA videos we have seen:

To be sure, public service announcements don’t have to be “videos” – they can take the picture of colorful posters replete with word art, digital photos, bulletpoints, short narratives and stories, and anything else students may want to include. We encourage schools to administrate the creation of poster PSAs in any class, simply as a very relevant task for students while they discuss and share about cyberbullying, safe social networking, sexting, and other forms of teen technology misuse. This doesn’t need to occur in a computer-themed class – it can occur in a math class, a science class, an English class, a physical education class. In fact, it should occur wherever students are, because it is highly relevant to them.

Adults often complain that it is difficult to obtain and then retain the attention of youth. To that we say, talk to them about these technology-related issues, and give them assignments (such as these PSAs) to *engage* and align their minds and hearts with positive use! If you can connect with them on this level, their ears will perk up and they will lock in to what you have to say. Trust us, give it a try, and let us know how it worked for you!

### Princeton’s WordNet (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition:

community service, public service noun

a service that is performed for the benefit of the public or its institutions

public service noun

employment within a government system (especially in the civil service)

### Wiktionary (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition:

public service noun

A service asserted to be for the public good provided by a for-profit enterprise or trade association.

public service noun

A service, usually provided by the government, for the general public or its specific section.

### Freebase (4.20 / 5 votes) Rate this definition:

A public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly or by financing private provision of services. The term is associated with a social consensus that certain services should be available to all, regardless of income. Even where public services are neither publicly provided nor publicly financed, for social and political reasons they are usually subject to regulation going beyond that applying to most economic sectors. Public service is also a course that can be studied at a college and/or university.

### Editors Contribution (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition:

A form of service provided to the public by a form of unity government department and employees.

All public services are open and functioning efficiently.

### Numerology

The numerical value of public service in Chaldean Numerology is: 3

The numerical value of public service in Pythagorean Numerology is: 9

### Examples of public service in a Sentence

We’ve attempted to go to her office. She has refused to engage the public, i do not believe it is fair or right for protesters to show up at the homes of people who dedicate their lives to public service.

He worked tirelessly to bring pressure to end apartheid in South Africa and enforce treaties that destroyed Soviet weapons of mass destruction, as the longest serving member of Congress from Indiana, and a Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient, he leaves behind a legacy of public service that will inspire Hoosiers for generations.

Texas Republican Rep. John Ratcliffe experience on the House Homeland Security Committee and as former Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, Innovation Subcommittee chairman will serve Texas Republican Rep. John Ratcliffe well in this new role, i thank Director Coats for hisleadership and years of public service. And, House Homeland Security Committee Oversight Committee Ranking Member Jim Jordan, R-Ohio, said Texas Republican Rep. John Ratcliffe was a.

These two mistakes, corruption and delays in decision making, irritate the public and frustrate the investors, this time I will act directly so as to discipline the public service as we discipline the army.

That’s one path, the other path is a path of public service where you accomplish things and that’s my lane. And I’m going to talk about my lane.

Room 201; Fairfield Middle School; Fairfield, Iowa; USA; North America; Earth

• Home

## Friday, December 13, 2013

6th and 7th grade GOAL students are participating in the Letters About Literature Contest.

For any writers needing some inspiration, here are the links to winning letters from the past: http://www.read.gov/letters/contests/winners/2013/. Maybe those will help inspire you to think of how your favorite books have affected you.

Rules and guidelines for the contest can be found here: http://www.read.gov/letters/

## Thursday, October 24, 2013

### Update. It’s Been WAY Longer Than a Week!

This teacher/blogger has been naughty! It’s been far too long since I updated this blog, but I’m back on the bandwagon. Here’s what’s been happening in room 101 up to and during this last week of the first quarter:

English 8: Students are busy finishing their Prezis on important women in history. They’re due Friday, and then students will have a chance to share the inspiring information they’ve learned.

5th GOAL: 5th graders started the quarter learning about cricket: all the rules, all the equipment, all the fun! They practiced for a few days, and then Mr. Edlin came to umpire their big match. They kept score and had a great time. Now, they’re finishing up research on a sport or game from another country. They’ll be creating projects to share their knowledge and to teach the class how to play the sport of game they researched.

6th GOAL: 6th graders are loving their read aloud book Okay For Now by Gary D. Schmidt. They have been discussing the book on their class wiki. They have also been busy with their Models and Design unit. They have been creating physical models of the Humdinger, a mechanical device that hums when you pull a string and then dings when you let the string go. They have been collaborating in groups and making models that will recreate what the Humdinger does.

7th GOAL: 7th graders’ read aloud is The Cardturner by Louis Sachar. They have been learning a little bridge while listening to the tale of Alton & his Uncle Trapp. Online discussions have taken place on the wiki. Students finished a unit on Big Science. The debates were great between whether biotechnology or an environmental car should be what the government backs as its next big science project. In the end, students presented their own personal opinions in the form of a campaign poster, complete with unique slogan.

8th GOAL: 8th graders are in the middle of hearing To Kill a Mockingbird as their read aloud. Tom Robinson’s trial has just started, and we’re all engrossed! Students have discussed the book in an online wiki. They’re also in the middle of a unit on Mandarin Chinese. We’ve learned some basic vocabulary, and now students are writing skits to perform to show what they’ve learned.

Deep Thinking Fridays: Deep Thinking Fridays started with a simple question: “Is Google knowledge?” The video sparked such fantastic discussion that a 6th grader suggested we have a Deep Thinking Friday EVERY Friday. What a great idea! Since that first time, we’ve discussed many topics including: What is consciousness?, Just how small is an atom?, littering and pollution (video and image), and Is your red the same as my red? Deep Thinking Fridays allow students to think outside the box and ponder big, mind-blowing questions and issues. One student reported that Deep Thinking Fridays gave him a headache, but he liked it! By pondering life’s mysteries and dilemmas, students engage creativity and imagination. They think about their place in the world, and they debate the possibilities and explanations. The discussions have been amazing. Stop into room 101 on some Friday, and see for yourself. Join the deep thinking FUN!

Home » PR Fuel » Public Service Announcements (PSAs) as a PR Tool

If you watch TV, listen to the radio or read a newspaper, you have seen and heard a public service announcement (PSA). (The phrase “the more you know” should ring a bell.)

The FCC defines public service announcements as “any announcement … for which no charge is made and which promotes programs, activities, or services of federal, state or local governments … or the programs, activities, or services of non-profit organizations … and other announcements regarded as serving community interests.”

While a for-profit company or client does not fit most of this definition, read on. Many companies have adhered to the phrase “other announcements regarded as serving community interest” in order to place thoughtful and well-received PSAs. And, of special interest to public relations professionals, PSAs are absolutely free to place!

So how do you get in on the action and get some of that free airtime or publication space using a PSA? The first step is not to think of a PSA as “free advertising,” instead, think of it as a way to educate the public about something your company cares about deeply. Chances are your company specializes in something that the public could use more education about. For example, if you sell children’s toys, consider a PSA – timed for the holidays – about toy safety.

Start preparing for your PSA by making a list of all the little known or interesting educational aspects of your organization. For example, just because everyone in your custom speaker company understands the importance of listening to music at appropriate levels doesn’t mean that parents and teens realize loud music can cause hearing loss. While a PSA can reference your company as a sponsor or underwriter, it should never blatantly promote your organization. If it does, producers and editors are going to send you and your PSA straight down the hall to the advertising department.

When it comes down to actually creating your PSA, be aware that broadcast PSAs are either 10, 15, 20, 30 or 60 seconds long, while newspaper PSAs are generally graphical and anywhere from 1/8 th of a page to a full page. Unless you have the ability to produce these spots in-house, it’s a good idea to hire a production house for television and radio spots, and a graphic designer for print ads. If you do not have experience creating PSAs, an experienced consultant can show you the tips and tricks of the trade. For example, when dealing with broadcast PSAs, even going one second over or under the limit can cause a problem for broadcasters and get your PSA rejected out of hand.

If you are unsure about hiring a consultant or production house and creating a PSA all your own, there is another way to get your name out there – underwrite a PSA created by a nonprofit. By paying for a non-profit to create a PSA, you will be credited as a sponsor, often with a “brought to you by” line, and you will also associate your organization with a non-profit in you industry or geographic area, adding instant credibility with the public.

For ideas on just how much message you can pack into a short PSA, see these three PSAs from the past several decades:

That would be a good public service announcement for Nickelodeon: Hi, this is Bob Saget. Don’t fuck that shit. Stay in school. And read! – Bob Saget

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###### By: Hugh Jackson – March 24, 2020 3:43 pm

Screengrab from state’s public service announcement telling you to stay home for Nevada.

All Nevada’s living former governors, practicing what the state called “aggressive social distancing protocols,” recorded a public service announcement from their homes to tell everyone to stay home for Nevada. Well, almost all. Former Gov. Jim Gibbons … is safe and sound at home, hopefully!

Anyway, here’s the PSA.

Thank you to our Nevada governors for creating this PSA! Robert (Bob) List, Bob Miller, Richard Bryan, Brian Sandoval and @GovSisolak want you to #StayHomeForNevada pic.twitter.com/5xVH79J7a4

Gov. Steve Sisolak retweeted the video, because of course he did, using the octothorpe, er pound sign, er, hashtag #AllInThisTogether.

In the spirit of being all in this together, perhaps the good folks at R&R Partners, who appear to have put this PSA together in their capacity as the official unofficial advertising/government affairs agency for the state of Nevada, could make another one. Specifically, something that might reach across the bizarre political divide that even a society-altering pandemic hasn’t been able to close.

Former Republican Gov. Bob List, and all the former governors, must be thanked for appearing in the PSA released Tuesday. But List was governor from 1979 to 1983, and unless they are particularly active in a) certain sub-segments of Nevada Republican Party politics, or b) efforts to bring nuclear waste to Yucca Mountain, rank and file Republicans in this our era of Trump may not be, well, motivated by Bob List.

Former Gov. Brian Sandoval is also a Republican. But he raised taxes and was the first GOP governor in the U.S. to expand Medicaid under Obamacare, and he left office with a reputation among the party’s stalwarts as, you know, RINO. And as for Republican Jim Gibbons, he’s … safe and sound at home, hopefully!

To reach today’s Republicans, who are getting, shall we say, mixed messages from their president, a public service announcement should feature today’s Republicans. With today’s Democrats.

So, a modest proposal — or maybe it’s more of a challenge than a proposal: A video PSA featuring Democratic Gov. Steve Sisolak and his opponent in 2018, Republican Adam Laxalt, as well as Nevada Democratic Sen. Jacky Rosen and her 2018 opponent, former Republican Sen. Dean Heller. For good measure, might as well toss in respective state party chairs, Democratic William McCurdy and Republican Michael McDonald. All of them telling Nevadans to stay home.

If we’re all in this together, let’s all be in this together, no?

## –Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Karlyn Campbell, The Interplay of Influence, 4th edition

What is a Public Service Announcement?

Public Service Announcements (PSAs) are a type of advertising. Understanding the elements that make this type of advertising effective is an important process of creating an effective PSA. The quote cited above points out that commercials should try to involve the viewer in the persuasive message while delaying the presentation of information that identifies the message as persuasive. Any sample of commercials or PSAs will shows this technique in action. Discuss with students the claim that people are less likely to be manipulated by a message when they are aware of its persuasive intent. When is this true and when is it not? What examples can be used to support or refute this claim?

TRY THIS! ACTIVITY

Watch a sample of public service announcements and have a discussion to develop a long list of all the elements that they have in common. For example:

1. Elements Of A PSA

• short
• goal is to change attitudes or behavior
• use emotion
• identifying tag for the organization or cause comes at the end

Then create a comparison contrast chart showing the similarities and differences comparing public service announcements to commercials for products. See how many different similarities and differences you can generate, using the example below to get started:

2. How Are PSAs And Commercials Similar And Different?

There are many more similarities than differences. Both identify a specific target audience, set measurable goals for the campaign, and design messages that use attention-getting techniques. Commercials often have goal of increasing people’s awareness of the brand while PSAs often have goal of changing attitudes and behaviors.

Q: What is a public service announcement (PSA)?
A: Public service announcements (PSAs) are commercials that are sponsored by a non-profit organization to convey pro-social information to the public, or reinforce or change attitudes about specific issues. Many private organizations sponsor their own PSAs to raise awareness about the warning signs of stroke, for example, which may be sponsored by a local hospital. A “get your dog spayed” PSA might be sponsored by the local Humane Society. On MTV, the “Rock the Vote” campaign to encourage youth voter registration was sponsored by a non-profit organization which created PSAs featuring many popular musical artists and celebrities.

Q: Why are PSAs on television or in print media?

A: Television stations meet part of their responsibility to serve the needs of the community by airing public service ads. This responsibility is stipulated by the FCC, the Federal Communications Commission, which in 1934 declared that broadcasters “should serve the public interest, convenience and necessity.” Many non-profit and social service agencies have discovered that advertising is an effective way to reach large numbers of people, and can be highly effective in changing attitudes and behaviors.

Q: Who decides how PSAs get broadcast or placed in print media?

A: Because the producers of a PSA do not pay for the time or in which the PSA is aired, they cannot control when or how frequently it gets shown on TV or radio or placed in a newspaper or magazine. Media outlets decide which types of PSAs are appropriate for their target audience.

Q: When are PSAs aired?
A: Stations tend to place PSAs in time no one else has purchased. For example, you’ll see PSAs more often early in the morning or late at night, when few viewers are watching. You may also see PSAs during the local evening news when stations are trying to communicate their goodwill to community leaders. Each television station decides to air PSAs individually. Networks and cable television channels also make their own decisions about when, how often, and what type of PSAs to air.

Q: What is the Partnership for a Drug-Free America?
A: The Partnership for a Drug Free America is a private, non profit coalition of professionals from the communications industry, whose collective mission is to reduce demand for illicit drugs in America through media communication. More than $2 billion in broadcast time and print space, and 400 anti-drug ads have been donated in the ten years since the Partnership was founded. Q: What kinds of criticisms have been made about PSAs? A: Public service announcements are not without their critics. Some people have noted that PSAs primarily frame issues in terms of individual behavior, like “what you can do” about crime, pollution or drug use. PSAs rarely point out the importance of actions that groups of people could take, or the importance of policies and laws in helping solve social problems like crime, pollution or drug use. ## Judges and contestants celebrating at “The Winnies.” The Yale School of Public Health recognized its students’ artistic ingenuity with a schoolwide video awards show that featured big prizes and big fun while raising awareness of important public health issues during National Public Health Week. The school’s Winslow Auditorium was transformed into an Oscars-like setting on April 2, complete with a plush red carpet, glittering selfie station, catered food and even popcorn vendors. Twelves videos in the form of short public service announcements were in contention for the$2,500 top prize in the inaugural Roger Barnett Public Health Video Challenge, also known as the Winnies. The challenge was made possible by a donation from Barnett, an alumnus of Yale College and the Yale Law School.

“Last year, I shared with Roger my goal of having students learn how powerful communications and media can be in promoting good public health practice,” said Yale School of Public Health Dean Sten H. Vermund, who served as the master of ceremonies. “In response, he offered funding for this competition in hopes that these videos will help raise awareness of the incredible work by our students and faculty here at YSPH.”

Entries were evaluated on originality, the way the science was presented, how well the chosen topic was explained, how well the video engaged viewers and overall production quality.

The panel of judges was comprised of television producer and pediatrician Dr. Neal Baer (ER, Law & Order: SVU); four alumni: Emmy-nominated ABC television producer and YSPH alumna Susan Schwartz, M.P.H. ’80; health communications video producer Linda Bergonzi-King, M.P.H. ’90; YSPH lecturer Jonathan Smith, M.P.H. 11; Scott Rosenstein, M.P.H. ’04, MA ‘04; and several YSPH faculty and staff.

The $2,500 top prize went to Saskia Comess, M.P.H. ’19, for her video “What About the Air We Breathe?” highlighting the global public health threat presented by fine particulate matter in toxic air. Comess took an edgy Bill Nye the Science Guy approach to her video that was both informative and entertaining. “I’m very happy to have won,” Comess, an environmental health sciences student, said later as she cradled her award— a book-sized wire sculpture of a movie camera— that served as the official “Winnie,” the school’s version of the Oscar named after Yale School of Public Health founder Charles-Edward Amory Winslow. “It was really fun putting the video together. … I’m just really happy to make people laugh and to have it be educational about a subject that is so important to public health.” This year’s top winner was announced via video by actress Sara Gilbert, a two-time Emmy Award nominee known for her role as Darlene Conner on the ABC sitcom Roseanne and for her role as co-host of the CBS daytime talk show The Talk. She also has a recurring role as Leslie Winkle on CBS’s The Big Bang Theory. “Congratulations to the Yale School of Public Health students for bringing attention to these important public health topics with your videos,” Gilbert said from the set of The Talk. “I admire your passion in pursuing such an important career path to ensure public health equity in the world.” The$1,500 second place prize went to Kelsie Cassell, Ph.D. ’22, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, and Victoria Harries, Ph.D. ’24, Department of Anthropology, who teamed up to produce an animated short about antimicrobial resistance. Cassell and Harries said that they used animation to make the science easier to understand.

While it was a first time effort for both, Cassell said she could see the value in presenting difficult science information to the public via the video format. “I think it has great potential,” she said.

Harries and Cassell said they felt lucky to be among the prize winners given the strength and creativity of all of the videos entered into the contest. The second place prize was announced by Baer via a video message.

Sacha Hauc, M.P.H., ’20, took the $500 third place prize for his video focusing on mental health and suicide awareness. A stark, black and white short stressing the importance of breathing to maintain emotional balance, the video featured close-ups of different individuals taking a slow, deep breath interspersed with key statistics and important mental health messages. “I wanted to show that mental health is something everyone experiences to some degree and it shouldn’t be stigmatized,” Hauc said. Many graduate management trainees are faced with a dilemma: what or who am I aspiring to be? Photograph: Lorne Campbell for the Guardian Many graduate management trainees are faced with a dilemma: what or who am I aspiring to be? Photograph: Lorne Campbell for the Guardian A ny answer to the question, ‘what makes a good public servant?’, is a good starting point for a question that senior public service managers increasingly find themselves revisiting – what (if anything) should we do with our talent management programmes? I expect that this is a question that both civil service and local government graduates will be looking to address through our shared, but different experiences when we meet for the first time at a joint Civil Service Fast Stream and National Graduate Development Programme (the local government graduate scheme) speed networking event today. The coalition government has demonstrated a changeable approach to public service talent management schemes in its first year of government. It has committed to an extra £4m investment into TeachFirst, a graduate scheme for trainee teachers in challenging inner city schools. It froze all external recruitment to Whitehall (with the exception of the Civil Service Fast Stream which continued to be open to graduate applicants). Last week, it was announced that there would be significant cutbacks to the National Graduate Development Programme. It would be easy to dismiss the apparent variability in government’s treatment of talent management schemes as inherently superficial, political and reactionary. But the variability is instead both reflective of, and forcing a healthy debate about how concepts such as talent, value for money, capabilities, and experience have to undergo the most radical redefinition in the history of the welfare state. It is a truism that talent management schemes are supposed to identify ‘talent’. It is a truism that they are expected to develop identified ‘potential’ (often, but not always young graduates) to deliver ‘value for money’ for the organisations they are trained within. It is also a truism that they provide ‘experience’ to those with such capabilities to help them to navigate the specific problems posed by the areas they work within. But they are truisms that conceal a paradox at the heart of the question of what makes a good public service manager. This is most apparent when we examine the dilemma that many graduate management trainees often find themselves in. As a young trainee, what or who am I aspiring to be? Am I expected to be a professional civil servant – adept at navigating the tricky political waters of a democratically accountable service, and therefore learning under the guiding hand of my more experienced colleagues? Should I be taught, as Sir Humphrey teaches the young Parliamentary Private Secretary in ‘Yes Minister’, that government ‘”is not about morality, it is about stability; keeping things going, preventing anarchy, stopping society falling to bits. Still being here tomorrow”? Or am I expected to be a direct counterweight to that culture of stability – to be the bright young upstart with fresh ideas who has been brought into the organisation precisely because I am untouched by the curse of ‘keeping things going’? Examples of such counterweights are organisations such as FutureGov (which specialises in using innovations in web technology to manage change in government – and is itself founded by alumni from the NGDP). The real answer is both– and neither. It’s also the answer to the question I asked at the very outset of this article – what makes a good public service manager? The very fact that public services face the economic and strategic pressures they do means that there is a desperate need for innovators in public service – those who can see the pressures public services face without oversimplifying those pressures, and who can use the new technological and scientific tools we are equipped with in this century to arrive at workable solutions. Public services require those with the vision to imagine how a service could be radically different. But at the same time, the resistance associated with culture change in government requires an ability to understand the mindset of the ‘traditional’ public servant. It requires the emotional intelligence to understand what motivates and influences those who need to accept the change in order to make the change happen. And it requires tenacity and emotional stamina to then exercise that influence against considerable resistance. So part of what makes for a good public servant is enough critical distance from the public service to imagine that it could be a different way. And part of what makes a good public servant is enough proximity to the public service to make it a different way. This is a difficult tightrope to walk, but walk it we must. This is why the question ‘what makes for a good public servant?’ must be at the heart of any review of talent management programmes in public service. It also demonstrates why talent management is never simply an operational question – of what to do with one’s resources to manage talent. Talent management is inherently a policy issue because embedded within our answers to how public service graduates should be recruited and developed are our assumptions about what we think should happen to public services. Reema Patel is a fast track manager at Essex County Council This content is brought to you by Guardian Professional. Become a Public Leaders Network member to get our weekly update direct to your inbox. School administrators should fully utilize school public address systems and exercise care in the selection of school announcers. Good announcers provide a friendly and cordial relationship between competing schools and the general public and assist with crowd control. An announcer should be mature, have good judgment, and be emotionally stable. Many situations arise that require quick judgment and a cool head. A good voice is important; nothing is more annoying than a lot of jumbled words spoken too quickly to be understood. Too much verbalizing also hinders crowd enjoyment of the contest. ## Guidelines For School Sports Announcers The primary function of a school public address system is to convey pertinent information about the game. Announcers are not part of the cheering section. They should never incite the emotions of the spectators. Information should be given with the same tone concerning both the home team and the visiting team whether they have made a touchdown or scored the winning basket. The announcer should remember at all times that the sole justification for his function is conveying simple, straightforward, unemotional information. When there is nothing significant to announce, silence is golden. All announcements should be authorized by a designated school administrator. There should be no political announcements or advertising of liquor or tobacco. It is advisable to use a cutoff microphone so that nothing will go into the PA system other than what is intended. Many embarrassing situations can be avoided with cutoff mikes. ## Pertinent Information For All Sports Prior to announcing the starting lineup, announcers may wish to use some of the pre-game announcements available on the UIL Web site to encourage good sportsmanship and proper treatment of game officials. (Spot Announcements and Public Service Announcements may be used prior, during and following games.) Announce the records of the two competing teams in previous contests and their records of wins and losses during the current season. Announce the starting players and their numbers for both teams, as well as substitutes, their names and numbers, and the names and numbers of the players they replace. Announce the officials and their positions (when pertinent). ## Techniques For Announcing Football Games When the game starts, certain information should be given for both the offensive and defensive teams. On the offensive teams there should be included such items as: 1) who is in receiving position on the kickoff, 2) who kicks the ball, 3) who makes the tackle, 4) who receives the snap from center on scrimmage plays, 5) who is back in deep punt formation, 6) who does the punting, 7) who handles the ball in the back field, 8) who does the passing, 9) who receives the pass or for whom the pass was intended, 10) who runs with the ball, 11) who executes good blocks, 12) who fumbles the ball, 13) who recovers the fumble, 14) who holds the ball on P.A.T., 15) who kicks on try for point. On the defensive team it is good to announce: 1) who receives the kickoff, 2) who makes tackles, 3) who intercepts or breaks up forward passes, 4) who takes out the interferences, 5) who blocks kicks, 6) who plays safety when the offense is in punt formation, 7) who receives punts, 8) who recovers fumbles. The announcer can assist the crowd by interpreting the signals of the officials for violations as they are given on the playing field. Announcers should be thoroughly familiar with these signals and should never “second guess” an official by announcing the violation before the official gives the signal. The downs and yardage should be announced regularly. If the scoreboard is in view of all spectators, this need be done only on occasion. It is good for the position of the ball on the field to be announced from time to time due to the fact that some spectators may not be able to get this information from their positions in the stands. The approximate time left in the periods is of interest if the scoreboard does not provide this information. It is generally considered best to have at least two assistants, one checking the home team and the other the visiting team. These assistants are usually referred to as spotters. It is more practical to use regular spotters from each team for every game. The teamwork that goes on between the announcer and his spotters has much to do with the success of the public address system. It is also good for the announcer and his spotters to be on hand thirty minutes or more before game time with programs and other materials and information to be used during the game. If the announcer is not in an enclosed booth, clipboards with rubber bands are necessary to secure all materials and keep them in position for use. ## Techniques For Announcing Basketball Games During a basketball game, announcers should announce the player who scored, the player charged with a foul, the player attempting a free throw, the team granted a time out and the length of the time out, and any players entering the game. Announcers should not announce the number of points a player has scored, the number of fouls on player, the number of team fouls, the number of team time outs remaining, the type of foul or violation or an emphatic 2 or 3 point goal. Announcers should not make announcements while the clock is running or while the clock is stopped and the ball is alive, such as during a free throw or a throw in. Doing so could potentially affect communication of coaches, players, or be disconcerting. The appropriate time to make to make announcements or comments is during times when the clock is stopped and ball is not live, such as time outs, between quarters, pre-game, half time and post game. ## The ultimate guide to public consultation: What it is, why do it, and how to do it well Public Consultation is a huge topic so we’ve broken it down to several sections for you, starting with exactly what is public consultation, when it is required, the benefits of public consultation when it’s done right, and the tools you need to achieve successful consultation processes. ## What is Public Consultation? Public consultation is a process that involves the public in providing their views and feedback on a proposal to consider in the decision-making. Underpinning effective consultation are two key assumptions. Firstly, that the public are perfectly capable of making sense of complex issues. Secondly, those decision-makers are not necessarily experts on the issues for which they are deciding or debating. Evidence suggests that this holds true for the vast majority of cases. Over the last decade, approaches to public consultation have ranged from short-term programs to meet the regulatory requirements to a longer-term focus on relationship building and proactive risk management. Today, the terms Public Consultation and Stakeholder Engagement are emerging as inclusive and continuous dialogue between a company (or decision-maker) and the public (or stakeholders) that encompasses a range of activities and approaches and spans the entire life of the project. ### Who is the public? The public, often referred to as stakeholders, are individuals and organizations that are affected directly or indirectly by a project or a decision, as well as those who have the ability to influence the decision, both positively and negatively. They can also be people who simply have an interest in the project. Policy makers and project proponents will often need to strike a balance between consulting those who are significantly affected by a proposal and consulting a wider group of people who will not be directly affected, but who will have a reasonable fear that they might be, or will have strong feelings about an issue. The matter of defining the ‘public concerned’ for a consultation is highly fractious as it is often a factor of the available resources. Questions that help identify the “public” or “stakeholders”: • Who is affected by this decision? – For example, the local community, neighbours, landowners, local businesses. • Who may have influence on the decision? – For example, the centre and local government departments, religious leaders, politicians. • Who knows about the subject? – for example, the academic community, NGOs • Who has an interest in the subject? – For example, community groups, groups with special interests. ## Why is Public Consultation Important? ## “Good consultation costs money but poor consultation can cost a lot more” Successful public consultation means different things to different individuals and organisations. For some, it means improving their brand image, increased stakeholder support and reduced external risks. For others, it is about meeting regulatory or lender requirements, or gaining broad community support to obtain ‘social license to operate’. Although success may look a little different for companies and organisations operating in different market sectors, most of them agree that high quality stakeholder management and engagement helps achieve better project outcomes. Benefits of public consultation include: • It acknowledges the desire for humans to have a say in decisions that affect their lives. More importantly, it provides an opportunity for the affected people (and interested parties) to have a say in decisions that affect their lives. • It provides the decision makers a better understanding of the stakeholders’ values, interests, issues, and concerns about the proposal to incorporate into decisions and ultimately empowers them to make better decisions. • It facilitates understanding on the proposal (for the public), and problems and opportunities (for the Consultor). • It generates new ideas to be considered and evaluated throughout the development. • It encourages the public to provide meaningful input into the decision-making process. • It helps create a strong foundation for long-lasting and trustful relationships between the project and the stakeholders. • It helps organisations enhance risk management and have better project outcomes. • It informs the public and helps them accept any resulting changes. ## When is Public Consultation Required? ### Public consultation is oriented towards making decisions For most sectors, public or private, public consultation is generally required during the planning phase. For governments, consultation can be applied to a range of topics such as draft legislation and rules, budgets, policy development and spatial planning. In the case of the European Commission, stakeholder consultations are carried out to support the preparation of: • Policy communications/white papers • Legislative proposals • Spending programmes • Delegated acts and implementing acts with important impacts, i.e. subject to an impact assessment • Evaluations of existing policies or programmes. In the United Kingdom there is only voluntary, blanket guidance for government departments and other public bodies for engaging stakeholders when developing policy or legislation. However, there are legal duties for certain government bodies to consult such as the NHS Act 2006 Section 14Z2 for health commissioning groups and the Planning Act 2008, which requires pre-application consultation on nationally significant infrastructure projects. Specific legal obligations may also be straddled by a number of non-specific statutory requirements such as: • The need to carry out environmental impact assessments • The need to carry out equality assessments • Freedom of Information and Data Protection Laws. There are different public consultation and disclosure standards set by the regulators and borrowers for the private sectors. And the consultation requirements can depend on the level of anticipated social and environmental risks and impacts a project is likely to create. For example, the Equator banks (borrowers) require projects with potential significant adverse impacts in non-OECD countries to undertake vigorous consultation and disclosure activities throughout the project’s lifecycle to the bank’s satisfaction that the project has adequately incorporated affected communities’ concerns. It is important to note that when consultation activities are driven by rules and requirements, the consultation rarely extends beyond the planning phase and is seldom integrated into the core business activities. Over the last decade, approaches to public consultation have chance from short-term means of meeting the regulatory requirements to a longer-term focusing on relationship building and proactive risk management. ## Guide to Public Prayer Ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you. For everyone who asks receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks it will be opened. Introduction The way we pray in secret (Matt 6:6) is different from the way we pray in public. Private prayer is heightened by the reality of our personal relationship with God. Though we pray as part of the Church, remembering others in our prayers, we are praying in such a way that our own relationship with God is cultivated and deepened. Public prayer is different. When one prays in public he or she prays not as an individual, but on behalf of the entire church. More than that, though we are praying to God, we are to be mindful of those listening to us. Our prayers are to edify and build up those that hear us (1 Cor 14:13 -19). You shouldn’t think it’s necessary to write your prayer, but you should be intentional in putting thought into the content and manner of the prayer. The following are some directions meant to be a help for those praying in public. These directions are both practical and theological in nature. Remember that these directions are meant to be a help and not some rigid pattern to follow. They are not part of a check-list to tick-off, or a series of requirements to follow. Instead, they are designed to help make our public prayers to be the most glorifying to God and edifying to his people. Pray in the Plural Again, remember that when you pray in the worship service, you are praying on behalf of the entire church. You are leading everyone to the throne of God. Thus, you should not say things like, ‘I pray’ or ‘I’m asking.’ Pray in the plural with phrases like, ‘We come before you this morning’ or ‘We pray now,’ etc. This also follows the pattern of prayer the Lord gave us (Matt 6:9). Pray the Scriptures The language of the Bible is always right, safe, and edifying to God’s people (2 Tim 3:16 -17). It is always powerful and effective at gripping the believer’s heart (Heb 4:12 -13). It will always lead us to pray with kingdom priorities (Matt 6:33 ). Therefore, whenever possible, you should try to use the very words of the Bible in your public prayers. Pray the Gospel There is nothing more encouraging to God’s people than a prayer that is full of Christ and grace we have received through him. Whenever possible, offer praise and thanksgiving for Christ’s saving work on the cross. Make the reality of the gospel the basis and motivation of your prayers (Eph 3:7-14). Pray an Appropriate Length Various occasions call for varying lengths of prayer. Basically, we are saying that one should offer a prayer that is neither too long nor too short (Ecc 5:2; Matt 6:7). Often, wisdom in this area comes over time as you listen to the prayers of others and gain personal experience in praying publicly. Pray with an Appropriate Tone and Attitude Because God desires the prayers of his people, we should come boldly to his throne with confidence that he will hear us (1 John 3:21-24; Heb 4:16). This does not mean that we should go carelessly before God in prayer. It is still the humble person that attracts God’s gaze (Isa 66:1-2). But it does mean that our prayers should be full of hope and joy in the goodness and power of the Lord to whom we are praying. Furthermore, those praying in public should not use pretentious, overly familiar, or irreverent language. Language that is flippant and jokey is never befitting prayer (Ex 20:7; Heb 12:28 ). Neither is language that is exaggerated in its importance appropriate; public prayer should not seek to impress anyone (Matt 6:5). Pray with Spiritual Preparation Make sure that before you pray, your heart is right before God (Ps 66:18). The night before, or the morning that you are to pray, examine your life and make any necessary confession and repentance so that you will be fit to bring God’s people to his throne of grace in prayer (Heb 7:27). What does service even mean to a guy like Ted Cruz? I’m not saying that a guy like Joe Biden is anywhere near perfect, and I won’t say that he hasn’t benefited greatly from his decades in politics, but the man is a lifelong public servant. President Obama was a public servant. Bill Clinton was a public servant. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez: A public servant. Beto O’Rourke? Public servant. Bernie Sanders? Lifelong public servant. Being a public servant does not mean you don’t collect a paycheck. It doesn’t mean you can’t amass power, influence, and money — those things tend to accrue to good public servants — but it does mean serving the public. The whole idea is to serve one’s constituents. It means being there when needed. It means showing up, or making phone calls, or offering comfort. It means trying to at least feign some empathy. You know being a public servant does not mean? Jumping on your plane with your family and flying to Cancun during one of the hardest weeks in the history of your state, when millions are without power and water, when they’re stuck inside or living in shelters because their apartment complex burned down when someone tried to light a fire because they didn’t have any heat (an actual thing that happened in Texas). This is not being a public servant, y’all: It appears in the middle of the worst energy crisis in the history of Texas, @tedcruz is on his way to Cancun with his family. pic.twitter.com/aEdiqdn70j [email protected] on the left is you on an airplane going to cancun. On the right is one of your constituents freezing in her house with no power, no water, no heat. She is 100 years old. pic.twitter.com/FoPZeGaRGo I know some of you are concerned (jk) about Ted Cruz’s well being during the power outages and lack of drinkable water for millions in Texas, but not to worry: he’s vacationing in Cancun. What else would the country’s biggest douchebag be doing? https://t.co/vMVi7ZknDT As the din of criticism intensifies against Ted Cruz for flying off to Cancun while Texans suffer, try to understand how badly he needs a nice vacation after his hard work aiding a violent insurrection. You could have had this guy, Texas? But Republicans got wrapped up in some weird ideas about meatless burgers. We made over 151,000 calls to senior citizens in Texas tonight. One of our vols talked to a man stranded at home w/out power in Killeen, hadn’t eaten in 2 days, got him a ride to a warming center and a hot meal. Help us reach more people, join us tomorrow: https://t.co/WOLn2HCrm1 There’s a lot of Ted Cruzes in Texas, though, aren’t there? Rick Perry says that going without power is “a sacrifice Texans should be willing to make” to keep their power grid deregulated. 23 people have died. Regulation keeps the power on and keeps people alive. — Secret Agent Number Six (@DesignationSix) February 17, 2021 TX Rep. Lloyd Doggett: “As Texans freeze, Greg Abbott follows a familiar playbook—shirking responsibility, blaming others for his own failures to prepare, to prevent, to respond. Instead of helping … he joined Trump cheerleader Sean Hannity last night to spew misinformation.” Just when I think our public officials like @GregAbbott_TX have done everything they possibly can to tell us they don’t care if their incompetence and dishonesty is killing us, #CancunCruz says “Hold my beer.” — Kurt “Masks Save Lives” Eichenwald (@kurteichenwald) February 18, 2021 This dude is the mayor of Colorado City, Texas. I mentioned this the other day on Twitter, and it’s worth mentioning again: It’s not the fault of “Texas.” Don’t blame Texas. There are more Democrats in Texas than in the entire population of Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, and Rhode Island combined. There are more Democrats in Texas than in any other state other than California or New York. But we need to make more. Texas politicians right now are probably helping our cause more than any registration drive could. To wit: I heard from folks back in Arkansas that they received a foot of snow this week. That’s a decade’s worth of snow for Arkansas. This is Texarkana, one of those novelty cities that is halfway in Texas and halfway in Arkansas. Don’t this just say everything? One state has snow plows. The other doesn’t. One side of this street is Texarkana, Arkansas. The other side is Texarkana, Texas. “By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.” There is a leadership failure in Texas…pic.twitter.com/EJ2QtLudXK ## A Small Appreciation for the Unsung Heroes of the Startup Scandal Series ## ‘Morbius’ Spoilers: How The End Credit Scenes Reveal Sony’s Spider-Man Plan Dustin is the founder and co-owner of Pajiba. You may email him here, follow him on Twitter, or listen to his weekly TV podcast, Podjiba. Autonomous Security Robots Deliver Important Messages at Client Locations During Pandemic ## Download • Full Size • Small • Preview • Thumbnail Autonomous Security Robots Deliver Important Messages at Client Locations During Pandemic (Graphic: Business Wire) Autonomous Security Robots Deliver Important Messages at Client Locations During Pandemic (Graphic: Business Wire) MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif.–( BUSINESS WIRE )–Knightscope, Inc., a developer of advanced physical security technologies utilizing fully autonomous robots focused on enhancing U.S. security operations, announced today that it has created and deployed numerous COVID-19 Public Safety Announcements across its fleet of Autonomous Security Robots (ASRs). Knightscope’s clients are effectively all considered “essential services” (law enforcement agencies, hospitals, security teams, etc.), so the Company has been hard at work keeping all of its machines-in-network operating across the country – even during the pandemic. The robots have been working tirelessly 24/7 without interruption since they are immune and not subject to any shelter-in-place orders. “We are pleased to announce that our COVID-19 Public Safety Broadcast Announcements feature is now live and deployed in production,” said William Santana Li, chairman and CEO at Knightscope. “We offered this as a free upgrade to all Knightscope clients as part of our Machine-as-a-Service (MaaS) subscription offering. The majority of our clients were excited to activate the feature, with many even asking for their own custom messages tailored to their respective facilities.” The over-the-air free upgrade includes the following broadcast messages that can be announced by our K1 Stationary, K3 Indoor, or K5 Outdoor Autonomous Security Robots (ASRs): • “Please maintain a safe distance between you and other people – I recommend at least 6 feet.” • “Thanks for joining me for a breath of fresh air. We don’t have to remain indoors, but let’s avoid being in close contact with other humans.” • “Be sure to wipe down any surfaces you come into contact with. Please disinfect your hands with an alcohol-based sanitizer and avoid touching your face.” • “Washing our hands is fun! Oh, wait. I don’t have any hands.” • “If you are feeling ill, please refrain from entering this facility. Instead, please push the button on my head to speak with a human.” • “Please refrain from physical contact, including shaking hands.” • “Social distancing is in practice and required here.” These announcements can be made when a person is detected, randomly, by time, by location or issued manually by a law enforcement officer or security professional utilizing our state-of-the-art user interface, the Knightscope Security Operations Center (KSOC). SUPPORT ESSENTIAL SERVICES: PURCHASE SHARES IN KNIGHTSCOPE TODAY Knightscope is currently accepting accredited and unaccredited investors as well as domestic and international investors from$1,000 to 10M completely online. Click here to invest today and be a force for good. About Knightscope Knightscope is an advanced security technology company based in Silicon Valley that builds fully autonomous security robots that deter, detect and report. Our long-term ambition is to make the United States of America the safest country in the world. Learn more about us at www.knightscope.com. Follow Knightscope on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Instagram. Legal Disclaimer Knightscope and www.knightscope.com are operated by Knightscope, Inc. Investment opportunities in the Reg A+ offering are not a public offering, are private placements, are subject to long hold periods, are illiquid investments and investors must be able to afford the loss of their entire principal. There is no guarantee that Knightscope will register its shares with the SEC or any stock exchange. Offers to buy or sell any security can only be made through official offering and subscription documents that contain important information about risks, fees and expenses. You should conduct your own due diligence including reviewing in detail the Offering Circular and consultation with a financial advisor, attorney, accountant, or other professional that can help you to understand the risks associated with the investment opportunity. Forward-Looking Statements This release may contain forward-looking statements regarding Knightscope’s proposed public listing of its securities and the timing thereof, projected business performance, operating results, financial condition and other aspects of the company, expressed by such language as “expected,” “anticipated,” “projected” and “forecasted.” These statements also include estimates of the pace of customer adoption of the company’s products, engineering developments and prototype capabilities. Please be advised that such statements are intentions or estimates only and there is no assurance that the results stated or implied by forward-looking statements will actually be realized by the company, or that the company will be able to consummate its planned goals (including without limitation, a public listing of its securities). Forward-looking statements may be based on management assumptions that prove to be wrong. The Company’s predictions may not be realized for a variety of reasons, including due to inability to raise a sufficient amount of funds, a lack of marketability for the company’s securities, failure of business operations, competition, customer sales cycles, and engineering or technical issues, among others. The Company and its business are subject to substantial risks and potential events beyond its control that would cause material differences between predicted results and actual results, including the company incurring operating losses and experiencing unexpected material adverse events. Add to Mendeley ## Publisher Summary This chapter presents the fundamentals of public relations. The public relations practice is fundamentally that of communication. Many chief executive officers have added a “third hat” with the role of marketing. Budgetary restrictions for PR departments, often looked upon as non-income-producing, are a major cause of negative feelings. The museum director must understand the ramifications of good public relations services. A PR generalist would experience difficulties in organizing and managing a museum’s day-to-day needs in these changed, and still changing, times. The task of managing a museum’s public relations cannot and should not be a matter for a person who merely has a background or interest in art or who has a flair for the precise and proper word. Previous chapter in book Next chapter in book ## Cited by (0) ## Recommended articles ## Article Metrics • About ScienceDirect • Remote access • Shopping cart • Advertise • Contact and support • Terms and conditions • Privacy policy We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies . Cultura RM / Matelly / Getty Images Although there is a huge gap between the private sector and public interest salaries, public interest jobs offer a number of key advantages over private practice. Below are six advantages of public service work. ## Furthering the Public Good A primary reason lawyers and others undertake public interest or pro bono work is to further the public good. Helping underserved people, groups, and causes can provide a feeling of personal satisfaction and achievement that you might not gain defending large corporations in private practice. Public interest work can allow you to achieve greater goals beyond earning a paycheck, such as working to effect societal change, supporting an important public cause, or providing equal access to justice for needy individuals and organizations. In fact, the lowest-paid lawyers (typically those doing public interest work) report the highest levels of happiness. Public interest and pro bono work also provide the opportunity to become involved in your local community by performing public service activities of a legal and non-legal nature. For students, it is sometimes easier to find internships with public interest employers than with law firms and for-profit organizations, who tend to hire on a very limited basis for summer jobs. And it’s sometimes possible to get funding for your public interest summer job from your law school or from a nationwide public interest organization, such as Equal Justice Works. ## Valuable Work Experience Law students, new lawyers, paralegals, and other legal professionals can gain valuable work experience through internships in the public interest sector or via pro bono work in law school. Such experience is important at a time when jobs are scarce; many employers do not have the time or resources to train new attorneys and legal personnel. Since small firms want to hire candidates who can hit the ground running, and large firms often funnel substantive legal work to experienced associates, working in the public interest sector can help you gain the work experience you need. Public interest work is a great stepping stone to private practice and employers appreciate a commitment to public service. ## Better Work-Life Balance Public interest jobs typically offer a better work-life balance than law firm jobs. Nine-to-five work days, flexible schedules, and part-time opportunities are common in the public interest sector. Unlike private practice, individuals employed in non-profits, the government, and legal service organizations are not under pressure to meet high billable hour quotas, gain face-time with partners, or spend free time on client development activities. The work culture is often more relaxed because the focus is on service rather than profit. ## Exposure to Multiple Practice Areas When you join a law firm, you are typically assigned to a specific practice group. However, public service and pro bono work can help new grads explore a variety of practice areas while performing valuable work. At a legal service organization, for example, you might assist with a variety of cases ranging from landlord/tenant and immigration issues to child custody and civil rights. You will gain valuable insight and useful knowledge in the procedural and substantive issues surrounding many areas of law. ## Mentoring and Networking Opportunities If you are a student or new graduate, public interest and pro bono work can also help you gain mentors, networking contacts, and job references. While law firms and corporations are often focused on the bottom line, public interest venues are less focused on profit. Therefore, they may offer more time to develop mentoring relationships and contacts. And taking on a pro bono project organized by the local bar association can be a great way to meet practicing attorneys in areas of particular interest since they often volunteer to serve as mentors to newer volunteers. ## Recognition and Honors Lawyers have an ethical obligation to provide public service and give back to the community. This duty also extends to some other legal professionals, such as paralegals. Many law firms and legal organizations recognize and honor lawyers and legal professionals who have demonstrated leadership in their community by engaging in public service and pro bono activities. Hiring managers also appreciate a commitment to pro bono and public service work. Therefore, this type of work experience can be a resume-booster. by Roberta Rewers – Senior Communications Coordinator October is National Community Planning Month — and this year’s theme is Healthy Communities, Healthy People. Check out 10 ways to celebrate National Community Planning Month from APA’s communications team. For more information, visit the National Community Planning Month resource center. The achievements of planning are celebrated in October with National Community Planning Month. This year’s theme is Healthy Communities, Healthy People. Highlight the importance of planning and planners this October during National Community Planning Month. This year’s theme is Healthy Communities, Healthy People. The theme underscores the impact that the built environment can have on residents’ health. Call attention to your community’s health this year — plan a hike, a bike ride, or even just a walk through a neighborhood. Also during October, APA announces the annual designees of its Great Places in America program. Check out this year’s and previous designees. ### 10 Ways You Can Celebrate National Community Planning Month Not sure what to do this October to celebrate National Community Planning Month? Check out what other communities have done under the Share Your Activities. And don’t forget to submit your own activities, e-mail them to [email protected] 1. Proclaim October as National Community Planning Month. 2. Honor your Elected and Appointed Officials and Commissioners during a city council meeting. 3. Call attention to planning In Your Community by holding a neighborhood tour, creating an exhibit about the community’s planning history or holding a department open house. 4. Create a reading list of “must-read” planning books. Organize a book discussion group around a planning book. 5. Participate in a career day, and inspire future students to become future planners 6. Take planning off campus and organize a box city event for a local youth organization. 7. Screen a planning-focused film. 8. Get social. Use the #planningmonth hashtag and promote planning through your website, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram or other social media outlet. 9. Sponsor a community photo contest. Ask residents to photograph their favorite places within the community. 10. Invite a planning guest speaker to your community, neighborhood association or organization meeting. Find planners through APA’s Ambassador’s Program. You can help spread the word about the importance of planning. Use the hashtag #planningmonth in your social media posts. ### How Do You Love Planning? Count the ways and share them in October – National Community Planning Month. Make APA’s “I ♥ PLANNING” logo your profile image and use #planningmonth to show your love on social media. Download your Profile Pic Public Service Announcements: APA has created recorded and live-read public service announcements (PSAs) to celebrate the importance of planning this October. Listen to PSAs # How to create an agenda ## Preparation determines whether you will achieve your desired outcomes Ridofranz/ iStock / Getty Images Plus Susan Heathfield is an HR and management consultant with an MS degree. She has decades of experience writing about human resources. A meeting agenda is a list of items that participants hope to accomplish at a meeting. The agenda should be distributed in advance of a meeting, minimally 24 hours in advance so that participants have the opportunity to prepare for the meeting. Preferably, if possible, the agenda should be available several days before the meeting. The more time your colleagues have available to prepare for a meeting, the more likely they will attend prepared to participate effectively. ## Developing a Meeting Agenda The first step in developing an agenda is to identify whether other employees are needed to help you plan the meeting. Then, decide what you hope to accomplish by holding the meeting, and establish doable goals for your meeting. The goals you set will establish the framework for an effective meeting plan. Make certain that you have not planned more than is reasonably achievable within the timeframe of your meeting. As Stephen Covey said in “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People,” “Begin with the end in mind.” Your meeting purpose will determine the meeting focus, the meeting agenda, and the meeting participants. Then, consider how much time you expect to need for each agenda item. If the meeting is to last one hour and you have five agenda items, that gives you a general idea of the timeframe you’re working with. It doesn’t mean every agenda item must be precisely 12 minutes, but the five combined obviously cannot average more time than that. ## Decisions to Make After determining your overall goal, you or your team need to make certain decisions. In addition to the purpose or goal of the meeting, also include with your agenda: • A date, time, and location for the meeting • Participants needed in the meeting • Items for discussion • The amount of time that you anticipate the group will need to discuss each item • Pre-work for the meeting. This will include any reading, documentation, data, meeting minutes from a prior meeting, or any other preparation that will make your actual meeting successful. Relevant documents should be attached to the meeting notice and agenda when you distribute them to invited participants. ## Identifying Participants Once you have decided that a meeting is necessary to accomplish your goal, you need to develop a list of participants. Not every employee can or should participate in every meeting, but inviting the right participants will enhance your likelihood of success. Determine your participants by asking yourself some questions: • Who must own the solution the group develops? • Who owns the process the group is discussing? • Who needs to know the information you are distributing? • Who can provide data and facts to guide decision making? • Who has experience or expertise to share with the group? • Who must support the implementation of any solutions or tasks? • Who must provide permission or resources to accomplish the meeting outcome? • Who might oppose the implementation of any solutions or direction? ## Agendas for Regularly Scheduled Meetings Not every meeting needs a custom developed agenda. Most employees have regularly scheduled meetings for their departments or workgroups. You also have teams and projects in which you participate. An ongoing project may not require a newly developed agenda for every meeting, but your team will be well served by adopting a standard approach to your meeting. The regularly scheduled employee meeting is divided into three segments for which each has standard agenda items: ### Informational items Write out any agenda items that are informational for every meeting. For example, the manager updates the group on the outcomes of the senior management meeting. ### Action items Place on the agenda any items that you expect the group will want to review at every regularly scheduled meeting. For example, performance to budget for the time period and the identification of cost savings and continuous improvements the group plans to achieve. ### Forward planning Place on the agenda any items that the group wants to plan for or prepare for in advance. For example, the short-term goals for the next month or the need for coworker assistance on upcoming assignments. If you follow these guidelines when you develop your meeting agenda, you enhance the probability that your meeting will be more productive. ## What to Include on Your Meeting Agenda An agenda for a regularly scheduled meeting can help produce the results you seek by including some basic items: • Warm-up and greetings. Consider a brief ice breaker depending on how frequently the group meets. Even in an online meeting, participants may be well served by an icebreaker. • Review the meeting’s purpose, agenda, and expected outcomes and product. • Review, correct (if necessary), and approve the minutes of the prior meeting. • Provide appropriate departmental and company information that the team needs. • Review progress on action items, action plans, and commitments. Review group progress on goals. • Discuss and make decisions about the agenda items for this meeting. • Identify next steps. • Identify the purpose, outcome, and agenda for the next meeting. • At the end of the meeting, the note taker should review the commitments made by people during the meeting. • Identify any assistance needed from people not in the group and assign participants to make contact. • Determine who outside of the meeting participants needs to know what and decide how you will accomplish the communication. • Distribute minutes within 24 hours of the meeting or immediately if the note taker took them electronically. ### The Bottom Line You can make your online or in-person meetings more effective and more likely to produce the results you seek when you make a detailed agenda. The agenda is the result of your disciplined thinking about the outcomes you desire to achieve. The meeting agenda is the external manifestation of your plan and goals. You’ve been tasked with having to set up a meeting for work. Part of setting up a meeting is to organize the meeting – details of the meeting, making sure everyone is there, and setting an agenda. Taking the time to organize a meeting agenda will help the meeting become more effective. Here are the steps involved in how to organize a meeting for your direct team, or for client-facing meetings. ## Tips on How to Organize a Meeting ### Send a detailed agenda A business meeting starts with organizing an agenda. An agenda should include all of the basics, including the meeting area (or a link to a virtual conference), the time of the meeting, the expected duration of the meeting, and details about the meeting. You’ll also need to schedule the meeting to make sure your attendees can make it. ### Include the purpose of the meeting on the agenda The meeting agenda should also clearly state the purpose of the meeting. When the purpose is clearly and concisely written in the agenda, the meeting attendees have a better understanding of what to expect and how to prepare. Great communication in meetings starts with an agenda that has a purpose clearly stated, so be sure to add one so everyone attending the meeting knows why the meeting has been called. ### Agenda Includes what is needed from meeting attendees In addition to the purpose, consider including what is expected of specific attendees for the meeting. For instance, if there are tasks that members of the team have been working on and are required to provide a status update, that should be mentioned on the agenda. Again, this helps increase the level of communication going into the meeting, making it very clear what should be reviewed and everyone’s role in the meeting. In the off-chance someone doesn’t read the agenda, it doesn’t hurt to remind meeting attendees individually of what is needed from them for the meeting. ### Decide who needs to be at the meeting Part of organizing a meeting is deciding who on the team needs to attend. The most important thing is to be sure you’re not leaving anyone important out of the meeting invite. Next, consider just how many people should be at the meeting – smaller meetings tend to go quicker, so if you limit the number of attendees to only those that need to be there, the meeting may go better. ### Be the facilitator during the meeting Being organized doesn’t always apply to prepare for meetings. During the meeting, the meeting facilitator helps others get involved, while making sure the meeting to stay on track. Often, the person who organizes the meeting facilitates the meeting, but whoever it is, it’s important to decide prior to the meeting. ## Yoyomeeting organizes a meeting agenda for you yoyomeeting is a meeting management software that helps organize a meeting. Here are some features on how yoyomeeting can organize your team and business meetings. ### Send a Detailed Agenda With yoyomeeting, not only can you easily organize a meeting agenda, you can set a detailed agenda by adding a title, description, and agenda items to discuss during the meeting. ### Include Agenda Items Before Your Meeting With yoyomeeting, you can send an agenda with agenda items included. Not only are agenda items used for briefing your team before a meeting, you can also use the agenda items during the meeting – that way you and your team can stay on track and accomplish what you need to during the meeting. ### Invite Your Team Members to The Meeting With yoyomeeting, you can easily invite team members and others to the meeting you create. In addition to invites, you can record the members who attended the meeting, and who didn’t make it. ### Take Great Meeting Notes With meeting notes in mind, yoyomeeting makes it easy to take notes on the fly during a meeting. Our meeting software makes recapping meeting results so easy, it’s almost automated! ### Monitor your time boxes for better focus During meetings, yoyomeeting helps you stay on track with each agenda item created with our timeboxing planner feature. Each agenda has a timebox assigned to it. ### Recaps for those who miss the meeting Let’s face it – not everyone can make every meeting. Part of organizing a meeting is making sure the right people get the right information that comes out of the meeting. Yoyomeeting allows you to add the recipients who did not attend the meeting but need the results of the meeting. ## It’s Time to Start Organizing Your Meetings Better Organize your meetings with yoyomeeting, a meeting management software for Office 365. Our plug-in helps you stay organized through the meeting process – from meeting planning, meeting recording, and meeting recaps. Get your 2-week trial of yoyomeeting today. Copy to Clipboard When leading a business meeting, you might be responsible for managing a large number of people and tasks. An effective meeting agenda can help you make sure you discuss all the necessary material, keep the meeting on topic and ensure that your group uses time efficiently. In this article, we’ll cover how to create a meeting agenda that will help you effectively lead any meeting. ## What is a meeting agenda? A meeting agenda is a list of topics or activities you want to cover during your meeting. The main purpose of the agenda is to give participants a clear outline of what should happen in the meeting, who will lead each task and how long each step should take. Having this information before and during the meeting should ensure that it proceeds efficiently and productively. ## How to write a meeting agenda Whether you have a short, one-hour meeting or one that lasts a full day, you can use these steps to help you write an agenda: Identify the meeting’s goals. Ask participants for input. List the questions you want to address. Identify the purpose of each task. Estimate the amount of time to spend on each topic. Identify who leads each topic. End each meeting with a review. ### 1. Identify the meeting’s goal When you start with your goal, you can make sure the purpose of the meeting is clear and every task you want to cover is related to your objective. Make sure to set an achievable goal to keep your meeting as focused as possible. For example, a meeting goal to approve the company’s monthly advertising budget is more attainable than a goal to improve spending overall. ### 2. Ask participants for input If you want to keep your participants engaged during the meeting, ask for their input beforehand so you can be sure the meeting fulfills their needs. You can ask them to suggest what topics they would like covered or what questions they have. Once you have a list of ideas from the participants, you can review them and decide which items you’ll ultimately include. ### 3. List the questions you want to address Once you know your meeting’s objective and have some ideas about the topics you want to cover, list the questions you need to answer during the meeting. Some meeting agendas simply list a topic as a phrase, for example: “ rental equipment. ” However, you can clarify each agenda item’s purpose by phrasing discussion points as questions. For example, you could write, “ Under what conditions should we consider renting equipment instead of buying it? ” These prompts can ensure you are inviting discussion and gathering all of the information you need for each agenda topic. ### 4. Identify the purpose of each task Every task you complete during your meeting should have a purpose. Typically, the three main purposes are to share information, seek input or make a decision. As you’re going through your agenda, make note of the purpose of each task. This step will help meeting participants know when you want their input and when it’s time to make a decision. ### 5. Estimate the amount of time to spend on each topic Next, estimate how much time you plan to spend on each task. This part of the agenda ensures you have enough time to cover all of the topics you have planned for your meeting. It also helps participants adjust their comments and questions to fit within the timeframe. You can optimize your timeframe by giving more time to items you anticipate taking longer to discuss or scheduling items of higher importance earlier in the discussion to ensure vital topics are covered. If you have many people coming to your meeting, you may even limit time on certain topics to streamline the conversation, encourage a quick decision if needed and keep the meeting on schedule. ### 6. Identify who leads each topic Occasionally, someone other than the meeting leader will lead the discussion on the topic. If you plan on having other people mediate topics during your meeting, you can identify them under their respective topic. This step helps keep the meeting running smoothly and ensures that everyone is prepared for their responsibilities. ### 7. End each meeting with a review Leaving time to end each meeting with a review can help participants better understand what decisions they made and what information they discussed so they can take any necessary steps after the meeting. During this review, you and your meeting participants should also consider what went well during the meeting and what needs improvement. By taking a few minutes to consider these questions, you can make sure your next meeting is even more effective. ## Meeting agenda template Here’s an outline that you can tailor to nearly any type of meeting: 1. Agenda item one description a. Remarks b. Remarks c. Remarks 2. Agenda item two description a. Remarks b. Remarks c. Remarks 3. Agenda item three description a. Remarks i. Additional remarks ii. Additional remarks b. Remarks c. Remarks 4. Agenda item four description a. Remarks b. Remarks c. Remarks 5. Agenda item five description a. Remarks i. Additional remarks ii. Additional remarks iii. Additional remarks b. Remarks c. Remarks 6. End of meeting review a. What did we do well in this meeting? b. What should we do differently next meeting? ## Meeting agenda example You can use the following sample meeting schedule when crafting your own agenda: Date: Aug. 1, 2019 Time: 1 p.m. Location: Conference Room A *Goals: Review the marketing campaigns from last year, identify seasonal slumps in product demand, brainstorm ways to increase demand during these slumps and make sure we’re prepared for the next marketing campaign.* 1. Review marketing campaigns from last year. Time: 15 minutes Purpose: Share information Leader: Jamal Adams a. Present the marketing campaigns from last year. b. Review the sales numbers after each campaign. c. Identify which campaigns seemed to have the biggest impact. 2. How do we best manage the fluctuating demand for our product? Time: 30 minutes Purpose: Decision Leader: Blair Hanline a. Review sales numbers from the last four quarters. b. Identify any trends in sales numbers. c. Brainstorm ideas on how to increase sales during those slumps. 3. Preparing for the next marketing campaign Time: 15 minutes Purpose: Decision Leader: Blair Hanline a. What do we need to prepare for the next marketing campaign? i. Review the attached marketing campaign materials. ii. Identify tasks for each team member. b. How will we track the effectiveness of this campaign? c. Review sales goals for this campaign. 4. End of meeting review Time: 5 minutes Purpose: Decision Leader: Jamal Adams a. What did we do well in this meeting? b. What should we do differently next meeting? ## Learn how to write a professional agenda for a meeting An agenda is simply a written plan of topics to be discussed during a meeting, and every meeting should follow an agenda. A proper agenda will make the meeting more efficient, helping the group achieve better results. Here are some tips on how to write a meeting agenda: ## 4 steps on how to write an agenda for a meeting: 1. Select a meeting agenda template 2. Brainstorm the agenda topics using a mind map 3. Gather information for writing an agenda 4. Write the agenda ## 1 Select a Template to Write the Agenda Using a meeting template is a great place to start when learning how to write an agenda for a meeting. With millions of meetings held every day, there are a lot of resources available however the variety of meetings can make it tricky to find a perfect template. Fortunately, some meetings are fairly standardized and here are a few examples you can use for inspiration: • Board meeting agenda template • Staff meeting agenda template • Sales meeting agenda template • Business meeting agenda template ## 2 Brainstorm the Agenda Using a Mind Map Traditionally, agendas are created in MS Word, making it difficult to get an overview of the topics you would like to include in your agenda. Linear programs are not well-suited for brainstorming which is why many people like using mind mapping software to brainstorm agenda topics. Mind mapping allows you to get an organic visual overview of topics that can later be exported to Word as the agenda. When learning how to write an agenda for a meeting, mind mapping may be a useful tool. ## 3 Gather Information for Writing an Agenda It is important to get input from participants about what they think should be in the meeting agenda, especially if you are writing an agenda for a manager or supervisor. Send out emails or include participants in the agenda topic brainstorming session. There are also meeting management software tools like MeetingBooster, which assist you in writing the agenda in an environment where participants can submit suggestions electronically. Meetings can belong to a series of meetings which may span over weeks or months, so it is always suggested to review prior meeting minutes to include parked topics or unresolved issues. You will find that often times there are repetitive topics in meetings that belong to a series. ## 4 Write the Agenda After gathering the information and creating an outline of topics, you can finally start writing an agenda for the meeting. Lots of professionals use a standard Word processor or meeting management software like MeetingBooster to write an agenda. MeetingBooster’s agenda writing module allows you to quickly enter topics, topic durations and include file attachments. Remember to allocate adequate times for important topics. Learn how to write an agenda with MeetingBooster A blog about using OneNote® to get organized and increase your productivity at home and work, so that you can work smarter and play harder. ## Saturday, August 31, 2013 ### How to create an agenda quickly In my last post, I shared an agenda layout that has proven effective for nearly any working meeting. In this post, I’ll show you how to create that agenda quickly from MS-Outlook. OneNote and MS-Outlook are well integrated. In order to launch OneNote and create a page from an MS-Outlook event, select (single click) an MS-Outlook event on your calendar; then, select the OneNote icon. Figure 1, below, is a screen clip of an outlook calendar on August 25, 2013. I used a red pen to circle the OneNote icon and a meeting event titled “My Sample Meeting”.  Figure 1 After you click the OneNote icon, the system will ask you where you want to store the page. As a review, I will remind you that Pages are stored in Sections, so basically, the system is asking in which section do you want to store the page. If you don’t already have your notebook organized, just put it in any section for now. You can easily move the page to another section later by dragging and dropping into another section. Once you’ve done this, the system will respond with something like the following.  Figure 2 You may notice that the Attendee names are in a string, delimited by semi-colons. You can manually convert this string into a single column list by manually deleting the semi-colons and hitting the to put the next name on the next line. Afterwards, select the entire list of names and press +1. This will add a “Participant” tag to each attendee on the list. You also need to replace the “Message” row of the header with two new rows: the “Purpose” row, and the “Desired Outcomes” row. To do this, simply edit the “Message” label to say “Purpose”. Tab to the next field and type the purpose of the meeting. Tab again to add another row; there, type the “”Desired Outcome(s)” label. Tab again to type the desired outcome(s) of the meeting. You may have noticed that the font of the “Desired Outcome(s)” label looks a bit different from the others. I fix this with the format painter icon. (i.e., Select the “Subject” header and click the Format Painter icon from the top left of the menu bar; then select the “Desired Outcomes” label. Doing so, will cause the “Desired Outcome(s)” label to match the “Subject” label.) Now that you have the header of the agenda created, you can create the body. Once you create your first Agenda table, you can easily copy to another future agenda page and edit it for the new meeting. I always leverage previous work where I can. In order to create your first agenda table, just type the word “Agenda”, and change the font to something like 16 pt. Bold Calibri as I did in figure 2, below. You’ll need to hit enter to go to the next line where you will insert the table. To insert the table, simply select the “Insert” menu item near the top of the window. From there, use the table feature to insert a table that is four columns wide and six columns tall. In the first row, type the headers to match the headers in my Agenda table (“Start”, “Agenda Item”, “Owner”, and “Duration”). I bold my header, and I recommend you do the same. Now fill out the table to match mine.  Figure 3 Now that the Agenda table is complete, let’s finish with the Note section. First, let’s create a heading for the Notes section. In my example above, I just bolded the default text, but you may want to make the style match the “Agenda” heading (16 pt. bold Clibri). In the body of the Notes section, we basically want to duplicate the items in the “Agenda Items” column of the Agenda table. A simple copy paste will not work; the table formating is pasted too, and that’s not what you want in the Notes section. In order to copy and paste only the text, I’ll use MS-Notepad to strip the table formatting. I’ll explain how. 1. Hover near the top border of the table, above the “Agenda Items” column until you see the down arrow. 2. With the down arrow showing, press your right mouse button and select copy, to copy the contents of the column to your clipboard. 3. Open MS-Notepad and paste the contents into the MS-notepad window. 4. Delete the text that says “Agenda Items” since that’s not actually an agenda topic. 5. Copy the rest and then paste it under the Notes section on your OneNote page. I like to put an extra line or two between each item in the Notes section so that I’m even more ready to type content when the meeting starts. In fact, I even add a tab to the line below the agenda item so that when I start typing, the content is already indented. Remember to leverage work where you can. If you have standing meetings, there is typically much content that can be re-used. Consider copying parts of the page from previous meetings to the page of your current meeting, and edit only the parts that require change. OneNote is great about allowing you to copy tables or parts of tables from one page to another. In future posts, I’ll share some productivity tools/tips to help you quickly convert the Attendee names to a single column of names, and to calculate the start time column automatically. In future posts, I will also share practices for note taking, so stick around. Agendas vary greatly depending on the length of the meeting, the size of the group, and the degree of formality. Here are some general guidelines to consider when preparing an agenda for a typical faculty committee or department meeting. 1. Keep the agenda as short and simple as possible, preferably no more than a single page. 2. Put the date, time, and location of the meeting at the top of the agenda. 3. State the goals of meeting in two or three brief sentences at the top of the page. 4. Sequence events in a logical flow from information sharing to discussion to decision-making. 5. Sequence events to provide a feeling of accomplishment and momentum as early as possible. 6. Anticipate the group’s energy level and tackle difficult tasks when energy is high and positive. 7. Assign a time to each major item and indicate on the agenda who is responsible. 8. When possible, distribute the agenda in advance. 9. At the beginning of the meeting, check with the group to see whether other agenda items need to be added. For larger more formal groups that meet relatively infrequently (e.g., monthly or quarterly), consider the following additional steps: 1. Have an agenda committee comprising a representative sample of the group decide which issues need to be raised at the meeting. 2. Send a draft agenda to all attendees and invite them to suggest additional items. To make the right decision, the board of directors needs to have information on the issues on the agenda. This article is a guide on how to create a productive agenda for a board meeting. ## What is an agenda? The board meeting implies a discussion on the exchange of ideas, opinions, between the management. The priority goal of the meeting is to increase the efficiency of the work process for the entire company as a whole, and an individual employee in particular. The stages of the meeting will include all the main nuances of the meeting, such as the correct choice of the topic, the formation of the schedule, coverage of the problem field, the correct informing of colleagues, etc. To make the board meeting more productive and well-organized, an agenda should be formed. An agenda helps you steer your meeting in the right direction so that everyone understands each topic on the list and knows when to bring their thoughts or ideas to the table. The most important thing is that you know what type of meeting it is, who needs to attend, and what topics of discussion may arise during the time together. The agenda items are listed based on their priority so that it is clear in which order they should be processed. In addition, the duration of the topic and who is responsible should also be included. If additional information is required, appropriate references or attachments should be included in the agenda. ## Tips on how to create a good agenda Nobody likes drawn-out aimless meetings. If you need to write an agenda, then try not to allow such a development of events. The plan of the board meeting should be clear and specific. The questions must be formulated in such a way that it is possible to give an unambiguous answer to the “For”, “Against” or “Abstained”. So, there are basic tips on how to make an effective board meeting agenda: • Create a clear plan. In the best-case scenario, the goal of the meeting is visible and understandable for everyone involved in the title. Otherwise, you can list it separately in the header of the agenda. The remaining content depends on the type of your meeting and the results that are to be achieved. For example, a popular strategy is to create an agenda with all the relevant topics. Each topic has its top and can be broken down into sub-items if necessary. • Set the time and place. When preparing for a meeting, there is almost nothing more important than the date and, most importantly, the location. First, decide on an appointment and make sure that all important participants are available on that day and not on vacation or have other commitments. Once the date has been set, you should find a suitable room as soon as possible before inviting to the meeting. • Less is more. When planning, one is often tempted to fit as many program items as possible into one appointment. However, an efficient meeting is only possible if you don’t get lost in the details but can concentrate on the most important points. You should therefore try not to include more than 5 items on the agenda in a meeting. • Use meeting agenda programs. As you prepare for your meeting, it may be worth taking a look at specific programs that can help you create an agenda. Mind mapping tools such as XMind are helpful, for example, with which you can organize your ideas for the event and work out important points. ## What is an Agenda Slide? An agenda slide is like a table of contents that contains a list of topics that will be discussed in a presentation or meeting. The topics are usually linked to the corresponding sections through hyperlinks so the users can quickly jump to the slide they want by simply clicking on the topic. There are different types of agenda slides. The topics can be listed vertically or horizontally, and different levels of detail and types of information can be included. For example, some agenda slides only list the title and subtitle of each topic, while others also provide an overview or takeaways. Agenda slides for forums may also include the start and end time as well as the speaker of each session. ### Summary • An agenda slide is the table of contents for a presentation, containing a list of topics that will be discussed. • It usually contains the section and subsection titles and sometimes the start and end time and the speaker of each section. • An agenda slide gives the audience a primer of how the presentation or meeting is planned and what topics will be discussed; it also helps the speaker to structure the presentation. ### Why Do You Need an Agenda Slide? An agenda slide is not always required, but it is a useful primer that gives the audience basic knowledge about how the presentation is structured and what topics will be discussed. Especially when the presentation is long and covers a wide scope, an agenda slide gives the audience an idea about the interesting topics that will come up and prevents the audience from getting lost in the middle of the presentation. From a speaker’s perspective, preparing the agenda slide is a good practice to structure the presentation. The speaker will need to consider the information they want to convey in each slide and whether it supports the topic and the main thesis. Through this practice, the speaker will be able to get rid of unnecessary or less informative content and communicate information with the audience more efficiently. ### Steps to Create an Agenda Slide The agenda slide of a presentation can be created before the rest of the content is ready, serving as an outline that the speaker can follow to structure the presentation. It can also be done in the final step as a summary of the topics and takeaways. A well-designed agenda slide will provide the proper amount of information. If the slide contains too many details and subsections, it may dampen the audience’s interest. Microsoft PowerPoint provides agenda slide templates where you can easily type in the content. You can also create your own slide with a few simple steps. #### 1. Insert text boxes and type in the title and content Instead of a plain text box, you can insert a “SmartArt” graphic under the “Insert” tab. It provides a set of well-formatted text boxes and shapes that can show the process flow, relationships, hierarchy, and so on of a group of items. It is suggested to use the “List” type for agenda slides. #### 2. Add visual designs The agenda slide is typically the first slide that the audience sees after the cover page, so it is important to make the slide eye-catching. It can be done by inserting a background picture and using icons and shapes in the topic list panel. #### 3. Add hyperlinks Hyperlinks allow the user to navigate to the relevant slide by simply clicking on the topic while in presentation mode. To insert a hyperlink, you right-click the selected text and choose “Hyperlink.” A dialog box will then appear, and you can go to the “This Document” tab and choose the page that you would like to link to. ### More Resources In order to help you become a world-class financial analyst and advance your career to your fullest potential, these additional resources will be very helpful: • PowerPoint Shortcut Keys PowerPoint Shortcut Keys PowerPoint shortcut keys help users to use the functions of PowerPoint with more efficiency. Much like Excel shortcut keys, they allow users to keep hands on the keyboard and do tasks faster. • Public Speaking Public Speaking Public speaking, also called oratory or oration, is the process of communicating information to a live audience. The type of information communicated is deliberately structured to inform, persuade, and entertain. Great public speaking consists of three components: Style: Masterfully constructed by using words to create • Focus Group Focus Group A focus group consists of a group of individuals who are asked questions about their opinions and attitudes towards certain products, services, or concepts. • Excel Shortcut Keys Excel Shortcut Keys Excel shortcut keys come in handy to maneuver through Excel much faster and more efficiently. In fact, using shortcut keys is much quicker than using a mouse. Two common examples of these shortcuts are ones that allow. ## How do you present an agenda in PowerPoint? Start PowerPoint and open the presentation to which you want to add an agenda. Select the “View” tab. Click “Slide Sorter” in the Presentation Views group. Click the “New Slide” button in the Slides group of the Home tab and choose “Title and Content.” Drag the new, blank slide to the beginning of the presentation. ## How do you start a presentation agenda? Stating your purpose/objective The purpose/objective/aim of this presentation is to… Today I’d like to give you an overview of… I’d like to update you on/inform you about/put you in the picture about/give you the background to/present the results of my research… During the next 20 minutes we’ll be… ## How do you make a good agenda slide? TO CREATE AN AGENDA SLIDE: 1. Create a new slide with the Bulleted List layout. 2. Enter a title (such as Agenda) and type bullet items to describe each of the sections–each of the custom shows–in your presentation (Figure 5). 3. Select all the text in a bulleted item. 4. Choose Slide Show > Action Settings. ## How do you present an agenda for a meeting? How to write a meeting agenda 1. Identify the meeting’s goals. 2. Ask participants for input. 3. List the questions you want to address. 4. Identify the purpose of each task. 5. Estimate the amount of time to spend on each topic. 6. Identify who leads each topic. 7. End each meeting with a review. ## How do you write an agenda for a meeting? How to write a meeting agenda 1. Identify the meeting’s goal. 2. Seek input from the participants. 3. Prepare the list of questions that you want to address. 4. Determine the goal of each task. 5. Calculate how much time you will spend on each task. 6. Attach documents. 7. Identify who leads each topic. 8. End each meeting with a review. ## How do you write a meeting agenda? ## Should you have an agenda slide? Not all presentations require an agenda slide. If you’re presenting a story, you don’t need an agenda slide. Business and other formal presentations should have this slide. If you’re conducting a Q&A session in the end, mentioning it in your agenda slide can help your audience. ## How do you introduce an agenda for a meeting? The Right Way to Start a Meeting 1. Make the purpose of the meeting clear. 2. Be specific about the purpose of each agenda item. 3. Ask people to filter their contributions. 4. Reiterate any important ground rules. 5. Head off passive-aggressive behavior. 6. Decide whether to roundtable. ## What is agenda in a meeting? A meeting agenda is a list of activities that participants are hoping to accomplish during their meeting. It sets clear expectations for what needs to occur before and during a meeting. It keeps the participants focused on the topic at hand. It sets the pace of the meeting. Last Updated On March 20, 2020 By Letter Writing A document that contains information that is necessary for the planning and the execution of a study of research is known as research agenda. This is a document that can help researchers identify their tasks that need to be prioritized according to the phase of the research they are presently at. Besides, it also allows them to follow their particular research pattern. Moreover, it will be helpful for them to achieve the accurate results that they have been looking for. The research agenda becomes the guiding force for researchers eventually to achieve their objectives. Research agendas are similar to agendas of other types which are written for meetings by companies and organizations as well as individuals or groups of people. As it is considered as the guiding force for the research to progress, it is evident that the document must be created before the planned research begins. Having the agenda at least a week before commencing the research will give the researchers a timeline to begin preparing for the job and complete the study needed according to schedule. The word research has acquired a different meaning in present-day times when the term is being used by just about everyone. Unlike in the past when the word was exclusively used by researchers in the field of science drastic changes are currently being seen when given a school going child speaks about researching the Internet for any information he or she needs. Similarly, some organizations are also using the term according to their individual needs, but the common principle among the agendas remains the same, and that is to provide the researcher information about the things they need to accomplish along with their team. It usually provides information about the initial steps which need to be followed to ensure that the study being conducted can provide efficient results or specify any underlying problems which may be present. The research agenda is always written for individuals who will be the core members of the research team. The agenda can also be passed over to other members of the team, but the primary recipient of the document is always the team leader because he or she is held responsible for conducting and providing the results of the research appropriately. Table of Contents ## Points to consider while drafting Research Agendas • The kind of study that the researcher is required to undertake must be provided on the agenda. • The information becomes useful for the researcher accurately to prioritize the main items of the research. • The research agenda must consider any variables that are needed during the research. Identifying the processes of the research, the methodologies for collecting the data, the community where the research will be applied along with the information analysis which will be used may also be mentioned. • The details within the document must be organized to ensure that an effective research agenda is provided to the individual who is responsible for the same. Individuals creating the agenda can include any tips specifically related to the institution they are representing or information that they may have collected from experience. That cannot be any set rules for creating the research agenda, and some degree of flexibility needs to be incorporated as per individual needs. ## Example of Research Agenda 1 Basic Education Research Agenda Department Of Education [Date:] Department Order Number 61 Of 2018. Adoption of The Basic Education Research Agenda [To Names And Departments Of the Addressees] 1. The Department of Education selects the elementary education analysis schedule which is included and provides direction to the department and its stakeholders in the conduct of education research and the utilization of the results of the research to inform the departments planning, program and policy development aligned with its core values, mission, and vision. 2. The research agenda will be building on gains from research that exists, generate fresh knowledge on prioritized research areas and focus the attention of the department on relevant issues related to education to maximize resources that are available for ongoing research from within and beyond the department. 3. All orders of the department other than related issues, rules and regulations or provisions that are inconsistent with this policy are at this moment repealed, modified or rescinded with immediate effect. 4. Strict compliance of disorder and immediate decimation is directed. [Signature of the authorized signatory] [name of the authorized signatory]. ## Example of Research Agenda 2 Hero Research Meeting Agenda 7 AM — networking breakfast arranged the organization. 8 AM — welcome and opening remarks by the CEO and president of the organization. 8:15 AM — research agenda and updates by the vice president of the organization. 8:45 AM — the value of a well-being approach presented by the research director. 9:45 AM — networking break. 10 AM — small group discussion before reporting back. 10:45 AM — update on recent industry research. 11:30 AM — culture health study committee update. 12 PM — networking lunch 1 PM — reconvene meeting with vice president of research of the organization. 1:15 PM — healthy workplaces and healthy communities. 1:45 PM — networking break. 2 PM — experimental engagement: driving value and outcomes in the shifting employee landscape. 3 PM — small group discussion and reporting back. 3:45 PM — vote on the priorities of the organization. 4 PM — meeting agenda meant by the president of the organization. ## Conclusion The individual creating the research agenda must consider the individual requirements of the research which is being planned and create an agenda that is suitable for the same. He or she will need to hold consultations with the management who will undoubtedly be providing the instructions for the research to be conducted. The research agenda can only be prepared after the responsible individual receives all the information about the data the institution is trying to recover by conducting the research. • Latest Articles • *FREE* Newsletter • Comprehensive Bundle 2.0 • Medical Presentations Bundle • All Templates Packs • Go to Shop/ Login • PowerPoint Mastery Program • Complete PPT Foundation • ALL Training Courses • Animation • Data Driven Charts • Graphics & Charts • SmartArt • Consulting Models • Tips & Tricks • Effects & More • 3D Effects • Picture Effects • Special Effects ## A to Z PowerPoint Tips, Tricks & Hacks ## 20-Minute Beginners Guide to PowerPoint ## 10 MS Word Tips & Tricks You Didn’t Know ## 15 PowerPoint Tips for Teachers ## PowerPoint Tutorials for Explainer Video Animation Effects ## 2 Dramatic Ways to Create PowerPoint Numbered Lists Is your audience getting lost during your big presentation? The issue might be in the clarity of your presentation agenda. Learn 5 creative ways to provide a clear and memorable agenda to your presentation. ## Why should you have an agenda slide? This slide answers the first question that pops up in the minds of your audience, which is – “What is this presentation about?” When you have a clear agenda, you not only tell them what your presentation is about, but also tell them how you will cover the topics. Your audience needs this assurance right up front to stay with you for the rest of your presentation. An agenda helps your audience to orient their thoughts at the opening. It makes your message memorable. When you don’t have an agenda slide, you leave your audience clueless. ## The most important attribute of a clear agenda slide: As humans, we always want to know our location and position. It is wired to our survival instinct. That is why big malls have maps, lifts have floor indicators and large parks have guides. A good agenda slide serves as a guide post for your presentation. After you finish every point in the agenda, repeat the agenda slide to show your audience what is covered and what is left to be covered. Use your agenda slide to help your audience from getting lost in your sea of thoughts. Its also a great place to summarize the presentation. quickly. Your agenda slide need not be dull and boring. Remember, the main objective of an agenda slide is to give your audience a big picture view. So, go ahead and be creative in using metaphors and analogies to orient them to your presentation. Here are some creative examples of presentation agenda. ## Using a map to segment your presentation: We’ve seen some boring sales report presentations brought to life by creative contextualization of data. The example you see above, explains the global sales performance by continents. The slide gives a clear picture of the order in which the data will be presented and the logic behind the order. ## Using a representative image to set the mood for the presentation: In this example, the gears not only give an overview of the three stage process, but also give the relative importance of each stage. ## Using the actual picture of a product or process to orient the audience: In this example, the presenter used the actual picture of the 4 bit counter to show how the content is chunked. This picture can serve as a memory hook for the rest of the presentation, as the presenter covers one segment after another. ## Using a metaphor to set the context: The presenter used the metaphor of an hour clock to take the audience through a timeline. The intelligent use of the image makes the audience understand how the various parts of the presentation are related. ## Using symbols to reinforce the presentation agenda: In this example, a traffic signal is used to highlight the importance of various tasks. Everyone knows the significance of the different colored lights in the signal. That common knowledge is transferred to the agenda slide to talk about the tasks that need to be stopped, continued and increased. The above examples can set you thinking on how you can bring your agenda slides to life. ## Caution in using an agenda: To have an agenda and not to follow it in your presentation is seen as lack of professionalism. We’ve seen so many presenters make this mistake and leave the audience disappointed. Remember, an agenda is a promise you make. By covering all the points in your presentation agenda, you fulfill that promise. It makes you look credible. You leave a strong cue in your audience’s mind that you have the discipline and commitment to follow through your promises. One of my pet peeves is attending a “mystery meeting”. You know the type, vague subject line and no agenda. Maybe you get a brief sentence in the invite saying “let’s meet to discuss XYZ”. No agenda, no goal. Your meeting has no requirements! An effective agenda takes a few minutes to pull together yet is a meeting management tool that can save you endless minutes, hours even, and sets you up for success to facilitate an effective meeting. ## Meeting Agenda Tip #1: Identify the Goal of the Meeting If you do only one thing when planning a meeting, be very clear about the goal. “Discuss XYZ” is not a goal, it’s an activity. Most meetings seem to have implicit goals for the attendees to decide something. If so, state what decision is needed and, if possible, describe the next action someone can begin once that decision is made. The next action really gives your goal credibility because you have a valid litmus test for whether or not the decision was made at the end of the meeting. But not all meetings are called for decision-making. Sometimes the goal is to simply review a requirements document for feedback, generate ideas about a feature, or determine the effort associated with a specific requirement or project. Think clearly about your expected outcome for the meeting and write it out in your agenda. ## Meeting Agenda Tip #2: Identify Meeting Topics Once you’ve determined your outcome, list out the topics (a.k.a. agenda items) that will help you achieve that outcome, preferably as a bullet list. For example, if your goal is to make decisions about how to assign resources among projects, you might first ask the business stakeholders what their current priorities are, review who is assigned to what, then negotiate adjustments. This list provides a clear progression toward the desired end state. If you are generating ideas about a feature, you might facilitate a quick ice breaker, followed by a structured brainstorming activity, and closed with a review of the ideas generated. No matter what your goal, there are usually a few activities you can list to support it. When running the meeting, it will be important not to let these activities become goals in and of themselves. If you are engaged in an “agenda item” and it’s not helping you achieve your goal then it might be worth discarding on-the-fly. Likewise it can often make sense to slot in a new agenda item when it becomes clear it’s needed to achieve your goal. Honoring serendipity is prudent. ## Meeting Agenda Tip #3: Prepare Deliverables Whenever possible, prepare a requirements deliverable in advance and send it out with your meeting agenda, or at least prior to the meeting. Here are some examples of deliverables you could create: • Scope Statement – to help clarify the business needs driving a project and the project scope. • Business Process Model – to articulate an as-is or to-be business process • Use Case – along with a corresponding wireframe, a use case documents software functionality and will help you get business and technical users on the same page about the requirements. • Data Models – to clarify business terminology, database requirements, and data flow between systems. • Business Analysis Plan – to identify your business analysis process approach, what stakeholders you need involved when, and gain buy-in on their involvement. ## >>Get My Meeting Agenda Template The BA Template Toolkit includes a meeting agenda template, along with templates for capturing meeting notes and 10 other common BA specifications such as a scope statement, business process model, use case, business analysis plan, and a few data models – so you don’t have to start from scratch. By Wayne Turmel Updated on: March 1, 2011 / 2:10 PM / MoneyWatch You know all the complaints about meetings, particularly online. All together now. too long, off topic, boring, no leadership. the list is endless. Here’s the thing: it’s largely avoidable, and we know it. The one factor in almost all successful meetings is a good agenda. Here are some guidelines for creating an agenda that not only works–there’s a pretty good chance you’ll actually use it. A good agenda is not brain surgery, so why don’t we do use them more often? Usually it’s because it takes time to create and send them and we’re always in a rush. By creating a template, either online or in your email platform, you can pause, breathe, fill in the blanks, and give you and your team a fighting chance at success (or at least lessening the pain and misery). What goes into a good agenda? It should answer the questions your attendees need to know in order to make the best use of your time together: Meeting logistics: The agenda should be the one place people know to reference for all the answers to their questions. Don’t assume because you use the same information all the time that they’ll automatically know it. • What time it’s going to start (and finish). If your system allows you to easily enter this into people’s calendars, take advantage of that and reduce the possible excuses for arriving late and leaving early. • How will you meet? If it’s a web meeting, include ALL relevant information with live links (url for the meeting, audio information). Again, eliminate any possible questions by providing the information up front. (Remember, in a template you can just leave the information that doesn’t change and update the stuff that does instead of reinventing the wheel every time). • Online meetings should contain a notice to log on a few minutes early, and how to test their system for compatibility. Most web platforms build this in to their invitations automatically. Insist people actually do it. Purpose of the meeting with desired outcomes: People cannot be prepared to participate fully if they don’t know what’s going to be covered. They’ll also be less paranoid, which can only be a good thing. If they are expected to make a decision they should know that so they’re in the right frame of mind. If it’s a brainstorming session, they need to know they’ll be called on for input. Tell them what’s on the table–and what’s not on the agenda so don’t bother bringing it up– if you want them to comply. Attendees and their roles: Who is going to be on the meeting? What will they be doing? Give people fair notice and then hold them accountable. Include email addresses, if it’s appropriate, so that people can provide input or answer questions in advance of the session. This will save time spent on minor issues. What they need to read/prepare/do in advance and how to find and share that information: This is an area where meeting leaders are guilty of laziness and it bites them in terms of getting meetings started well and wasting too much time. Don’t wait til the meeting starts to email that spreadsheet- and don’t baby people who email you ten minutes before the meeting starts asking for it (because they either deleted it or saved it somewhere and can’t remember where). Have live links to all documents on the shared file site or intranet and insist people get those documents for themselves. Check to make sure they have them before the meeting starts so you don’t kill momentum by waiting til people look for them. If this all seems too simple, ask yourself what the most common meeting problems are. People arriving late, not knowing (or caring) what the meeting is designed to achieve, not being prepared to get down to business, having the wrong people in the meeting to achieve your outcomes, and not being held accountable for meeting success. Eliminating the variables is important. So’s holding people accountable. The best way to do that is to slow down, use a tool like this, and make it part of every meeting so that it’s a seamless part of your leadership process. Read more: First published on March 2, 2011 / 6:45 AM © 2011 CBS Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved. by UW alumni Justin Reedy, Ph.D., Communication, and Madhavi Murty, Ph.D., Communication, in conversation with UW graduate students Creating a research agenda should be a major goal for all graduate students—regardless of theoretical interests, methodological preferences, or career aspirations. A research agenda helps you orient yourself toward both short- and long-term goals; it will guide your selection of classes, help you decide which academic conferences (and within those, which specific divisions) to engage in, and steer you in recruiting mentors and research collaborators. What is a research agenda? It’s a plan and a focus on issues and ideas in a subset of your field. You cannot study everything in your field during your time in graduate school, so decide what to focus on now, and what to defer until another day. Research agendas are not set in concrete; they naturally change over time as your knowledge grows and as new research questions emerge. Don’t be intimidated. Many students may start a graduate program with only a few ideas of areas they would like to study, or perhaps a few general research questions. Graduate courses, conversations with faculty and fellow students, and time spent reading the literature in the field can help you start to form a research agenda out of those ideas or research questions. ### How to get started • Talk with faculty members about your general interests. Use faculty as a resource to find out which topics are over-studied and where additional work is needed. • If there are students with similar or overlapping interests, get their perspectives as well. • Read a great deal, even in the early weeks of your graduate work. Be open to reading research outside your immediate areas of interests and seeing how they link to your own areas. • Ask faculty for reading lists or copies of syllabi. Such resources help you familiarize yourself with the research already done in areas that interest you. Be sure to follow up on citations that are interesting or intriguing. • Identify key authors relevant to your interests. Read their scholarship and understand the work that has informed their research. ### Advancing your agenda #### Classes • Identify courses that will help advance your research agenda—both in terms of specific knowledge about the issues and relevant methods. Remember that the title of a class might not always fully describe it, so contact the professor to find out more about class content. • Look both inside and outside the department for classes—and look outside especially in your second year in the program. Graduate students in interdisciplinary fields, for example, may find very valuable classes in diverse departments. • Think specifically about the research questions you want to ask, and think about how you will answer them. Then pick courses to help you in reaching this goal. • Try to use class assignments to advance your research agenda. If possible, use each seminar paper as a way to focus on a specific part of your overall agenda —whether it be a literature review or a proposal for a study. • Don’t be afraid to take a chance on a course that seems somewhat outside of your agenda or your comfort zone. If the topics or research methods covered in the course draw your interest, you could find a way to incorporate those into your overarching research agenda. #### Conference papers, colloquia, and research articles • Ask faculty members if they have research projects in which you can participate. • Work with more than one faculty member. Different faculty members provide different perspectives even if they are interested in the same concepts. • Talk to faculty and other graduate students about conferences you should attend (and conference paper deadlines). Use conference paper deadlines to pace your own research production. • Present your work at conferences, listen to others’ ideas, and solicit feedback on your research. • Consider working towards the publication of your papers. With enough feedback and guidance from faculty, fellow graduate students, and colleagues in the field, what starts out as a seminar or conference paper could turn into a journal article or book chapter. • Attend talks and colloquia on campus—both inside and outside your department. These talks can help you generate research ideas and help you see your research in a new light. • Recruit others to work with you on projects. Student collaborations are especially fruitful when the constituent members have similar interests, but bring different yet complementary perspectives and skills to the endeavor. Be active: Be a part of the conversation in your field! ### How to Present a Best Agenda of a Presentation or Speech Most people won’t attend a meeting unless they know the agenda. I know I want, and when is the best time to introduce an agenda? The most effective way is actually well before your presentation. You must have a strong opening in your agenda and not commit any mistake in opening. Click four common mistakes in presentation to handle your common mistakes. Your agenda needs to have the following contents: • Purpose Your agenda needs to have the purpose of the presentation. • Topic What will be discussed. • Participants Who will be participating. • Length How long will it last. For most business meetings and presentations, make sure your audience has this agenda in writing before you present. For this article you saw the title and link of the article, before you decide to view it, indeed, that’s the agenda. You already know what topic I am discussing in this article, the learning object and the link of the article. If I started this article by saying: in this article I cover how to introduce an agenda, that would be redundant. I disclosing your attention and interest almost immediately. In most cases if your audience can see a written agenda before your presentation, then you don’t need to introduce it. You can simply refer to it during your presentation to help keep everyone on track. During the presentation, it’s always a good idea to briefly remind your audience about where are you going, this is where the teaser approach works well. Teaser Approach The goal of teaser is to build interest into upcoming agenda items. You do this by giving audience a little bit information that makes them want to know more. For example, you might say: We have some exciting news from our administrator of the academy, which I will share with you. Make sure your audience knows the overall agenda before you are giving a presentation. Provide them with key details in writing, then look for opportunities within presentation to tell your audience, what they have to look forward to. Use the teaser approach to keep your audience alert and interested. ## Designing an Effective Meeting Agenda That Works (+ Free Downloads) The meeting agenda is the soul of every meeting. A well-defined meeting agenda template sets the tone of the meeting and determines its success. An effective agenda should set clear expectations for the meeting and should enable the participants to prepare for a productive meeting. The organizers and the participants must be able to gauge how intensive or how long the meeting will be from the list of topics to be discussed. • How to Write and Design a Meeting Agenda Part 1 • Meeting Agenda Templates: Free Download Part 2 • Additional Resources Part 3 • How to Dramatically Reduce Time You Spend Creating Reports Part 4 Here are some tips on how to effectively design a meeting agenda: #### Provide a title for the agenda. It should tell the participants what the meeting will be about. Clearly indicate key information such as the date, time, and venue of the meeting. Do not forget to include the names of the expected attendees and if there are special guests or resource speakers who will attend the meeting. #### Provide a brief statement about the objective of the meeting. It should give an overview of what the meeting will cover without going into specific agenda items. #### Present a schedule of the essential components of the meeting. This is the most important part of a meeting agenda as this will keep the group aligned with the objective of the meeting, and prevent the discussions from getting out of hand. For each item of the program, the time at each item should be discussed or its allocated length of time should be indicated. #### Provide an outline of the meeting agenda topics to be discussed. While the schedule is the core part of the meeting agenda, providing an overview of the topics for discussion will help the participants to prepare for the meeting. #### List the points as questions that the team needs to answer. Avoid using vague terms. By stating it in question form, the participants will understand the purpose of the discussion. For example, consider an agenda item of simply вЂCompany Anniversary.’ This is extremely open and it will leave the participants wondering what it is about the company anniversary that will be discussed. If we state it this way, вЂњWhat preparations should be made for the company anniversary?вЂќ or вЂњWho shall form the anniversary committee?вЂќ; the participants will be able to think about it, and they will come in prepared and excited for the meeting. Make sure to check the agenda for errors before sending it to the attendees of the meeting. The agenda should be sent out to the participants at least a week to three days before the actual day of the meeting. Sending it ahead of time will ensure that the attendees will have sufficient time to prepare for the meeting. ## Staff Meeting Agenda Template: Free Download Templates on ProsperForms: ## Additional Sources 1. How to Create a Meeting Agenda + Free Template Download 2. How to Create a Staff Meeting Template + Free Download 3. How to Create a Productive One On One Meeting Template + Free Download ## ProsperForms is a cloud solution to dramatically reduce the time you spend creating reports 1. Make reporting easier with auto-fill: Fields such as date, name, report type, and formatting are inserted automatically by software. 2. Consolidate reports automatically: Reports created by your team members can beВ consolidatedВ easily. 3. Save time with auto-layout: No need to spend hours in Word or Excel perfecting the reportвЂ™s layout because it exports your updates into a beautifully crafted file with a couple of clicks. 4. Peace of mind with auto-reminders: No one forgets to submit their reports because ProsperForms automatically sends timely reminders according to the schedule you chose. 5. Decrease time and effort spent on monthly, quarterly, and yearly reporting thanks to powerful filtering and export features. 6. Quick sharing: Reports can be either – exported to files and printed, or sent by email;– shared with the manager online (in real time);– optionally shared online asВ team-wide status reports, i.e., all team members share their progress with each other toВ spend less time on meetings. ### How to configure reports on ProsperForms: Step 3 (Optional): Generate a report and export it to PDF. (Skip this step if you share status reports online and donвЂ™t print them.) Click вЂњGenerate ReportвЂќ. Meetings, meetings, and more meetings. Between recurring team syncs, planning meetings, brainstorms, and project check-ins, it probably feels like your calendar is overflowing with meetings. Which it probably is. If meetings are taking up so much of your time, you must be getting a lot out of them—whether you’re leading them or participating in them—right? Unfortunately, most meetings are destined to fail. The end goal isn’t clear (or even identified), there’s no agenda to guide the meeting, and people walk out with more questions than answers. Employees want to be productive and feel like they’re spending their time on things that matter—but when meetings lack structure, they feel ineffective and like a waste of time. Since there are only so many hours in the (work) day, here is an easy-to-follow process for running effective meetings so everyone walks in knowing what to discuss and walks out knowing next steps. ### It’s prep time: Create and share your meeting agenda #### 1. Identify the purpose and goal of the meeting Before you even begin checking people’s calendars, ask yourself, “what do we need to accomplish in this meeting?” If it’s a recurring meeting, this will help you determine how often you need to meet as well. If you’re scheduling a planning session, for example, the purpose could be to identify the key milestones for your team’s yearly objectives, and the goal could be to determine deadlines and who’s responsible for each milestone. Once you’ve locked down the purpose and goal, then you can start working your scheduling magic. #### 2. What to include in your meeting agenda Now that you know why you’re having the meeting, it’s time to create an agenda that will keep the discussion on track. While it’s tempting to quickly scribble it down on a post-it right before the meeting, preparing your agenda ahead of time will ensure you prioritize the right things and don’t forget something important. Start by outlining the themes you want to focus on in the meeting. For your annual planning meeting, this could be discussing results, brainstorming, and action items to move planning forward. To help keep everything (and everyone) on track, assign time blocks to each topic so you get to everything you need to discuss. #### 3. Add discussion topics Now it’s time to add the meat… errr, topics you want to discuss. Add these to the appropriate agenda section so you discuss them at the right time during the meeting. The more detailed you are about what you’d specifically like to discuss, the better. If you create your agenda in the tool where you’re tracking your work, it’ll be easy to add existing work or link to relevant tasks so everyone has the context they need—and you won’t have to do extra work. “We’ve been taking conscious steps toward running meetings more effectively and becoming more productive, and Asana is proving to be an important ingredient in pushing that initiative forward.” – Rey Fernández, Vice President & General Manager, Manhattan Prep #### 4. Share the agenda with attendees before the meeting To get straight down to business, share the agenda with attendees in advance. If it’s ready and you can include it in the meeting invite, even better. This way, attendees will have time to familiarize themselves with discussion topics, prepare any info that will be needed, or ask clarifying questions before the meeting. Also, this gives others a chance to add or suggest topics if something’s missing. ### Let’s begin: Stick to the agenda and capture action items as you go #### 5. Assign a note taker Your notes will serve as the written record of your discussion, decisions, and next steps. They’re also helpful for people who were unable to attend a meeting (calendar conflicts are real), but need to know what happened. So before the meeting gets underway, assign a note taker that is ideally taking them in the same tool as your agenda and work. This way, when people need to reference decisions about milestones and projects that came out of your planning meeting, they’ll know exactly where to look. #### 6. Work through standing agenda items & discussion topics Now is the time to encourage participation as you go through each topic. Hopefully, people will come prepared with information, thoughts, and questions since they’re familiar with the agenda (because you shared it ahead of time :wink:). You want your teammates to feel like their voice matters, plus great ideas arise when people are able to freely bounce ideas off of each other. And since there’s structure, your discussion will stay focused as you go from one topic to the next. #### 7. Assign action items as you go Track and assign follow-up and action items as they come up instead of waiting until the end. Don’t forget to include due dates for action items as well—this will keep teammates accountable and make expectations clear. And it’s best to track these in your agenda (like in the agenda template above) so teammates can reference the meeting notes for context. ### Meeting adjourned Once you wrap up your meeting, you won’t need to waste time sending out the notes or assigning action items—they will already be done. And while it takes a bit of time upfront to prepare for your meeting, the benefit of hosting a productive and effective meeting is (almost) priceless. With a clear purpose, agenda, and actionable discussion, everyone will walk in knowing what to discuss and walk out knowing what’s next. And you’ll be a meeting superstar. Learn how Asana can help you deliver a great employee experience by running all of your cross-functional programs and activities better. Special thanks to Jenny Thai and Jessie Beck ## A DIY Project to Keep Yourself Organized and on Task • Pin • Share • Email The Spruce / Ana Cadena Finding a personal planner you love can be difficult. Even if you know exactly which features you need to organize your life, you might not be able to find a ready-made model that’s a good fit. But you still can have the perfect planner if you create it yourself. A DIY planner can reflect your personal style, be customized for your schedule, and help you get organized and accomplish what you need to do. When designing a personal planner, the possibilities are nearly endless to individualize it to your liking. Here are some tips for how to make a DIY planner. ## Customize an Existing System One easy way to customize a planner is to go with a system that’s designed to let you build your own. Three such options are Martha Stewart’s Discbound, the M. by Staples Arc System, and Levenger’s Circa. Each of these planners has the same disc binding, but they offer different aesthetics and customization options. A customizable planner lets you mix and match the components you want and leave out those you don’t need. Plus, if you purchase a special hole-punch and additional discs, you can print your own pages or add other documents to your planner. ## Use Printables Many sellers provide loose calendar pages and other papers for organization that are designed as nicely as those in fancy preassembled planners. Some of these pages are even free. For example, IHeart Organizing offers free printable daily schedule pages, blank task pages, and other helpful organization tools. With printables, you download and print the pages yourself. And because you’re picking the paper, your choices of color and quality are far wider than they would be with a prefabricated planner. You can also bind them however you’d like. For example, hole-punch the pages and add them to a binder, or have them bound at a copy shop. Moreover, if you like the scheduling function of planner pages but don’t want to lug around a heavy book, you can choose only to print pages for the current month or whatever meets your needs. ## Cut and Paste If you enjoy getting a bit crafty, cutting and pasting together parts of two or more existing planners will give you lots of options. This is a good option if what you want in a planner is relatively common, but you just can’t find it in a single planner. This also doesn’t have to be an expensive option despite using more than one item. For instance, it’s possible that all you really need in a planner is a blank notebook with month-at-a-glance calendar pages throughout. If so, purchase a basic affordable planner. Then, cut and paste the pages you need from it into a pretty notebook to get an instant custom design that helps to keep you on task. ## Make Your Own Pages If you can envision exactly what you want in terms of layout and text, you can start with a blank book, a ruler, and a pen. Then, simply draw what you need for your planner. Or you can use a template (or your computer skills) to design your own pages and print them out. A similar option is to use a blank journal to derive your own method for keeping track of your daily activities. If that seems daunting, let someone else’s method inspire yours. For example, the Bullet Journal started as one man’s daily routine and grew into a system others loved, too. ## Get Creative If you find many different planner options acceptable in terms of layout but you want something more unusual or attractive, you can always personalize a plain planner. Use colored writing utensils, stickers, patterned tape, and more to add some creativity to your planner. Most craft stores are full of the tools you need to turn a boring calendar or blank page into your own unique creation. For ideas, look to the legions of people who document their dedication to planner decoration on social media. ##### Deanna Ritchie Monday, November 18th, 2019 With a variety of online calendar at your fingertips, creating a calendar using a spreadsheet seems not only antiquated but also a lengthy endeavor. After all, can’t your current calendar be used for whatever’s going on in your life? In most cases, this is true. But, there are always exceptions. Using a spreadsheet is ideal if you require a more customized view for specific activities. For example, you can use this type of calendar for creating an employee schedule, timesheet, content calendar, fiscal year, or whatever else your heart desires. Moreover, spreadsheets can be customized however you like. It can be something as simple as selecting the timeframe, such as a monthly or yearly calendar, to something more complex like its design. Up until 2006, you most likely had to use Excel when creating a spreadsheet-based calendar. However, as a part of the Google Docs Suite, you have a much-improved upon option called Google Sheets. If you haven’t tried it out yet, here’s why you might want to give it a spin. • Google Sheets is 100% free and comes together with Drive, Docs, and Slides. As you know, this makes sharing and collaborating with others a breeze. • It can be accessed from anywhere — even your Android or iOS devices. • You can automatically collect and insert data from several online sources. • Some add-ons and templates make creating a Google Sheet event easier. Or, if you have the skills, you can design your own code. • And, if you already know the basics of Excel, there isn’t much of a learning curve since the functions are similar. And, it’s pretty straightforward to create a calendar in Google Sheets. If you want to know how, then here’s a step by step guide to get you on your way. ## Step 1 The first thing you have to go is head over to your Google Drive. You can go directly there by visiting https://www.google.com/drive/. Or, if you’re in Gmail, click on the Google apps icon in the top right corner of the page. Of course, you can only do this if you have an account. If you don’t have an account, go ahead and sign-up, it’s free. ## Step 2 When in Drive, select New. You’ll see Google Sheets appear in the pop-up. When you scroll over this option, you’ll see that you can choose between a blank spreadsheet or template. For the time being, select the blank spreadsheet. ## Step 3 You should now have a beautiful blank spreadsheet on your screen. Retitle it to whatever the calendar is going to be used for. To rename the calendar, click on Untitled spreadsheet and type in the new title. ## Step 4 Now it’s time to fill in your calendar. You can start in any cell and insert whatever information you like. But I recommend that you begin at B3. It’s not because of the appearance. Instead, because of Google Sheets formulas, you end up saving a ton of time creating your calendar. So, go ahead and insert Sunday, for example, into the B3 cell. Next, click on the cell and look for the blue rectangle at the bottom right corner. Highlight the bullseye looking icon and drag it over to the H3 cell. The action will automatically fill in the rest of the days of the week for you. ## Step 5 Jump down to the B4 cell and enter the correct date. I wrote this in June 2019, so I’ll kick things off on June 2. If you’re online, Sheets will know which year it is automatically. Here’s where things get cool. In the next cell, enter the following formula: =B4+1. If you notice, June 3 will appear. You can highlight that cell and click on the bullseye icon and drag it across for the remainder of the week. Sheets then insert the rest of the dates of the week. ## Step 6 Skip a row and enter =B3. This will add Sunday to the sheet. You can then highlight that and drag it across to the H cell like you did the first time. ## Step 7 In the cell beneath that, copy and paste =B4+7. As usual, drag that over to the appropriate cell. ## Step 8 If you’re thinking that you have to keep doing this for the remainder of the calendar, you would be wrong. Simply highlight the days of the week, the dates, and a blank row from the 2nd set only — do not select the first set. With these cells selected, grab the corner and pull down as far as you would like. Sheets with then fill out the rest of the cells with the day of the week and the correct dates. ## Step 9 Finally, go ahead and customize your calendar. In the blank spaces, insert relevant information, such as task assignments or essential deadlines. If you click on the blank rectangle found above row number 1 and to the left of Column A you can select all of the data in the sheet. It’s a quick way to make sure that everything is the same color, size, or font. But, you can also color-code your calendar or use different fonts for different weeks. Honestly, the sky is the limit. If you need a little inspiration, I suggest you check out the content calendar created by Megan Minns. On the left side of the sheet, she created a calendar for each month. Making a calendar for each month means that the first row was the name of the month (January), the second the days of the week (Sunday to Saturday), and then the third to seventh were the dates. February would then begin in row nine and so forth. The column next to the months are left blank, but in I is “events,” K “podcast title, L “CTA,” N “YouTube title, and O “URL.” The remaining columns are used for listing on what social channels the content is being promoted on and when. To be honest. You can design your calendar in any way you see fit. Just follow Willy Wonka’s advice and follow your imagination. Personally, the best way to learn is to get in there and try it — it’s fun. Tinker around with Google Sheets and see what you can do. If you don’t like the changes you made, you can use the handy Undo button — it’s the arrow pointing towards the left under File. ## Is There an Easier Way to Create a Calendar in Google Sheets? Since we’re talking about the Big G here, of course, there are other options. The first is to use a template. If you recall, you can access these when going into Drive, scroll down to Google Sheets, and select From a template. Here you will find a wide range of premade calendar templates instead of making one from scratch. Examples include a monthly budget, schedule, project tracker, travel planner, and invoice. The only thing that you have to do is input the dates you need for your specific calendar. Google Sheets will automatically change the rest of the calendar to the correct dates. Also, if you use a tool like Zapier or Automate.io, you can sync any events from your Google Calendar to Sheets in just a matter of seconds. Besides helping you fill out your calendar, every time a new row is added to Sheets, it will automatically create a new Google Calendar event. I’ll be glad when it’s not so difficult to put images or little swirlies on a calendar in Google Sheets — and everywhere else. By Jenny Thai Dec 27, 2017 Meetings are a fact of office life. And while they may not be everyone’s favorite part of the day, with a little bit of planning, it is possible to make them productive and worthwhile for you and your teammates. One meeting type in particular can even help people feel more engaged at work: the one on one meeting. Unlike department meetings, planning meetings, or quick syncs where teams might discuss the most pressing issues of the day, week, or month, the one on one meeting agenda looks a little different. For managers and their reports, one on one meetings are dedicated time for connecting regularly on goals, building rapport, and most importantly, coaching and mentorship. One on one meetings are dedicated time for connecting regularly, building rapport, and most importantly, coaching and mentorship. The most effective 1:1s are those that are prepped ahead of time. But more often than not, work (about work) gets in the way of planning a meaningful one-on-one agenda, leading to wasted time deciding what to talk about or meandering discussions that don’t feel actionable. The good news is: planning a productive one-on-one meeting is easier than it seems. Whether you’re a manager or a report, here are few simple ways to make the most of your one-on-ones. ### Create a shared one on one meeting agenda One of the reasons why 1:1 meetings can feel ineffective is that there isn’t a consistent, shared space for creating and tracking agenda items. Without a designated spot for planning your agenda ahead of time (and to refer to during the meeting itself), it’s easy to veer off course. If, for instance, you’ve ever kicked off a 1:1 with a list of agenda items in your head, only to find yourself talking about cat memes 10 minutes later, you probably need a better way to prep for your 1:1 meetings. Instead, create a shared 1:1 agenda for you and your report (or manager). This makes it easy for both of you to collaborate on what to discuss. In Asana, you can set up a private meeting project for this, but whatever tool you choose to use, make sure that it’s easily accessible and editable by both 1:1 participants. “Now that I’m using Asana, my conversations and 1:1s are so much more productive because we have this shared space where we can collaborate.” – Tim Wood, Head of Product, Patreon ### Organize your 1:1 agenda Once you’ve created a shared space for planning and tracking your one on one meeting agenda, the next step is to add some structure. The idea here is to define a couple of high-level themes to help you organize discussion topics from one meeting to the next. Depending on the needs and preferences of you and your report, you can organize your 1:1 agenda many different ways. For example, it might be helpful to group agenda items into the following categories: • Discuss this week • Revisit later • Roadblocks and wins • Goals • Action items To do this in Asana, just create sections for each theme in your meeting project: Organizing your one on one meeting agenda this way balances tactical conversations about project work with bigger picture discussions about how that work ladders up to overall company goals and objectives and, not to mention, individual career goals. As you meet week to week, team members come away with a clearer sense of what they’re working on—and why it matters as well. ### Add agenda items as they come up With a shared space for your agenda and a clear structure in place, now comes the fun (and easy) part: adding topics for discussion. As soon as you or your report think of a topic—whether it’s feedback on a recent presentation, a question about budgets, or a growth opportunity—add these items to your shared agenda. Be sure to include a brief description and attach any relevant files, so you don’t forget anything important. Adding agenda items ahead of time lets manager and report reflect on important topics before discussing in person. This will help you avoid the mad scramble to remember everything you wanted to discuss right before your meeting. Adding agenda items ahead of time also lets both you and your report prep and reflect on important topics before discussing in person. #### What to talk about in 1:1s If you’re unsure of what to talk about in your one-on-ones, remember that it’s a shared space for asking questions, getting feedback, and discussing long-term goals. Both manager and report should feel comfortable contributing to the agenda. Here, for example, are a few topics you could discuss in your next 1:1: • Weekly and monthly priorities • Feedback on any in-progress assignments • Checking in on team and company goals • Identifying and resolving any roadblocks • Celebrating successes and milestones • What worked well (and didn’t) on recent projects • Career goals and learning opportunities ### Take notes and take action Before your next 1:1, take some time to review whatever topics have been added to your shared agenda since your last meeting and prioritize discussion topics. As the meeting progresses, make sure someone is taking notes on what’s discussed and to document any action items that come up. By clearly outlining next steps and who’s doing what (by when), you create a sense of accountability and help ensure that any follow-up items are completed in a timely fashion. If you’re using a project in Asana to track your one on one meetings, all you have to do is create and assign a task and move it to your “Action items” section. ### 1:1s that work for everyone Regular one-on-one meetings are a critical ingredient to keeping employees happy, productive, and engaged. By creating a shared space for your agenda and adding a little structure, you and your team members are more likely to keep your 1:1s on track and have meaningful and actionable conversations. Learn how Asana can help you deliver a great employee experience by running all of your cross-functional programs and activities better. ### How to Make a Perfect Handout A workshop is an educational hands-on program that is designed to help participants gain experience in a particular area or learn a new skill. In business, you may be required to run workshops for employees to learn new areas of the business or for customers to get experience using a new version of your product. Carefully develop the program for your workshop and write a workshop agenda that helps attendees get the most out of the event. ## Keep the Goals in Mind When Writing the Workshop Agenda When creating your workshop agenda, it’s critical to always keep the key goals of the program top of mind. This will help you to decide how much time to allot to specific activities and how to structure the different elements. If you’re running a customer service conflict management workshop for employees, for example, the key goal of the workshop will be to ensure that each of the attendees is able to learn conflict management tips and techniques that they can apply when dealing with irate customers. In this case, you’ll need to ensure that you give enough time for each employee to ask questions, present their day-to-day scenarios and practice applying conflict management techniques in group role-play settings. ## Vary the Content of the Workshop A program schedule for a workshop should include a diverse array of content. People learn in different ways, have different sets of social skills and require different kinds of interactive activities to apply their knowledge. If your workshop only includes one kind of content, such as a workbook, it may be difficult for all the attendees to meet the goals of the workshop. For example, when running a workshop to help key customers learn how to use new features in your product, you can provide interactive workshop activities such as letting the customers actually get hands-on with the product. You can then vary the program by providing hard-copy handouts with the feature information, showing a video of the features in use and having a question-and-answer session. This helps all attendees to learn about the features in different ways and keeps them engaged throughout. ## Don’t Schedule Every Minute While a workshop agenda should be structured well so as not to waste any of the attendees’ time, it’s also important to leave some free space. If a session takes a few minutes longer than expected, the free time helps you to get back on track. Having some free time in between workshop sessions also gives attendees the opportunity to take breaks and mingle with one another. ## Explain How to Use the Resources Due to their educational and hands-on nature, many workshops provide attendees with resources they can bring back with them to their workplace or home to continue the learning experience. These resources are also a great reference when the attendees are utilizing the new skills and knowledge they learned in the workshop. Build time in your workshop agenda to review the resources you’re providing the attendees. Help them understand how these resources can be used, when they can be used and what they will help the attendees learn. If you just hand out the resources at the end of the workshop without going over the materials, the attendees may gloss over the content or not know how to apply it to their daily lives. For example, if your workshop introduces employees to a new procedure you’re instituting in the workplace, you can provide them with a step-by-step guide that details each action they need to take. Take time in your workshop to mention how important this resource is when applying their new skills. If they forget a step, they can easily turn to the handout to find the missing information. Recommend they keep the resource handy on their desks when completing the new procedure. A meeting agenda is a vital element of a meeting and must be carefully prepared beforehand. It contains the topics for discussion during for the upcoming meeting. Having a clear agenda helps the participants to prepare for it. For more information about preparing a meeting agenda read this article. An equally important element in the conduct of a meeting is the minutes of the meeting. The minutes form a written record of everything that was discussed during the meeting. A helpful article on preparing minutes of the meeting can be found here. • How to Write Agendas for 8 Types of Meetings: The Complete List Part 1 • General Meeting Agenda Templates Part 2 • Additional Sources Part 3 • How to Spend Less Time on Meetings? Part 4 Now, letвЂ™s look at the different types of meetings being conducted and their agendas (click a link to open a relevant article, each article contains free agenda templates for a particular type of meeting): 1. A project meeting is held on a periodic basis to monitor project development and discuss all issues which need to be addressed. HereвЂ™s a link to our article about project meetings + free agenda templates. 2. A staff meeting provides an opportunity for the staff of a unit in an organization to sit down together and discuss matters of mutual concerns. Learn more aboutВ staff meetings + free templates here. Meanwhile, there is one moreВ article here which can serve as a reference in preparing a meeting agenda + free downloads. 3. The one-on-one meeting is a meeting between a supervisor and his direct report. The purpose of a one-on-one meeting is to evaluate how the staff member is doing and to resolve any issues related to the performance of their work. OurВ article here discusses how to conduct a one-on-one meeting + agenda templates. 4. A daily huddle is a brief meeting conducted before the start of a workday or a shift where the team leader or supervisor outlines the tasks for the day, ongoing promotions, and all other important matters that the staff members need to know in relation to their jobs and organization. Read more about theВ daily huddle here (includes free agenda templates). 5. A team meeting is conducted between team members to resolve issues affecting their work and to update them with the latest information related to the project. Our article about team meetingsВ will help you effectively conduct a team meeting and contains free templates. 6. A sales meeting is carried out to enhance communication within the sales team. Aside from monitoring the performance of the team and its members, it is also a venue to motivate team members, coach them, and to acknowledge their efforts. More tips on conducting sales meetings with agenda template can be found in this article. 7. A leadership meeting is for the top officials of an organization. This is where they usually discuss important issues, business strategies, and other ways to improve the performance of the organization. Details aboutВ leadership meeting with free agenda samples can be found in this article. 8. A status meeting is where the project team discusses the status of a project, and this is where they keep track of the issues and risks facing the project. Check the article here to learn more about status meetings and download free templates. Meetings are usually held periodically. Weekly meetings are brief and are conducted to address recurring problems, while monthly meetings focus on monitoring performance targets. ## General Meeting Agenda Templates: Free Download If you need a general-purpose meeting agenda sample check these free downloads. Read theВ best practices hereВ (on how to write a meeting agenda in general). You can also use the following templates on ProsperForms: ## Additional Sources 1. How to Create a Meeting Agenda + Free Sample Download 2. How to Create an Effective Monthly Meeting Agenda + Free Download ## ProsperForms is a cloud solution to dramatically reduce the time you spend creating reports 1. Make reporting easier with auto-fill: Fields such as date, name, report type, and formatting are inserted automatically by software. 2. Consolidate reports automatically: Reports created by your team members can beВ consolidatedВ easily. 3. Save time with auto-layout: No need to spend hours in Word or Excel perfecting the reportвЂ™s layout because it exports your updates into a beautifully crafted file with a couple of clicks. 4. Peace of mind with auto-reminders: No one forgets to submit their reports because ProsperForms automatically sends timely reminders according to the schedule you chose. 5. Decrease time and effort spent on monthly, quarterly, and yearly reporting thanks to powerful filtering and export features. 6. Quick sharing: Reports can be either – exported to files and printed, or sent by email;– shared with the manager online (in real time);– optionally shared online asВ team-wide status reports, i.e., all team members share their progress with each other toВ spend less time on meetings. ### How to configure reports on ProsperForms: Step 3 (Optional): Generate a report and export it to PDF. (Skip this step if you share status reports online and donвЂ™t print them.) Click вЂњGenerate ReportвЂќ. School board meetings may run long, low-priority items can take precedence over more pressing topics or a lack of organization can inhibit productivity. Without proper planning and preparation through a well-organized agenda, board meetings can easily become derailed. Utilizing an agenda that functions as a tool of efficiency will make the most of your school board meeting. To create an effective agenda, you must take a few steps. These steps will be greatly impacted by whether or not your board follows the standard order of business (parliamentary procedure, like Robert’s Rules of Order). ## 1. Decide on the meeting structure Before creating the agenda, address the main topics the board needs to prioritize at this meeting. This is a fundamental step to ensure that the meeting is efficient and productive. Maintain a list of topics that need to be covered by priority (pressing topics should be covered first). When low-priority items take precedence over more urgent issues, the meeting can run long and lose its effectiveness. There may be nothing more frustrating and draining than an exhaustive meeting where nothing pressing is actually addressed or accomplished. Some agendas may list a start time for the meeting as a whole or for individual agenda items. Votes may be accepted to modify an agenda, but having suggested time parameters can allow for greater delegation and efficiency. Listing the meeting time or time limits for specific agenda items will give ample time for presenters to find ways to consolidate their oral reports. Just because a meeting is lengthy does not mean it is productive. Creating time limits for the agenda items or the meeting as a whole will help focus the group on the actual topics at hand, cultivating efficiency and productivity. ## 2. Topics will be presented by other administrators Not only does this take some responsibility off the chair, but it creates ownership and buy-in for others. This also allows for more thorough data to be presented on the topic when administrators can assist with collecting research and information. Delegation of tasks and topics can be listed through the board portal. The portal can also allow for presenters to distribute links, documents and other pertinent information to their topic. ## 3. Confirm meeting details BoardDocs has the capability to confirm and share meeting details, like date, time and location. In compliance with sunshine laws, all public meetings must be posted publicly (although it may vary by state regarding how long in advance the meeting details must be posted). Utilizing board portal software makes it easy to share and access meeting agendas and other pertinent information. ## 4. Begin to outline the agenda After creating this foundation, you can begin to organize the agenda items in an easy-to-follow format. It is helpful to share the agenda through the board portal in advance of the meeting to allow other presenting members to make adequate preparations. Try to maintain consistency in the organization of meeting agendas so that participants know what to expect in the format (although the format also greatly depends on whether or not the meeting follows a parliamentary procedure). The agenda may follow a similar framework as outlined below. • Open the meeting. When the meeting is ready to begin (board members are present, a quorum is met), then the presiding board member will open the meeting. This is the point when most boards will also have ceremonial items, such as the Pledge of Allegiance, recognition of students or visitors, and/or public comment. • Approve minutes from the previous meeting. The draft minutes from the previous meeting should be made available to all present parties for review and approval. This is an opportunity to make any corrections to the previous minutes. The presiding board member should ask if there are any objections to the approval of the minutes before final approval. Having to distribute and read minutes during the meeting can waste time. Utilizing a board portal will allow easy access for previous meeting minutes to be reviewed before the upcoming meeting. Ask members to come to the meeting having reviewed the previous meeting’s minutes and with any notes or corrections to be made. • Reports from administration, boards and/or committees. The presiding officer should find out prior to preparing the agenda who has a report to share at the meeting. This allows individuals and committees to collect information and prepare reports. Not calling for reports from everyone during the meeting is another practice that will save meeting time. Oral reports should be kept short and include basic pertinent information. Comprehensive reports may be shared through the board portal for the board to review. This not only saves time during the meeting, but provides access to the more detailed pieces of projects and maintains a written record for the board to refer back to. • Unfinished business. This agenda item may vary by state (in some states, every agenda item must be addressed and there cannot be any unfinished business). Some items may be tabled by the board for the following meeting. Utilizing a board portal, the board can maintain a list of unfinished business items that members and committees may review. Sharing this list through the board portal keeps the board informed regarding the status of any unfinished items. • New business. New business is typically only used for board members to bring up items to place on a future agenda. These items would always be listed in advance and never introduced at a meeting. For most states, the public should always be made aware of new business items. It is important to check your local procedures or statutes regarding how new business may be presented. Using the board portal to submit any information related to the topic will keep board members and the public informed. • Close the meeting. The presiding officer can remind others of the next meeting or events, review any assigned tasks or business, and then adjourn the meeting. This is also an ideal time to thank other participating members for their efforts. ## 5. Remember that preparation is key Send out all meeting-related information prior to the meeting. This may be asking specific administrators to present on a topic, sharing the allotted time for certain agenda items, reminding others of the meeting date/time/location and sharing the agenda outline. Providing this information in advance allows presenters time to distribute links, data and other research prior to the meeting for review; and, again, shows value regarding the time and energy of the participants. Utilize the board portal to save time in distributing information and materials. Do not underestimate the power of preparing an agenda for your board meeting. The presiding officer can develop and apply an efficient and structured agenda to govern a meeting that produces results. # How to create an apollonian gasket wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article, 15 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. This article has been viewed 48,142 times. An Apollonian Gasket is a type of fractal image that is formed from a collection of ever-shrinking circles contained within a single large circle. Each circle in the Apollonian Gasket is tangent to the adjacent circles – in other words, the circles in the Apollonian Gasket make contact at infinitely small points. Named for the Greek mathematician Apollonius of Perga, this type of fractal can be drawn (by hand or by computer) to reasonable degree of complexity, forming a beautiful, striking image. See Step 1 below to get started. To be perfectly clear, if you’re simply interested in drawing an Apollonian Gasket, it’s not essential to research the math principles behind the fractal. However, if you’d like a deeper understanding of Apollonian Gaskets, it’s important to understand the definitions of several concepts we’ll use when discussing them. Apollonian Gaskets take the form of beautiful fractal arrangements of shrinking circles. Mathematically, Apollonian Gaskets have infinite complexity, but, whether you’re using a computer drawing program or traditional drawing tools, you’ll eventually reach a point at which it’s impossible to draw circles any smaller. Note that the more precisely you draw your circles, the more you’ll be able to fit in your Gasket. ## Introduction: How to Build an Apollonian Gasket End Table An Apollonian Gasket is a fractal generated by using tangent circles to fill an area. The circles decrease in size and can become infinitely small if the fractal is continued. The table uses increasing numbers of circles in each layer to create an end table with various depths. It was inspired by my current math research on Apollonian Networks and designed with consideration of my senior capstone project on automotive furniture. ## Supplies All of the materials I used were scraps. The table can be made with various thicknesses of wood, however, dimensions may need to be changed if you do so. The materials I used were: • Titebond Premium Wood Glue • 120/180 Grit Sandblock • 9/16″ Spade Drill Bit • 1 1/2″ Hole Saw Bit • Dewalt Drill • Bandsaw • Spindle Sander • Table Sander • Sandpaper • Clamps • Scrap wood (large sheets and 1″x1″ poles) • Black Spray Paint ## Step 1: Design Apollonian Gasket I designed my Apollonian Gasket in Revit, however, you can use this link to design one without needing math. The outer edge normally is circular but I used a decagon for leg placement reasons. To design in Revit continue with the steps below. 1. Draw an inscribed polygon extrusion with 10 sides, an 8″ distance, and 1/4″ depth (Don’t worry if your wood is not this thick it won’t matter for the design) 2. Draw the circle void extrusions with a 1/4″ depth. The diameters are given below from largest to smallest. Each circle should approximately 1/4″ away from any other circle. The positioning of the circles correlates to the apollonian gasket provided. 1. Circles #2 have a 7 1/4″ diameter. The circles should be 1/8″ away from the center of the decagon and 9/32″ from the edge of the decagon. 2. Circles #3 have a 4 3/4″ diameter. 3. Circles #6 have a 2 1/4″ diameter. 4. Circles #11 have a 1 1/8″ diameter. 5. Circles #14 have a 13/16″ diameter. 6. Circles #15 have a 3/4″ diameter. 3. Project the design onto a piece of craft paper at the scaled size and then trace it. 4. Cut out the design including the void extrusions. ## Step 2: Draw and Cut Layers of Table Using the template created in step one, sketch out each layer with the correct holes. 1. Circles #2 2. Circles #2 and 3 3. Circles #2, 3, and 6 4. All circles After the design has been drawn, cut each decagon out leaving some room on the edge for later sanding. ## Step 3: Cut and Sand Gasket Holes Use the 9/16″ drill bit to create holes in the small circles on layer 4 and use the 1 1/2″ drill bit to create holes in all of the other circles on each layer. When drilling the holes, try to drill near the center of each circle. Then, use the jigsaw to cut out the circles to the proper size. The smaller circles should not require the jigsaw as they are close enough to sand down to size. Lastly, use a spindle sander for fast and accurate sanding of each circle. Sand as close to the design line as possible without going past it. ## Step 4: Glue Layers Together Now that each layer is cut out and sanded, the tabletop can be glued together. Using any type of wood glue, apply a layer of glue to the side of layer one with the design sketched on it. Then, place layer two on top of layer one, design side up. Repeat this with layers 3 and 4 then clamp the 4 layers together. Use one camp at each corner of the decagon and at least one in the center. Allow to dry overnight or as long as your wood glue suggests. ## Step 5: Sand Imperfections With the tabletop in one piece, it is now time to sand away imperfections in the layers. I began with the edges and sanded them even on the table sander. Next, I sanded the two largest circles on the spindle sander. The rest of the circles were sanded down with a Dremel sander and sandpaper. When done all the circles should line up evenly with the other layers. ## Step 6: Cutting the Legs With the tabletop built, the next thing to do is make the legs. I began with 1″ by 1″ wood pole scraps and cut them into 19″ long poles, you will need 10 poles in total. Then, make a mark at 16″ and draw a line from the opposite corner to the mark (as seen in the pictures). This is roughly a 75-degree angle which I cut using a bandsaw. On the other side, cut a 5-degree angle with the longest side facing outward (see pictures for clarification). ## Step 7: Making the Base To make the base, another decagon will need to be cut out and sanded, however, no holes are required. Once the decagon is ready, apply glue to the 5-degree side of the pole and place it at any corner of the decagon with the 75-degree angle facing another corner. Then, nail or screw it in. If you find trouble keeping the legs in position while nailing try using clamps to hold it in place. Continue the legs alternating the way the 75-degree angle is facing and rotating around the decagon. ## Step 8: Gluing Into One Piece This set is easy, just glue the base to the tabletop. Pay extra attention to how the decagons line up and then clamp the two pieces together tightly. Let dry overnight or however long your wood glue recommends. After drying, sand down any rough edges. ## Step 9: Spray Painting While you can leave your end table the way it is, I have chosen to spray paint mine black. When spray painting, don’t spray too close to the table and apply thin layers at a time. You’ll want to go over it multiple times to get a true black color. Then, you’re done! You have made a table. Since angles are preserved under inversion in circle (see Non-Euclidean Geometry ‐ Inversion in Circle), tangency is also preserved. Starting with five tangent circles, you can make a pattern like the Apollonian gasket by repeatedly invert in circles. Start with five circles such that each circle is tangent to at least three of the others (see Geometry – Circumscribed and Inscribed Circles). There are six places where one can make a new circle (the gray regions in the picture below). The new circle should be tangent to three of the original circles. For each such new circle there will be three new regions where one can make new circles. The process can be repeated. Five Soddy circles. The largest circle and the smallest circle are each other reflections in the yellow circle. Repeating the procedure of making new circles, that are tangent to three other circles, will produce a circle fractal called an Apollonian gasket. ## Geometrical construction of an Apollonian gasket When making a geometrical construction of an Apollonian gasket, new circles are created from triplets of circles by using circle inversion. To ensure that the tangency is preserved, some properties of tangent circles under circle inversion are used. ### Every circle in a triplet of mutually tangent circles should remain unaltered after reflection Given three circles that are mutually tangent to each other, make a circle though their intersection points. The circle through intersection points is called c in the picture above. c is the circle used for making new circles through circle inversion. The picture above depicts what it looks like in the two cases that give rise to three intersection points. Other cases of mutually tangent circles are also possible, but those will only yield one or two intersection points. Consider what happens when the circle a is reflected in c. The points A and B lie on c, they are therefore not altered when reflected in c. Since circle inversion preserves angles, the right angles at A and B will still be right angles after the reflection. The reflection of a in c, is a circle through the same points A and B. The reflected circle will have tangents at A and B that are perpendicular the tangents of c at A and B. Therefore the reflected circle must be the same as the original circle a. ### Tangency is preserved Create a circle through the intersection points of three mutually tangent circles. The three tangent circles are blue in the picture below. In order to construct a circle tangent to the three circles, note that there already is a circle in the construction that is tangent to them, this is the red circle in the picture below. If the circles a, b, c, d, were reflected in the yellow circle; the reflections of a, b, and c, would be the same circles as a, b, c. Furthermore, the reflection of d would be tangent to all three, since tangency is preserved when reflecting in circles. Hence, by reflecting the red circle d, a new circle is created that is tangent to all three blue circles. Identify the circle tangent to the three blue circles. Reflect it in the yellow circle. The easiest way to do this in GeoGebra is to use the spreadsheet. The circle through the intersection points, and the reflection that follows, can be made using the commands: The original circles can be renamed to A1. A5; they will then automatically appear in the first five cells under column A in the spreadsheet. The circle through the intersection points is not needed, it will not be used again. It is possible to write the above as one single command. Of the six regions that are to be packed by new circles, three lie adjacent to the largest circle, and three are adjacent to the smallest circle. Keep packing circles in the region between the circles a, b, c. If doing it in the spreadsheet, it is easy to copy the code to fill in the other two regions adjacent to the largest circle c. And repeat! When the outer regions, those that are adjacent to the largest circle, have been filled; all the newly created circles can be reflected to fill the inner regions, those adjacent to the smallest circle. ## Apollonian gasket as a limit set An Apollonian gasket can also be generated as a so-called limit set of a so-called Schottky group made by pairing tangent circles. By slightly changing the circles/Schottky group, the limit set can be made to look like a twisting gasket. Drag the slider to make a twisted Apollonian gasket. It is also possible to make a construction using Descartes’ Theorem. In that case, a relation between the curvature of the circles is used, and the points are represented as complex numbers. See Wikipedia: Descartes’ Theorem To understand how to make an Apollonian gasket as a limit set, read the book Indra’s Pearls: The Vision of Felix Klein by David Mumford, Caroline Series and David Wright. by Malin Christersson under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Sweden License Given three mutually tangent circles, we can always find two more circles which are tangent to all three of those. These two are called Apollonian circles. Note that one of the Apollonian circles might actually be around the three initial circles. Starting from three tangent circles, we can create a fractal called an Apollonian gasket, by the following process: 1. Call the initial 3 circles the parent circles 2. Find the parent circles’ two Apollonian circles 3. For each Apollonian circle: 1. For each pair of the three pairs of parent circles: 1. Call the Apollonian circle and the two parent circles the new set of parent circles and start over from step 2. E.g. starting with circles of equal size, we get: Image found on Wikipedia There’s one more bit of notation we need. If we have a circle of radius r with centre (x, y), we can define it’s curvature as k = ±1/r. Usually k will be positive, but we can use negative k to denote the circle that encloses all the other circles in the gasket (i.e. all tangents touch that circle from the inside). Then we can specify a circle with a triplet of numbers: (k, x*k, y*k). For the purpose of this question, we will assume positive integer k and rational x and y. Further examples for such circles can be found in the Wikipedia article. There’s also some interesting stuff about integral gaskets in this article (among other fun things with circles). ## The Challenge You will be given 4 circle specifications, each of which will look like (14, 28/35, -112/105) . You can use any list format and division operator that is convenient, such that you can simply eval the input if you wish to. You may assume that the 4 circles are indeed tangent to each other, and that the first of them has negative curvature. That means you are already given the surrounding Apollonian circle of the other three. For a list of valid example inputs, see the bottom of the challenge. Write a program or function which, given this input, draws an Apollonian gasket. You may take input via function argument, ARGV or STDIN and either render the fractal on screen or write it to an image file in a format of your choice. If the resulting image is rasterised, it must be at least 400 pixels on each side, with less than 20% padding around the largest circle. You may stop recursing when you reach circles whose radius is less than a 400th of the largest input circle, or circles which are smaller than a pixel, whichever happens first. You must draw only circle outlines, not full discs, but the colours of background and lines are your choice. The outlines must not be wider than a 200th of the outer circles diameter. This is code golf, so the shortest answer (in bytes) wins. ## Example Inputs Here are all integral gaskets from the Wikipedia article converted to the prescribed input format: The above image is an example of an Appollonian Gasket, otherwise know as close-packed circles. Technically the close packing should take place in a single large circle as opposed to the entire rectangular canvas, but we’ll ignore that minor detail. This post will show how to create close packed circle abstractions using MSG processors. The image gallery below shows the simple MSG preset used to build the above image. Note that there are just 2 processors used to create this entire class of abstract imagery with close packing properties. The first SetToValue processor is used to set the ROut image stream to a flat gray color. The second 3C Abstract7 CP processor is what generated the close packed circles. As previously discussed here, 3C refers to a 3 channel or color output processor, and CP refers to a processor that uses a color palette stream for coloring the abstract shapes it generates. The 3C Abstract7 CP processor overlays close packed circles on top of an existign 3 channel image stream. We use the ROut image stream as the attached stream for all 3 color input ports (In R,In G,In B) for the 3C Abstract7 CP processor. We do this because after the first SetToValue processor is run, the ROut processor is the only image stream set to a determinate value (a flat gray image in this particular case). The 3 color output streams for the 3C Abstract7 CP processor (Out R,Out G,Out B) are attached to the 3 color output image streams for the MSG preset (ROut,GOut,BOut). We could have used any of the 3 color palette streams associated with a MSG preset, we chose the first ColorPalette to attache to the In Color Palette port. The coloring of the abstract shapes generated by the 3C Abstract7 CP processor is a function of the colors in the Color Palette stream and the individual editable parameters associated with the processor. The term Apollonian Gasket refers to a specific type of fractal image generate by close packed circles. The image is fractal due to the self similar nature of the image at different scales. By close packed we mean that the individual circles touch but never overlap. Since this is Studio Artist, we added all kinds of shape variations based on the close packing model in addition to just close packed circles. the 3rd gallery image above shows off different mutated variations of this simple preset. Note that the processor is capable of creating all kinds of shape variations besides a purest apollonian gasket close packed circle. The positioning of the close packed circles or other shapes is randomly determined with the MSG preset we built above. Tomorrow we’ll discuss how to modulate or control the positioning of the packing to create variations on this kind of effect. Apollonian gaskets = They are planar fractals generated from triples of circles, where each circle is tangent to the other two. In his drawing of the gasket, we start with two externally tangent circles which diameter is D1 and D2. Then we add a third circle which diameter is D1+D2 and to which the two original circles are internally tangent. This is the first generation of circles. Each subsequent generation of circles is constructed by applying the following scheme: For any three circles A, B C of any previous generations which are tangent to each other a new circle is constructed which is tangent to A,B,C. The new circle must differ from all circles constructed so far. When a generation is complete, i.e no other circle can be added, then the next generation of circles can start being constructed. There is an additional stopping rule which prevents from generating infinitesimally small circles. A circle can be added to the gasket if and only if the lenght of its diameter is least minD which is a fixed positive value. Input consists of one line with three decimal numbers D1, D2 and minD. The number are separated by spaces. The format is usual decimal format (see also the examples bellow) with no exponent part. It holds that 1.0 ≤ D1, D2 ≤ 1000.0, 0.001 ≤ minD ≤ D1+D2. Ouput consists of one text line containing two decimal numbers L1 and L2. L1 represents the sum of areas of all circles in the gasket except for the bigggest circle. L2 represents the sum of perimeters of all circles in tin the gasket except for the bigggest circle. Both output values are rounded to 6 decimal digits. Decimal digits must be always present in the output even if some of them are zeros. Maximim output value is less than 107. Input Output 2 For given D1 and D2, I create this two circles like this (first iteration): UPDATE: So, solution is based on Descartes’ theorem. We well work with radius, not diameter, and Curvature, with is 1/r . We will use double for all calculation, but if you work with significantly small numbers, I would prefer BigDecimal. It will slow algorithm, and you should use external method for finding square root, because BigDecimal doesn’t have any. For given D1, D2, minD we modify code above for efficiency: So, first step looks like this: Next step looks a little bit more complicated. Assume we want to write a recursion to solve this problem, and according to Descartes’ theorem, for given curvatures of three circles, tangent to each other, (pic. below) , we could find curvatures of two circles, but for our purposes, we need only small one, so, we can simplify formula to Lets take a look at Apollonian gaskets again: try to play with it. See? It is same gaskets, but with different start condition. And whats more important for us, is that it is symmetrical! So, we will calculate just a half, and then multiply result by two! Lets write a recursion! Inputs will be curvatures of three circles. No output, we will use change our global variables. To find the result, we will use formulas to calculate area and perimeter of circle. Perimeter is length of circumference and equal to . Area is equal to , as you already know, because we already calculated it in previous step, otherwise we had to store every radius and do more calculations. But we forget about our first two circles! Let’s fix it! And there is always a room for improvement. For example, to use IEEE 754 in better way, I assume you will use 1. / x instead of 1 / x . ## Exploring the interplay between Mathematics and Art • 3D Printing for the Visually Impaired • A Plurality of Polyhedra • Apollonian Gaskets with Grasshopper • Register • Log in • Entries feed • Comments feed • WordPress.com My son and I were recently watching Vi Hart’s wonderful “Doodling in Math Class” Video on Infinity Elephants. Around 1:30 in the video she starts talking about how to draw an Apollonian Gasket in a triangle: This got me wondering about how to code this object. It’s not a new challenge. Lot’s of people have done it. You can even search Shapeways to find some amazing 3-D printed, 3-dimensional versions. But I couldn’t find much info on how its done. I did find an old discussion here where they were wondering how to do the same thing. (Nothing really useful there, except some nice references to hyperbolic Geometry-specifically a little paper by David Dumas-with a dead link to a program written by Curt McMullen.) I’ll use Python when I have to, but my preferred method of construction is with the visual programming language Grasshopper, a plug-in for the CAD program Rhinoceros3D. Clearly, the object I was trying to replicate is fractal, which means recursion is going to be unavoidable. That’s easy enough in Python, but it sucks in Grasshopper. The only way I know to do recursion in Grasshopper is with a 3rd party component. I think there are multiple options. The one I use is called “Hoopsnake.” It does the job, but for this kind of thing it’s extremely slooowwww. That’s OK, because to replicate the drawing in Vi’s video, I’m only going to do about 5 iterations. It took a bit of experimenting, but eventually I got it down to a surprisingly small Grasshopper definition. The key was to use the CircleTanTanTan component, which automatically finds the circle that is tangent to three different input curves. For the Grasshopper savvy out there, here’s my definition: Here’s what it produces…. …exactly what I wanted!! Once I had that, it wasn’t hard to make all kinds of designs. Here are some Apollonian Spheres. I even experimented with an Apollonian Pocket Watch Design! In the earlier post “Apollonian gasket as a fractal in tiled hyperbolic space” I have already discussed the Apollonian gasket. There, I began with three touching circles that define an ideal triangle with vanishing corner angles. Multiple inversion at the circles creates a Poincaré disc model of a hyperbolic space. It is tiled by images of the triangle. The limit set of the inversions is exactly the boundary of the disc. Adding a fourth circle ,which touches the other three, gives the Apollonian gasket as the limit set of the inversions in all four circles. Seen as a two-dimensional object, it is a fractal decoration of the tiled hyperbolic disc that resulted from the first three circles. On the other hand, in “Apollonian gasket as a spherical fractal with tetrahedral symmetry” I have shown that the Apollonian gasket is also a fractal decoration of a spherical surface with tetrahedral symmetry. Both are related by a stereographic projection. This becomes more interesting if we think in three dimensions. We can see the four touching circles as equators of spheres. The plane going through their centers is the boundary of two Poincaré half-space models of three-dimensional hyperbolic space. These models lie on the two sides of the plane. The four spheres are flat planes in the corresponding hyperbolic spaces. Multiple inversion in the spheres creates a periodic tiling of these spaces and a non-periodic tiling of their mutual boundary. The limit set is obviously the Apollonian gasket. As mentioned before, we can project the Apollonian gasket on the surface of a sphere using the stereographic projection. But this projection only maps two-dimensional surfaces. It would be useful if we could somehow use the stereographic projection for the entire three-dimensional space. Considering only the surface of a sphere, its stereographic projection to a plane gives the same result as an inversion in a mapping sphere, which has the same center as the stereographic projection. The radius of the mapping sphere is then directly related to the position of the plane of projection. Typically, the mapping sphere intersects the projected spherical surface in this plane. The first figure shows an example. The center of projection is the north pole of the sphere and the plane of projection goes through its center. The intersection with the mapping sphere is then the equator of the spherical surface and the radius of the mapping sphere is larger by a factor of the square root of two. Using the inversion in the sphere, we can extend the stereographic projection to the entire three-dimensional space. That is exactly what we need. We now use an additional inverting sphere to map the four spheres and the hyperbolic model they generate. The center of this sphere lies above the center of the Apollonian gasket. It is closer to the smaller sphere than the three other spheres. Thus, inversion in the additional mapping sphere increases the size of the smaller sphere in comparison to the three larger spheres and it is possible to make that all four spheres get the same size after inversion. As they are touching each other, the distances between their centers are then all the same. Then, the centers of the three spheres lie on the corners of a tetrahedron, see the second figure. The spheres touch in the middle of its edges. A small part of the space inside the tetrahedron lies between the four spheres. It is useful to think that this is a tetrahedron with curved sides, which are parts of the surfaces of the spheres. This tetrahedron has no corners. The black regions show its intersection with the large tetrahedron. Yet, these tetrahedrons are dual to each other. Multiple inversion in the four spheres creates a Poincaré ball model of hyperbolic space. It is tiled by the curved tetrahedron between the four spheres. The surface of the ball model is drawn in the second figure in red color. Note that the tiling tetrahedron has no corners inside the ball or on its surface. Thus it is a “hyperideal” tetrahedron. The last figure shows the surface of the ball model. The intersection with the tiling tetrahedron is again shown in black and the intersection with the four inverting spheres in dark blue. Note that all points get mapped into the black region. Points requiring more iterations get a lighter shade of blue. Thus the white color approximates the limit set, which is indeed an Apollonian gasket. We see that using four spheres is the most symmetric way for getting the Apollonian gasket. Actually, this is the starting point for further research. What can we get from inverting spheres at the corners of other (regular) polyhedrons? This gives interesting variations on the Apollonian gasket. Does an additional inverting sphere at the center result in a fractal space filling structure of Poincaré ball models? We need a tiling tetrahedron with real corners to do that. This might also be seen as five four-dimensional inverting spheres at the corners of a four-dimensional simplex, which is sometimes called a “hyper-thetrahedron”. It gives a much more complicated structure than a three-dimensional “Apollonian gasket”. More results in future posts. Okay , is there a way to find the radius of the nth circle in a apollonian gasket .. Something like this Its like simple case of apollonian gasket .. I found from descartes’ theoremR_n = 2\cdot\sqrt< R_\cdot R_1 + R_n-1\cdot R_2 + R_1\cdot R_2> +R_ + R_1 +R_2 $I have the values of$R_1,R_2,R_3,R_4$.. where$R_n$is the curvature and not the radius So I have this question 1. Is there anywhere this will fail ? 2. Can it be more simplified to get$R_n$in terms$n$3. Is there any faster way to calculate for large numbers as$n=10^8$## 1 Answer 1 Sure, there is a way. To simplify the formula, I will relabel your circles as follows. • Let$S_a$and$S_b$be your circle$C_1$and$C_2$. • Let$S_0, S_1, S_2, \ldots$be your circle$C_3, C_4, C_5, \ldots$. • Given$C_1, C_2, C_3$, there are two possible configurations of$C_4$. Let$S_<-1>$be the other possible configuration of$C_4$differ from$S_<1>$. Let$r_n$be the radius of circle$S_n$where$n = a, b$or$\ge -1$and$\rho_n = \frac<1>$. Recall$S_a$is the outer circle. If we apply Descartes circle theorem to circles$S_a, S_b, S_, S_$for$n \ge 0$, we have $$2( \rho_a^2 + \rho_b^2 + \rho_n^2 + \rho_^2 ) = (-\rho_a + \rho_b + \rho_n + \rho_)^2$$ So$\rho_$are the two roots of a quadratic equation. $$\rho^2 – 2(-\rho_a + \rho_b + \rho_n ) \rho + \left(2(\rho_a^2 + \rho_b^2 + \rho_n^2 ) – (-\rho_a + \rho_b + \rho_n)^2\right) = 0\tag<*1>$$ This implies $$\rho_-2\rho_n + \rho_ = 2A \quad\text< where >\quad A = \rho_b – \rho_a = \frac<1> – \frac<1>$$ This is a linear recurrence relation in$\rho_n$and its general solution has the form $$\rho_ = A n^2 + B n + C$$ In particular, we have $$\begin \rho_1 &= A + B + C\\ \rho_0 &= C\\ \rho_ <-1>&= A – B + C\\ \end \implies \begin B &= \frac12\left( \rho_1 – \rho_ <-1>\right)\\ C &= \rho_0 \end$$ This leads to $$\rho_n = (\rho_b – \rho_a) n^2 + \frac12 (\rho_1 – \rho_<-1>) n + \rho_0$$ You can obtain the values of$\rho_<\pm 1>$by solving the quadratic equation$(*1)$for$n = 0$. To match your diagram,$\rho_1$should be the smaller one of the two roots. These are some python classes and functions for calculating Apollonian Gaskets and saving them as svg. For an overview about this mathematical object, see wikipedia. The code is split into the following files: • apollon.py contains all the pure math stuff • coloring.py contains helpers for color mapping • ag.py is a command-line tool for generating Apollonian Gaskets • index.cgi is an interactive online cgi version • colorbrewer.json contains the color schemes, copied from https://gist.github.com/jsundram/6004447#file-colorbrewer-json Run ./ag.py c1 c2 c3 where c1, c2, c3 are the (positive) curvatures of the starting circles. Please also see the –help option. Note: The method used to calculate the circles is recursive. For depth d, 2*3^ circles are created. It is usually safe to do this up to d=10, but with higher values you can reach the limit of your RAM. Because of this, and to prevent typos potentially crashing your machine, the recursion depth is capped at d=10. If you know what you are doing, you can use the –force option for higher values. Recursion depth is limited to 5 to reduce server load and RAM usage. This implementation might not be very fast, it is just intended as a showcase of what you can expect from the CLI-version. Needs python3 and the other three files to work. For the cli-program see ag.py –help . For a somewhat complete documentation of the source files run epydoc –html apollon.py ag.py coloring.py For a writeup on how the math behind this program works see my blogpost here: http://lsandig.org/blog/2014/08/apollon-python/en/ • More logical structure of the source files • Better documentation • A time- and RAM-saving algorithm that excludes Circles from recursion which are too small to be seen. • fastcgi version of index.cgi? Colors from www.ColorBrewer.org by Cynthia A. Brewer, Geography, Pennsylvania State University. Thanks to Dorothee Henke for helping me figuring out the math. This software can be found on github: https://github.com/lsandig/apollon This software is published under the GPL, see LICENSE ## A blog for developers programming with Autodesk platforms, particularly AutoCAD and Forge. With a special focus on AR/VR and IoT. • Archives • Subscribe • Autodesk Blogs • Facebook Page • Google Plus • LinkedIn • Twitter ## February 06, 2012 ### Circle packing in AutoCAD: creating an Apollonian gasket using .NET To follow on from the recent series on using hyperbolic tessellation to generate patterns that might be used for 3D printing, I decided to research a slightly different approach. While I found hyperbolic tessellation reasonably straightforward for generating 2D patterns, it was much harder to adapt to 3D, mainly because we’d need to create irregular polyhedra rather than just irregular 2D polygons. I had enough trouble getting my head around the 2D side of things that I decided not to go down that path for now, at least. The good news from Alex Fielder is that he’s been making good progress getting the hyperbolic tessellation code working inside Inventor (very cool), focusing – as far as I know – on using the 2D pattern to generate ribs rather than polyhedra (a very pragmatic approach). I do think the type of pattern created through hyperbolic tessellation is probably more interesting from a structural perspective (having smaller versions at the edges with larger ones at the middle just makes a lot of sense), especially if working with polyhedra rather than ribs. I expect to come back to something similar, in due course, but for now have been looking into a different approach: thinking about more regular (and therefore simpler) geometric forms by looking at circle packing before moving on to the very much related sphere packing. There are a number of interesting strategies for circle packing: the one I like best is called the Apollonian gasket (which has been covered on a number of different Wikipedia pages, as well as on Wolfram MathWorld), which is also known as Leibniz packing. A related, specific case is that of Ford circles. The idea is that after creating three initial circles (each tangent to each other and to the outer circle), you draw the largest possible circle in the remaining space, continuing to sub-divide fractally as far as you’d like. [As an aside… while researching this topic, I came across this interesting site by Takaya Iwamoto, a former colleague at Autodesk, who clearly shares my interest in fractals.] And this of course also applies to 3D, although it may require a slightly different approach to get there. I really like this pattern: while it may not create an internal structure optimised for strength, it should still be pretty interesting from a material savings perspective (short of having a completely hollow shell, of course). And I fully expect to looking into more structural filling techniques, further down the line. The main problem to solve when generating the above pattern is to find a fourth mutually tangent circle (in 2D) or a fifth mutually tangent sphere (in 3D). It’s possible to use Descartes’ theorem in 2D or the Soddy-Gosset theorem in 3D (and beyond, for the truly fearless). The example Find circles that are tangent to three given circles in Visual Basic .NET shows how to find up to eight circles that are tangent to three given circles. This example uses that method to build an Apollonian gasket. (This is also called an Apollonian packing. If you think of each circle as cutting a hole in the enclosing circle so you get a lace-like figure, it’s a gasket. If you think of filling the enclosing circle with other circles, it’s a packing.) The following FindApollonianPacking method controls the drawing and returns a Bitmap holding the packing. This method starts by creating a bitmap of the desired size. It then creates the three largest circles inside the enclosing circle. It does a little math to size the circles appropriately, arranges them so they are tangent, and then draws them. Next the code calls the FindApollonianCircle method used by the previous example to find a circle tangent to the three large circles. It passes the parameters -1, -1, and -1 to find the tangent circle that contains all three of the big circles so the result is the enclosing circle. The program draws the enclosing circle. The code then calls the FindCircleOutsideAll method to find and draw the small circle that sits between the three initial circles. It finishes by calling FindCircleOutsideTwo three times to find the circles that lie inside the enclosing circle but outside of two of the inner big circles. The following code shows the FindCircleOutsideAll method. The FindCircleOutsideAll method finds a circle tangent to three other circles that does not contain any of the three. In this program that is the circle that lies between the three other circles. For example, the very center circle lies between the three large circles. The code calls the FindApollonianCircle method used by the previous example program, passing it the parameters 1, 1, 1 to find the desired circle. If it finds such a circle, the code draws it. The code then decrements the level parameter and if it is still greater than 0 the method calls itself recursively three times to find the circles between the new circle and the pairs of the original three circles. (Study the picture to see where those areas are.) The following code shows the FindCircleOutsideTwo method. This method finds a circle that is inside one circle and outside two others. For example, in the figure this method draws the medium-sized circle on the upper right that lies inside the enclosing circle and outside the two big circles. The code calls the FindApollonianCircle method passing it the parameters 1, 1, and -1 to find the appropriate circle. Note that the order in which the code passes the circles to that method is important because the last circle is the one that should contain the new circle. I have wanted for a while to use lacy tape and knit circles to make…well, actually I was stumped on application. When I described my swatch experiments on Twitter, Naomi Parkhurst dm-med a sketch of how I could make a crescent shawl with them, and I tucked that into my mental file of things I really wanted to figure out but thought might be hard. In the mean time, my oldest son finished his college degree, and since he has studied a whole lot more mathematics than I have, I asked him what to investigate. Apollonian Gaskets he said. Oh. Wow. So, I need to figure out, what the size of the shawl should be, and can you take an Apollonian Gasket, spread it out and put lacy tape leading between the circles, or should the whole thing be held together with smaller and smaller circles? Will I finally be designing with color (one strand at a time of course, I’m that lazy) and will it sell? ## 2 Replies to “Links for Apollonian Gasket” Oh that would be SO cool! Great job on the investigation, eldest son :-). I wonder if you made it a rectangular shawl with a negative space border kinda like what would happen if it were crocheted rather than knit I agree! I’m wondering if the circles are only connected at the tangent points if the fabric would be floppy, or if it would be fine… ## Leave a Reply Cancel reply This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. The classical Descartes-Soddy relationship between the signed curvatures$b_k$(“b” for “bend”) of 4 mutually tangent circles (Apollonian configuration): $$\sum_^4 b_k^2=\tfrac12 \left(\sum_^4 b_k\right)^2\tag<1>$$ allows to obtain the curvature$b_4$, knowing$b_1,b_2,b_3$by considering (1) as a quadratic equation in variable$b_4$. The fact that there are two solutions$b_4$and$b’_4$is in harmony with our experience. On fig. 1 below are represented 3 given mutually tangent circles in blue, and interior and exterior tangent circles to them in red). From there, one obtains the radii$r_4=\tfrac<1><|b_4|>$and$r’_4=\tfrac<1><|b'_4|>.$But the centers$z_4$and$z’_4$(we work with complex notations) of the fourth circles are usually computed in a separate way. In fact, the following unexpected formula (obtained only some 20 years ago) gives an easy way to obtain as well the centers of these circles: $$\sum_^4 (b_kz_k)^2=\tfrac12 \left(\sum_^4 b_kz_k\right)^2\tag<2>$$ (please note the beautiful similarity with (1)!). One can find a proof of (2) with nD extensions by its discoverers in this well written document : https://arxiv.org/pdf/math/0101066.pdf As before for relationship (1),$z_4$is computed by considering (2) as a quadratic equation, this time with variable$z_4$(or$b_4z_4$) giving the two centers$z_4$and$z’_4$(assuming that$b_4$and$b’_4$have been computed beforehand). See paragraph “complex Descartes theorem” in (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Descartes%27_theorem). Using formulas (1) et (2), I am able to make a certain number of steps by iterating initial step (figure 1); here is for example a second step where 6 new circles have been added to figure 1: In the upsaid arxiv document, one finds in particular this figure : Fig. 3 : A so-called “Apollonian gasket”. where the numbers figuring inside the disks are their unsigned curvatures. I would like to “programmaticaly” reproduce this figure or similar figures but I am facing the difficulty to understand/manage its underlying recursive structure. Has somebody a hint ? And these two from the same site: Remark 1 : The authors of the text mentionned at the beginning have published it in American Mathematical Monthly one year later: Jeffrey C. Lagarias, Colin L. Mallows, and Allan R. Wilks, Beyond the Descartes circle theorem, Amer. Math. Monthly 109 (2002), no. 4, 338–361. Remark 2 : The term “Circles of Apollonius” may be misleading ; there are other circles having this name as explained here. Remark 3: There are strong connections with Farey sequences (see in particular the last figure of this article). We modify the Apollonian gasket presented in the earlier post Apollonian gasket as a spherical fractal with tetrahedral symmetry. In an icosahedron, five triangles meet at their corners, which gives us a fivefold rotational symmetry. At the centers of the triangles we have a threefold rotational symmetry and at the middle of their edges a twofold one. The corresponding kaleidoscopic triangle thus has corner angles of 36, 60 and 9’0 degrees. Their sum is 186 degrees, just enough to make the triangle elliptic. Multiple reflection at the sides of this triangle makes a stereographic projection of a sphere with an icosahedral tiling : Spherical tiling with icosahedral symmetry generated by reflections at the blue lines and circle shown in stereographic projection. The dashed line marks the projection of the equator. Adding an inverting circle we get a fractal. It is a decoration of the icosahedral tiling : Icosahedral fractal, shown in black, resulting from reflection at two lines and two circles. It decorates the icosahedral tiling, which is shown in yellow. This is a stereographic projection. The icosahedral symmetry becomes evident using an inverse stereographic projection to a sphere. The normal projections of the upper and lower hemispheres are the same, except for a rotation by 36 degrees. This is a view of the lower hemisphere : Normal view of a hemisphere with an icosahedral tiling (yellow) decorated by a variant of the Apollonian gasket (black). Drawing both hemispheres of the gasket together we get : Superposition of both hemispheres of a variant of the Apollonian gasket with icosahedral symmetry. You can see how they nicely fit together. The stars of five-fold rotational symmetry contain small copies of themselves. This results from a recursive packing of discs, quite similar to the Apollonian gasket. But now it is based on ideal pentagons instead of triangles: The five discs, shown in green, leave a gap in the shape of a pentagon. Putting fifteen discs, which are coloured blue, in this gap we get eleven gaps. They are again pentagons and are filled in the same way. My son and I were recently watching Vi Hart’s wonderful “Doodling in Math Class” Video on Infinity Elephants. Around 1:30 in the video she starts talking about how to draw an Apollonian Gasket in a triangle: This got me wondering about how to code this object. It’s not a new challenge. Lot’s of people have done it. You can even search Shapeways to find some amazing 3-D printed, 3-dimensional versions. But I couldn’t find much info on how its done. I did find an old discussion here where they were wondering how to do the same thing. (Nothing really useful there, except some nice references to hyperbolic Geometry-specifically a little paper by David Dumas-with a dead link to a program written by Curt McMullen.) I’ll use Python when I have to, but my preferred method of construction is with the visual programming language Grasshopper, a plug-in for the CAD program Rhinoceros3D. Clearly, the object I was trying to replicate is fractal, which means recursion is going to be unavoidable. That’s easy enough in Python, but it sucks in Grasshopper. The only way I know to do recursion in Grasshopper is with a 3rd party component. I think there are multiple options. The one I use is called “Hoopsnake.” It does the job, but for this kind of thing it’s extremely slooowwww. That’s OK, because to replicate the drawing in Vi’s video, I’m only going to do about 5 iterations. It took a bit of experimenting, but eventually I got it down to a surprisingly small Grasshopper definition. The key was to use the CircleTanTanTan component, which automatically finds the circle that is tangent to three different input curves. For the Grasshopper savvy out there, here’s my definition: Here’s what it produces…. …exactly what I wanted!! Once I had that, it wasn’t hard to make all kinds of designs. Here are some Apollonian Spheres. I even experimented with an Apollonian Pocket Watch Design! Representation for circles that lets us quickly compute an Apollonian gasket. The bend is the reciprocal of signed radius: a negative radius means the outside and inside of the circle are switched. The bends of any four mutually tangent circles satisfy Descartes’ Theorem. Product of bend and center represented as a complex number. Amazingly, these products also satisfy the equation of Descartes’ Theorem. The Num , Fractional , and Floating instances for Circle (all simply lifted elementwise over Circle ‘s fields) let us use Descartes’ Theorem directly on circles. Create a Circle given a signed radius and a location for its center. Get the center of a circle. Get the (unsigned) radius of a circle. Descartes’ Theorem states that if b1 , b2 , b3 and b4 are the bends of four mutually tangent circles, then Surprisingly, if we replace each of the bi with the product of bi and the center of the corresponding circle (represented as a complex number), the equation continues to hold! (See the paper referenced at the top of the module.) descartes [b1,b2,b3] solves for b4 , returning both solutions. Notably, descartes works for any instance of Floating , which includes both Double (for bends), Complex Double (for bend/center product), and Circle (for both at once). If we have four mutually tangent circles we can choose one of them to replace; the remaining three determine exactly one other circle which is mutually tangent. However, in this situation there is no need to apply descartes again, since the two solutions b4 and b4′ satisfy Hence, to replace b4 with its dual, we need only sum the other three, multiply by two, and subtract b4 . Again, this works for bends as well as bend/center products. Generate an initial configuration of four mutually tangent circles, given just the signed bends of three of them. Given a threshold radius and a list of four mutually tangent circles, generate the Apollonian gasket containing those circles. Stop the recursion when encountering a circle with an (unsigned) radius smaller than the threshold. ## Kissing sets The basic idea of a kissing set is supposed to represent a set of four mutually tangent circles with one selected, though in fact it is more general than that: it represents any set of objects with one distinguished object selected. Generate all possible kissing sets from a set of objects by selecting each object in turn. “Flip” the selected circle to the other circle mutually tangent to the other three. The new circle remains selected. Make the selected circle unselected, and select each of the others, generating a new kissing set for each. ## Apollonian trees Given a set of four mutually tangent circles, generate the infinite Apollonian tree rooted at the given set, represented as a list of four subtrees. Each node in the tree is a kissing set with one circle selected which has just been flipped. The three children of a node represent the kissing sets obtained by selecting each of the other three circles and flipping them. The initial roots of the four trees are chosen by selecting and flipping each of the circles in the starting set. This representation has the property that each circle in the Apollonian gasket is the selected circle in exactly one node (except that the initial four circles never appear as the selected circle in any node). Generate a single Apollonian tree from a root kissing set. See the documentation for apollonianTrees for an explanation. The example Find circles that are tangent to three given circles in Visual Basic 6 shows how to find up to eight circles that are tangent to three given circles. This example uses that method to build an Apollonian gasket. (This is also called an Apollonian packing. If you think of each circle as cutting a hole in the enclosing circle so you get a lace-like figure, it’s a gasket. If you think of filling the enclosing circle with other circles, it’s a packing.) The following FindApollonianPacking method controls the drawing and returns a Bitmap holding the packing. This method starts by creating the three largest circles inside the enclosing circle. It does a little math to size the circles appropriately, arranges them so they are tangent, and then draws them. Next the code calls the FindApollonianCircle method used by the previous example to find a circle tangent to the three large circles. It passes the parameters -1, -1, and -1 to find the tangent circle that contains all three of the big circles so the result is the enclosing circle. The program draws the enclosing circle. The code then calls the FindCircleOutsideAll method to find and draw the small circle that sits between the three initial circles. It finishes by calling FindCircleOutsideTwo three times to find the circles that lie inside the enclosing circle but outside of two of the inner big circles. The following code shows the FindCircleOutsideAll method. The FindCircleOutsideAll method finds a circle tangent to three other circles that does not contain any of the three. In this program that is the circle that lies between the three other circles. For example, the very center circle lies between the three large circles. The code calls the FindApollonianCircle method used by the previous example program, passing it the parameters 1, 1, 1 to find the desired circle. If it finds such a circle, the code draws it. The code then decrements the level parameter and if it is still greater than 0 the method calls itself recursively three times to find the circles between the new circle and the pairs of the original three circles. (Study the picture to see where those areas are.) The following code shows the FindCircleOutsideTwo method. This method finds a circle that is inside one circle and outside two others. For example, in the figure this method draws the medium-sized circle on the upper right that lies inside the enclosing circle and outside the two big circles. The code calls the FindApollonianCircle method passing it the parameters 1, 1, and -1 to find the appropriate circle. Note that the order in which the code passes the circles to that method is important because the last circle is the one that should contain the new circle.  Author: Mitch Richling Updated: 2021-05-22 ## Table of Contents • 1. Apollonian Gaskets • 2. Generating Circles and Spheres • 3. Rendering • 4. An IFS Approach • 5. References ## 1 Apollonian Gaskets An Apollonian gasket fractal is generated by starting with a triple of mutually tangent circles, and successively filling in more circles, each tangent to another three. The result is sometimes called the curvilinear Sierpinski gasket. You can read all about it on wikipedia A single Apollonian gasket is fun, but four is better. 😉 For many sets of three mutually tangent circles one may find an enclosing circle that is also mutually tangent. Now one may create four different Apollonian gaskets, one for each possible 3-tuple of circles. Here are a couple examples: If we turn each of the circles in a gasket into spheres, then we get the construction at the top of the page. Here are some examples: ## 2 Generating Circles and Spheres The first step in creating images like the ones above is to generate descriptions of the geometric objects (circle/sphere centers and radii). Practically speaking this means creating a files in some “standard” format with circle data for 2D renderings and spheres data for 3D renderings. The following little ruby script will generate SVG files for 2D data: ## 3 Rendering One need not explicitly render SVG files to view them because many software applications do that behind the scenes; however, one can obtain nice raster images from SVG files using ImageMagick which uses inkscape internally, to convert them into PNG files. For the 3D scenes, I used POV-Ray with the following thre input files: Note these are the primary scene description files, and the sphere data is housed in “include” files generated by the script. For examples of how to use the rendering tools mentioned above, see the makefile: ## 4 An IFS Approach Above we have taken a constructive approach using a direct description of the circles for 2D images of the Apollonian Gasket. This is not the only way! One interesting alternative is an IFS frequently attributed to Kravchenko Alexei and Mekhontsev Dmitriy (I don’t have a reference). We can generate an image with a bit of code – C++ this time: It draws the central region of Apollonian Gasket fractal using IFS description.  Created by FB36 on Sat, 14 Jan 2012 (MIT)  ◄ Python recipes (4591) ► ◄ FB36’s recipes (148) ► • fractal • math • mathematics ▶ Show machine tags (5) • meta:language=python • meta:license=mit • meta:loc=29 • meta:requires=pil • meta:score=1 ### Required Modules ### Other Information and Tasks • Licensed under the MIT License • Viewed 5733 times • Revision 1 #### Accounts • Create Account (Free!) • Sign In #### Code Recipes • Recipes • Languages • Tags • Authors • Sets #### Feedback & Information • About • FAQ • Terms of Service #### ActiveState • ActiveState Blog • Perl Solutions • Python Solutions • Tcl Solutions • Download ActivePerl • Download ActivePython • Download ActiveTcl • About ActiveState • Careers © 2022 ActiveState Software Inc. All rights reserved. ActiveState®, Komodo®, ActiveState Perl Dev Kit®, ActiveState Tcl Dev Kit®, ActivePerl®, ActivePython®, and ActiveTcl® are registered trademarks of ActiveState. All other marks are property of their respective owners. Inkscape extension to make Apollonian gaskets. Ported as Fork to make it compatible with InkScape 1.0+ An Apollonian gasket can be constructed as follows. Start with three circles C1, C2 and C3, each one of which is tangent to the other two (in the general construction, these three circles can be any size, as long as they have common tangents). Apollonius discovered that there are two other non-intersecting circles, C4 and C5, which have the property that they are tangent to all three of the original circles – these are called Apollonian circles. Adding the two Apollonian circles to the original three, we now have five circles. Take one of the two Apollonian circles – say C4. It is tangent to C1 and C2, so the triplet of circles C4, C1 and C2 has its own two Apollonian circles. We already know one of these – it is C3 – but the other is a new circle C6. In a similar way we can construct another new circle C7 that is tangent to C4, C2 and C3, and another circle C8 from C4, C3 and C1. This gives us 3 new circles. We can construct another three new circles from C5, giving six new circles altogether. Together with the circles C1 to C5, this gives a total of 11 circles. Continuing the construction stage by stage in this way ad infinituum one obtains a set of circles which is an Apollonian gasket. ###Example Inkscape file 1. Edit the first line of apollon_inx.py to point to your python installation if you don’t use Anaconda on OSX. 2. Copy the .inx and all the .py to inkscape extensions folder : For OS X –$HOME/.config/inkscape/extensions
3. Open Inkscape.

Needs Anaconda python on OS X but should work with any python 2.7* installation after modifying as per installation instructions.

Foam consists of bubbles packed together in a fractal pattern.

Let’s use what we have learned about fractals to study a real-world phenomenon: foam. By definition a foam is any material made up of bubbles packed closely together. If the bubbles tend to be very large, you might call it a froth.

We know that bubbles like to form spheres, because the sphere is the most efficient shape for minimizing surface area around a fixed volume. When you blow a soap bubble on a warm spring day, for example, that bubble will be approximately spherical until it pops.

However, spheres do not pack together very nicely. There’s always gaps between the adjacent spheres. So when a foam forms, there may be some number of large bubbles, interspersed with smaller bubbles in the gaps, which in turn have even smaller bubbles in their gaps and so on. The foam is approximately self-similar on smaller and smaller scales; in other words, foam is fractal.

Let’s take a look at a two-dimensional idealized version of foam called the Apollonian gasket. This figure is created by the following procedure. It helps to have a compass handy.

1. Draw a large circle.
2. Within the circle, draw three smaller circles that all touch one another. In technical terms, we say that the circles are mutually tangent to one another.
3. In the gaps between these circles, draw smaller circles that are as large as possible without overlapping any existing circles. If you do this correctly, the new circle will be tangent to two of the circles from step 2 as well as the original big circle.
4. Continue in this way, filling each new gap with as large a circle that will fit without overlap. Notice that with each new circle, there will be multiple new gaps to fill.

The process should continue indefinitely, however you will eventually reach a stage in which the gaps are smaller than the width of your pencil or pen. At that point, you can step back and admire your work. A computer-generated Apollonian gasket is shown in the figure below.

The Apollonian gasket is a fractal that can be used to model soap bubble foam.

Because the Apollonian gasket is only approximately self-similar, there is not a well-defined scaling-dimension. However, if you look at any “triangular” section within three circles, it looks like a curved version of the Sierpinski gasket. Recall, it requires 3 copies of the Sierpinski gasket in order to scale it by a factor of 2. So we would expect the fractal dimension of the Apollonian gasket to be close to:

In fact, using a more general definition of fractal dimension, it can be shown that the dimension of the Apollonian gasket is about 1.3057. This implies that the gasket is somehow closer to being one-dimensional than two-dimensional. In turn, a foam made of large bubbles, like the froth on top of your latte is more two-dimensional than three-dimensional. Remember this next time you get an extremely frothy drink; there’s very little substance to it!

The Apollonian Gasket Orbit Trap examples are based on an Orbit Trap called the Apollonian Gasket . The Apollonian Gasket is a stand-alone fractal. It is implemented as an Orbit Trap so it can take advantage of Orbit Trap related features in the Fractal Science Kit, but it does not need the normal orbit processing; i.e., I set the Max Dwell property found in the Orbit Trap Orbit Generation section on the Mandelbrot / Julia / Newton page, to 1, eliminating the normal orbit processing.

For these examples I modified the built-in Orbit Trap Apollonian Gasket to add the 2 silver border circles seen in the images.

The examples use complex Transformations to alter the fractal, and color the trap using a set of Perlin Noise based Orbit Trap Controllers to achieve the stone-like appearance. You can create lots of variations by changing the transformation applied to the fractal.

The Apollonian Gasket Orbit Trap examples were inspired by information found on the Fractal Geometry site. Additional information can be found in the excellent book Indra’s Pearls – The Vision of Felix Klein by David Mumford, Caroline Series, and David Wright.

## Performance

The Apollonian Gasket Orbit Trap examples are based on an Orbit Trap called Apollonian Gasket . There are a few properties associated with the trap that are related to quality and also affect performance. When you are exploring, you can improve performance by adjusting these properties on the trap’s properties page.

Open the orbit trap’s properties page:

Depth , Radius Cutoff , and Min Radius , control the number of circles that are generated to define the fractal. Depth is the depth of recursion used in the algorithm. Radius Cutoff is the minimum radius of circles placed on the processing stack and is used to terminate the recursion loop early on selected branches. Min Radius is the minimum radius required for a circle to be displayed.

You can increase Depth and/or decrease Radius Cutoff or Min Radius to fill in the gaps between circles but these changes can cause dramatic increases in processing time. If you make a change that seems to be taking forever, you should click the Cancel Display command on the Tools menu of the Fractal Window to terminate the processing. Then try adjusting these properties to reduce the processing (i.e., decrease Depth and/or increase Radius Cutoff or Min Radius ).

When you are exploring, you should set Depth to 32 , Radius Cutoff to 0.004 , and Min Radius to 0.004 . This will greatly improve performance at the expense of quality. You can reset them later when you find an image you wish to save.

## Zoom In/Out

Zoom In or Zoom Out to examine different parts of the fractal.

Execute the Home command on the View menu of the Fractal Window to reset the fractal to the default position/magnification, and then Zoom In to other areas.

## Change the Transformation

You can apply a transformation to the fractal.

Execute the Home command on the View menu of the Fractal Window to reset the fractal to the default position/magnification before you adjust the transformation. Then change the transformation and Zoom In to interesting areas of the transformed image.

With the exception of Apollonian Gasket Orbit Trap 01 , each of these examples applies a transformation to the fractal.

• Apollonian Gasket Orbit Trap 02 applies the transformation Kaleidoscope – Triangles .
• Apollonian Gasket Orbit Trap 03 applies the transformation Composite Function .
• Apollonian Gasket Orbit Trap 04 applies the transformation Composite Function .
• Apollonian Gasket Orbit Trap 05 applies 2 transformations: Kaleidoscope – Triangles and Composite Function .

In the following, when I refer to the transformation, I will use Composite Function , but you should use the transformation for the example you are working with.

To change the transformation applied to the fractal, select the transformation’s properties page:

Set the F(z) property to one of the complex functions in the list. You can change some of the other properties on this page for more variations.

You can also use a different transformation altogether. Select the Composite Function page, and change the Based On property to select a transformation and then open the transformation’s properties page (found under the transformation in the page hierarchy), and play with the transformation’s properties. See Transformation Support for details.

Click the New toolbar button to add a new Identity transformation to the bottom of the list, and then click the Move Up toolbar button to move the new transformation to the desired position in the list. Normally, I move the new transformation to the top of the list, but it can be placed anywhere. See Transformation Array for details.

Then select the Identity transformation:

Change the Based On property to select a transformation and then open the transformation’s properties page (found under the transformation in the page hierarchy), and play with the transformation’s properties. See Transformation Support for details.

Xin Zhang, Statistical Regularity of Apollonian Gaskets, International Mathematics Research Notices, Volume 2021, Issue 2, January 2021, Pages 1055–1095, https://doi.org/10.1093/imrn/rnz241

## Abstract

Apollonian gaskets are formed by repeatedly filling the gaps between three mutually tangent circles with further tangent circles. In this paper we give explicit formulas for the limiting pair correlation and the limiting nearest neighbor spacing of centers of circles from a fixed Apollonian gasket. These are corollaries of the convergence of moments that we prove. The input from ergodic theory is an extension of Mohammadi–Oh’s theorem on the equidisribution of expanding horospheres in the frame fundles of infinite volume hyperbolic spaces.

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The Apollonian Gasket examples are based on a custom symmetry transformation applied to a variation of the Apollonian Gasket.

The Apollonian Gasket , and the methods used to produce them, are described in the excellent book Indra’s Pearls – The Vision of Felix Klein by David Mumford, Caroline Series, and David Wright. For additional details, see David Wright’s Indra’s Pearls site.

## Change the Transformation

You can apply a transformation to the fractal. Use the transformation named Transformation 2 which is applied after the symmetry transformation.

Execute the Home command on the View menu of the Fractal Window to reset the fractal to the default position/magnification before you adjust the transformation. Then change the transformation and Zoom In to interesting areas of the transformed image.

To apply a transformation to the fractal, select the Identity transformation:

Set the Based On property to one of the available transformations, select the transformation’s properties page (found under the transformation in the page hierarchy), and play with the properties found there.

Mobius transformations work especially well in these examples because they preserve circles; i.e., circles are mapped to circles.

To use a Mobius transformation, set the Based On property to one of the following transformations:

• Mobius Transformation
• Mobius Transformation – Elliptic
• Mobius Transformation – Hyperbolic
• Mobius Transformation – Loxodromic
• Mobius Transformation – Parabolic
• Disc Automorphism – Elliptic
• Disc Automorphism – Hyperbolic
• Disc Automorphism – Parabolic
• Disc Automorphism – General
• Half-Plane to Disk
• Circle To Circle
• Poincare Disk
• Mobius Group

Note that the default for most of these transformations is the identity transformation (which does nothing) so you will need to select the properties page found under the transformation and change the properties in the section labeled Transformation Control .

## Change the Variation

Skip this section if you are not comfortable with the geometry of the complex plane.

In these examples, the Orbital Equation generates a variation of the Apollonian Gasket. A custom Symmetry Transformation is used to overlay several transformed copies of the base fractal resulting in the images you see here. You can generate lots of images like these using this technique, but you need to coordinate the Symmetry Transformation with the variation of the Apollonian Gasket that you select, for the best results.

For example, Apollonian Gasket 01 is based on the classic Apollonian Gasket which has 2 empty circular areas that are 0.5 the size of the base fractal, with centers at 0.5 and -0.5 . In addition, there are 2 empty circular areas that are 0.33333 the size of the base fractal, with centers at 0.66666i and -0.66666i . The symmetry transformation used in Apollonian Gasket 01 defines 4 transformations that scale/translate the original Apollonian Gasket into these 4 empty circular areas and a 5 th transformation that inverts the Apollonian Gasket in a circle centered at the origin with radius 1.

If you want to see the variation of the Apollonian Gasket without the effect of the symmetry transformation, set the Count property to 0 on the symmetry transformation’s properties page:

General
Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor
Symmetry Transformation: Transformation Set – General
Properties

The other examples use different variations of the Apollonian Gasket and define symmetry transformations based on the geometry of each variation.

To generate additional images, start with one of the variations of the Apollonian Gasket and construct the symmetry transformation by filling in the empty parts of the base image with scaled copies of the base fractal.

The properties for the Apollonian Gasket are found at:

General
Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor
Properties

Change the Variation property to view the different variations.

The properties for the symmetry transformation are found at:

General
Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor
Symmetry Transformation: Transformation Set – General
Properties
Transformations

The Properties page has a few general properties and the Transformations page is used to define the set of transformations.

The Apollonian Gasket Variations examples use an attractor based on a variation of the algorithm used to generate the Apollonian Gasket .

The Apollonian Gasket , and the methods used to produce them, are described in the excellent book Indra’s Pearls – The Vision of Felix Klein by David Mumford, Caroline Series, and David Wright. For additional details, see David Wright’s Indra’s Pearls site.

## Change the Variation

You can change the variation.

Select the equation’s properties page:

General
Orbital / IFS / Strange Attractor
Properties

Change the Variation property to one of the predefined variations or create your own by defining a Mobius transformation.

Change the Invert property to conjugate the results with the complex inversion transformation.

I do not recommend changing the Mobius transformations defined for Attractor 1 or Attractor 2 unless you understand the algorithm on which this attractor is based.

## Change the Transformation

You can apply a transformation to the fractal.

Execute the Home command on the View menu of the Fractal Window to reset the fractal to the default position/magnification before you adjust the transformation. Then change the transformation and Zoom In to interesting areas of the transformed image.

Note the following:

• Apollonian Gasket Variations 01 applies the Identity transformation to the fractal.
• Apollonian Gasket Variations 02 applies the transformation Disc Automorphism – Hyperbolic to the fractal.
• Apollonian Gasket Variations 03 applies the Identity transformation to the fractal.
• Apollonian Gasket Variations 04 applies the transformation Clip to the fractal.

The Identity transformation does not alter the image.

In the remaining sections, when I refer to the transformation, I will use Identity , but you should use the transformation for the example you are working with.

To apply a transformation to the fractal, select the Identity transformation’s page:

Set the Based On property to one of the available transformations, select the transformation’s properties page (found under the transformation in the page hierarchy), and play with the properties found there.

Mobius transformations work especially well in these examples because they preserve circles; i.e., circles are mapped to circles.

To use a Mobius transformation, set the Based On property to one of the following transformations:

• Mobius Transformation
• Mobius Transformation – Elliptic
• Mobius Transformation – Hyperbolic
• Mobius Transformation – Loxodromic
• Mobius Transformation – Parabolic
• Disc Automorphism – Elliptic
• Disc Automorphism – Hyperbolic
• Disc Automorphism – Parabolic
• Disc Automorphism – General
• Half-Plane to Disk
• Circle To Circle
• Poincare Disk
• Mobius Group

Note that the default for most of these transformations is the identity transformation (which does nothing) so you will need to select the properties page found under the transformation and change the properties in the section labeled Transformation Control .

Click the New toolbar button to add a new Identity transformation to the bottom of the list. See Transformation Array for details.

Then select the Identity transformation:

Change the Based On property to select a transformation and then open the transformation’s properties page (found under the transformation in the page hierarchy), and play with the transformation’s properties. See Transformation Support for details.

wikiHow is ‘n ‘wiki’, soortgelyk aan Wikipedia, wat beteken dat baie van ons artikels saam geskryf is deur verskeie outeurs. Om hierdie artikel te skep, het 15 mense, sommige anoniem, gewerk om dit mettertyd te wysig en te verbeter.

Hierdie artikel is 42 725 keer gekyk.

‘N Apolloniese pakking is ‘n soort fraktale beeld wat gevorm word uit ‘n versameling van steeds krimpende sirkels wat binne ‘n enkele groot sirkel voorkom. Elke sirkel in die Apolloniese pakking is raaklyn aan die aangrensende sirkels – met ander woorde, die sirkels in die Apolloniese pakking maak kontak op oneindige klein punte. Hierdie soort fraktale, wat vernoem is na die Griekse wiskundige Apollonius van Perga, kan tot ‘n redelike mate van ingewikkeldheid (met die hand of per rekenaar) geteken word en ‘n pragtige, opvallende beeld vorm. Raadpleeg stap 1 hieronder om aan die gang te kom.

Om duidelik te wees , is dit nie noodsaaklik om die wiskundebeginsels agter die fraktaal te ondersoek as u bloot belangstel om ‘ n Apollonian Gasket te teken nie. As u egter ‘n dieper begrip van Apollonian Pakkings wil hê, is dit belangrik om die definisies van verskillende begrippe te verstaan ​​wat ons sal gebruik as u dit bespreek.

Apolloniese pakkings het die vorm van pragtige fraktale rangskikkings van krimpende sirkels. Wiskundig het Apollonian Pakkings oneindige kompleksiteit, maar of u nou ‘n rekenaartekenprogram of tradisionele tekeninstrumente gebruik, u sal uiteindelik ‘n punt bereik waarop dit onmoontlik is om sirkels kleiner te trek. Hoe meer presies u sirkels teken, hoe meer in u pakking kan pas.

Representation for circles that lets us quickly compute an Apollonian gasket.

The bend is the reciprocal of signed radius: a negative radius means the outside and inside of the circle are switched. The bends of any four mutually tangent circles satisfy Descartes’ Theorem.

Product of bend and center represented as a complex number. Amazingly, these products also satisfy the equation of Descartes’ Theorem.

The Num , Fractional , and Floating instances for Circle (all simply lifted elementwise over Circle ‘s fields) let us use Descartes’ Theorem directly on circles.

Create a Circle given a signed radius and a location for its center.

Get the center of a circle.

Get the (unsigned) radius of a circle.

Descartes’ Theorem states that if b1 , b2 , b3 and b4 are the bends of four mutually tangent circles, then

Surprisingly, if we replace each of the bi with the product of bi and the center of the corresponding circle (represented as a complex number), the equation continues to hold! (See the paper referenced at the top of the module.)

descartes [b1,b2,b3] solves for b4 , returning both solutions. Notably, descartes works for any instance of Floating , which includes both Double (for bends), Complex Double (for bend/center product), and Circle (for both at once).

If we have four mutually tangent circles we can choose one of them to replace; the remaining three determine exactly one other circle which is mutually tangent. However, in this situation there is no need to apply descartes again, since the two solutions b4 and b4′ satisfy

Hence, to replace b4 with its dual, we need only sum the other three, multiply by two, and subtract b4 . Again, this works for bends as well as bend/center products.

Generate an initial configuration of four mutually tangent circles, given just the signed bends of three of them.

Given a threshold radius and a list of four mutually tangent circles, generate the Apollonian gasket containing those circles. Stop the recursion when encountering a circle with an (unsigned) radius smaller than the threshold.

## Contents

• 1 Theory
• 2 How to compute and draw Apollonian gasket ?
• 2.1 Notation
• 2.2 Algorithms
• 2.2.1 Mandelbrot algorithm
• 2.2.2 Soddy’s algorithm
• 2.2.2.1 Functions
• 2.2.2.1.1 Functions for computing curvature and center
• 2.2.2.1.2 Functions for computing ck list
• 2.2.2.1.3 Functions for filling gaps
• 2.2.2.2 Construction
• 2.2.2.3 Algorithm for programmers
• 2.2.2.4 Relation betwen circles
• 2.2.2.5 Number of circles
• 2.2.2.6 Curvatures
• 2.2.2.7 Example programs
• 2.2.2.7.1 Haskell and EDSL Diagrams
• 2.2.2.7.2 Java
• 2.2.2.7.3 Maxima CAS
• 2.2.2.7.4 Common Lisp
• 2.2.2.7.5 JavaScript
• 4 References
• wikipedia [1]
• mathforum : Problem of Apollonius [2]

## Notation Edit

• Apollonian gasket = curvilinear Sierpinski gasket = Leibniz packing = Apollonian packing
• stage = level = step
• incircle = inscribed circle = circle inside 3 circles = inner circle
• gap = curvilinear triangle = ideal triangle ( because the sides are tangent at each vertix and the angle between them is zero) = region between 3 tangent circles

## Algorithms Edit

• Mandelbrot algorithm [4] ( using circle inversion) [5][6]
• Soddy’s algorithm ( using circle Descartes theorem ) [7][8]
• IFS algorithm by Alexei Kravchenko and Dmitriy Mekhontsev [9]

All algorithms give state after n stages. It is an aproximation of limit set which is made of infinite number of stages (cicles).

### Soddy’s algorithm Edit

It will be explained by example gasket with initial configuration : 3 inner circles with integer curvatures

This algorithm uses:

When center of outer circle is at origin one has to chose solutions in case of centers. It is easier when the all gasket is in the first quadrant of Cartesian plane. Then all centers have positive parts ( real and imaginary ).

#### Functions Edit

##### Functions for computing ck list Edit

Now one can define new functions ( Maxima CAS code) for computing 4-th circle mutually tangent to 3 given circles:

#### Construction Edit

• initial stage : 3 mutually tangent circles = ( k i a , k i b , k i c ) <\displaystyle (k_,k_,k_)>
• zero stage : 2 circles tangent to previous : outer circle c k 0 o u t <\displaystyle ck_<0out>> and inner circle c k 0 i n <\displaystyle ck_<0in>> , where :

c k 0 o u t = f m m ( c k i a , c k i b , c k i c ) <\displaystyle <\color ck>_<0out>=f_<\color mm>(ck_,ck_,ck_)> c k 0 i n = f p p ( c k i a , c k i b , c k i c ) <\displaystyle ck_<0in>=f_(ck_,ck_,ck_)>

• first stage : there are 6 gaps ( = curvilinear triangles) between previous circles. Three gaps are peripheral ( near outer circle) and three are medial ( near inner circle). Put one circle in each gap :

c k 1 a = f p p ( c k i a , c k i b , c k 0 o u t ) <\displaystyle ck_<1a>=f_(ck_,ck_,ck_<0out>)> c k 1 b = f p p ( c k i b , c k i c , c k 0 o u t ) <\displaystyle ck_<1b>=f_(ck_,ck_,ck_<0out>)> c k 1 c = f p m ( c k i c , c k i a , c k 0 o u t ) <\displaystyle <\color c>k_<1c>=f_m>>(ck_,ck_,ck_<0out>)> c k 1 d = f p p ( c k i a , c k i b , c k 0 i n ) <\displaystyle ck_<1d>=f_(ck_,ck_,ck_<0in>)> c k 1 e = f p p ( c k i b , c k i c , c k 0 i n ) <\displaystyle ck_<1e>=f_(ck_,ck_,ck_<0in>)> c k 1 f = f p p ( c k i c , c k i a , c k 0 i n ) <\displaystyle ck_<1f>=f_(ck_,ck_,ck_<0in>)>

Each new circle placed in the gap makes three new gaps (trifurcation).

#### Algorithm for programmers Edit

Because all circles are inscribed in outer circle so it is easier to start from it.

Then centers of these circles are vertices of equilateral triangle, with side of the triangle = 2 ∗ r i <\displaystyle =2*r_> so :

c i b = ( r 0 o u t + r i ) + ( 2 ∗ r 0 o u t − r i − h e g h t ) ∗ i <\displaystyle c_=(r_<0out>+r_)+(2*r_<0>out-r_-heght)*i>

c i c = ( r 0 o u t − r i ) + ( 2 ∗ r 0 o u t − r i − h e g h t ) ∗ i <\displaystyle c_=(r_<0out>-r_)+(2*r_<0>out-r_-heght)*i>

• compute inner circle 0 i n c k 0 i n = f p p ( c k i a , c k i b , c k i c ) <\displaystyle ck_<0in>=f_(ck_,ck_,ck_)>
• “Now we have a configuration to start” [11] There is 6 gaps to fill. 5 gaps are easy and one gap 1 c <\displaystyle 1c>is hard to fill.

#### Number of circles Edit

• number of new circles at stage n = 2 ∗ 3 n <\displaystyle 2*3^>
• total number of circles after n stages = 2 + 3 n + 1 <\displaystyle 2+3^>
• stage -1 = initial cofiguration ( 3 inner circles )
• stage 0 gives 2 new circles ( one outer and one most inner ). All circles = 5
• stage 1 gives 6 new circles ( all circles = 11 )
• stage 2 gives 18 new circles ( all circles = 29 )
• stage 3 gives 54 new circles ( all circles = 83)
• stage 4 gives 162 new circles ( all circles = 245)
• stage 5 gives 486 new circles ( all circles = 731)
• stage 6 gives 1 458 new circles ( all circles = 2 189 )
• stage 7 gives 4 374 new circles ( all circles = 6 563 )
• stage 8 gives 13 122 new circles ( all circles = 19 685 )
• stage 9 gives 39 366 new circles ( all circles = 59 051 )
• stage 10 gives 118 098 new circles ( all circles = 177 149 )
• stage 11 gives 354 294 new circles ( all circles = 531 443 )
• stage 12 gives 1 062 882 new circles ( all circles = 1 594 325 )
• stage 13 gives 3 188 646 new circles ( all circles = 4 782 971 )
• stage 14 gives 9 565 938 new circles ( all circles = 14 348 909 )
• stage 15 gives 28 697 814 new circles ( all circles = 43 046 723 )
• stage 16 gives 86 093 442 new circles ( all circles = 129 140 165 )
• stage 17 gives 258 280 326 new circles ( all circles = 387 420 491 )
• stage 18 gives 774 840 978 new circles ( all circles = 1 162 261 469 )
• stage 19 gives 2 324 522 934 new circles ( all circles = 3 486 784 403 )
• stage 20 gives 6 973 568 802 new circles ( all circles = 10 460 353 205 )

It can be computed using this Maxima CAS code :

Number of circles grows rapidly and makes problems caused by big file size. One can :

• use only stages up to 5-7. It seems to be sufficient to give good image in a short time. [12]
• do not draw circles which are small ( have a small radius [13]
• convert svg file to png ( for example using Image Magic : “convert a.svg a.png” ). Then for stage 12 svg image has 128 MB and png file only 57 KB.
• be happy that you have so detailed picture and wait a long time to load file or see how system hangs up (:-))

#### Curvatures Edit

Note that only one curvature has been computed with f m <\displaystyle f_<\color m>> function.

All the rest have been comuted with f p <\displaystyle f_

> function.

“After a certain high level of technical skill is achieved, science and art tend to coalesce in esthetics, plasticity, and form. The greatest scientists are always artists as well.” —Albert Einstein

## Thursday, June 2, 2011

It’s happening again — three tests in one week. The only thing quelling my aching brain is a moderately delicious cupcake and coffee from the OU cafe. Internet window shopping helps, too.

Seriously, for the love of god, I cannot wait until the weekend. I could go for some Chobani yogurt right now.

### so \m/ metal \m/

this video is bitchin’

## Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Why hello blog, we meet again. I’m currently camped out at San Jose International Airport drinking coffee-flavored chocolate milk (iced caffe mocha from Peet’s) utilizing the complementary wi-fi provided by this fine establishment. It’s worth noting I’m typing this on my ancient iPhone.

#1, always, is seeing my boyfriend 🙂
#2, California sunshine. I’m rocking a slight hint of color without looking used & abused. Horray for vitamin D!
#3, Santa Cruz & UCSC. We stayed a skip away from UCSC — which offers one of the only science writing programs in the country. Given that it was Memorial holiday I didn’t have time to check it out. Santa Cruz is full of awesome spots to chill and shop but it’s extremely bum-friendly. Seriously — while seeking out a bar downtown, I overheard two floaters having a scuff because, allegedly, one pulled switchblade on the other in a church parking lot. I digress.
#4, Firefly mango black iced tea.

**Ugh, my phone is giving me troubles, will update with more later.**

## Tuesday, May 10, 2011

### I see you baby, shakin’

This is too funny.

## Friday, May 6, 2011

### “buck melanoma, moley russell’s wart”

I’m exhausted! Week one is over and I’ve got gnarly shin splints. School is stressful and since the weather broke I have no excuses. I have too many lazy, duldrumy days during winter. I pack on ten lb’s while chillaxing in my warm living room watching Wife Swap marathons. I get it but then again my grades tend to dip during this time. The classic combo of winter funk and seasonal depression. Does ash tray gray snow lumped up on the curb make anyone feel good? No, I don’t think so.

I wrote the above yesterday but fell asleep before finishing. My first math quiz was a buzz kill. I’M NOT RAIN MAN and given I’m taking a ‘remedial course’ for math non-geniuses, I CANNOT DO SIX PROBLEMS IN A COOL 15 MINUTES. My test taking skills fall short and I believe slow and steady wins the race when it comes to double checking. It’s not beyond me to bubble in the wrong column on a standardized test (see my ACT) because I easily fluster. On a high note, yesterday’s Japanese quiz went swimmingly.

Welp, I’m at a loss for words because I don’t understand the correlation between beauty and skin resembling the nommy, crusty deep fried bits found in a bucket of KFC’s finest. My youngest cousins are hypnotized by tanning beds and no matter how much I drill into them that ‘exposure to UV light increases your chances of developing skin cancer’ they don’t seem to give (excuse my cuss) a flying fuck. Is my approach wrong? Probably, but I’m extremely moved by this video I watched courtesy of reddit created by the David Cornfield Memorial Fund (dcmf.ca). This message is one worth spreading!

I’ve been recently fascinated by the beauty, symmetry and mathematical richness of the Apollonian gaskets.

So I felt myself challenged to see if it was possible to generate one in Mathematica with a very short code, guided by the belief that “Beautiful math can often also be very simple“.

The result I came up with is the following code:

Not bad for a minimalistic code, also considering that I found a simpler/shorter translation of Descartes formula to be used in my case.

Above code was short enough (124 characters) to be accepted and published as a tweet by Tweet-a-Program ‏@wolframtap (here’s the link).

Anyway the Apollonian gasket produced by the short code quoted above is not complete, as it only produces the circles tangent to the outer circle and not the inner ones.

It’s surely possible to realize some longer code to produce a full Apollonian gasket (with a parameter to set the limit for the number of iterations) drawing also the inner circles. There are good examples of full programs already done by others (like this)

But my question is whether such program can be reduced to a minimum length (I suppose it could be done with about 500 characters or less).

Amongst all the possible variations I’m interested on the basic Apollonian gasket generated by the outer circle (curvature -1) and 2 congruent inner circles with curvature 2 (model -1, 2, 2 as in the image above). That initial condition could generate, in sequence, the other circles with curvatures 3, 6, 15, 11, 14, 23, 38, 35. using the Descartes’ theorem formula.

My guess is that a very smart program (probably based on a Nest command) could be used in a very condensed code, also taking advantage of the symmetries of the gasket.

Any suggestion for the shortest possible code?

Slope Formula Tutorial for UltraFractal – Page 8

The Apollonian Gasket is probably the best known of the circle inversion fractals. It is described at the Mathworld web site and many other places on the web. It has a fractal dimension of approximately 1.3058. and corresponds to a limit set that is invariant under a Kleinian group (see the section on Kleinian Group Fractals). It is created by iteratively carrying out circle inversions on three mutually tangent circles of the same radius. There are four circles that are mutually tangent that do the inversions, three outside circles and one inner circle.

There are two Apollonian Gasket formulas that use that use the slope algorithm, one is in reb.ufm and the other is in reb.ucl. There is some redundancy between the two formulas, but both will be treated here. The two formulas are Slope Apollonian Gasket (the ufm) and Apollonian Gasket (the ucl). Both formulas require specialized gradients to get realistic ray trace-like coloring. In addition there is a transform that is intended to be used with both of these formulas that is in reb.uxf. It is also called Apollonian Gasket. The following parameters are in common with both formulas and the transform (only selected parameters are listed):

• Max Iters – This is the maximum number of circle inversion iterations.
• Smallest Circle – This is the “bailout” for circle inversions. Iteration continues until the circle size is less than the smallest circle.
• Show Base Set – These are the three circles that are iterated through circle inversions.
• Perturb Type – This is an interesting option. With the standard Apollonian Gasket four mutually tangent circles are used as the inversion circles. The perturbations create overlap between the inversion circles. The positions of the initial circles to invert have to be adjusted so that they are still orthogonal to the inversion circles. Only certain defined amounts of overlap will still generate a fractal gasket structure. You probably won’t find anything on this anywhere on the web. If you do, please let me know.
• None – No perturbation. This is the standard Apollonian Gasket.
• Outer circles – The outer inversion circles are repositioned to create overlap.
• Inner circle – The inner circle is resized to create overlap.
• Perturb Level – This parameter is visible only if Perturb Type is not equal to “None”. Overlap of the inversion circles increases with increasing Perturb Level.
• Magnification – The magnification parameter on the Location Tab, and zooming in the fractal window do not work with these formulas. Use the Magnification parameter in the formula instead.

The following parameters are common to the ufm and the ucl:

• Solid Backgound – If checked, background color (and transparency) is controlled from the Outside Tab.
• Fill Type – This determines the lighting shape for the iterated circles.
• Quartic1 – This is the ellipsoid lighting:
• Quartic2 – Hyperboloid lighting #1:
• Quartic3 – Hyperboloid lighting #2:
• Quartic4 – Hyperboloid lighting #3:
• Power – The power in the Quartic formulas.
• alpha – See the Quartic formulas.
• beta – See the Quartic formulas.
• gamma – See the Quartic formulas.
• global fBm weight – The two global fBm parameters are unique in that they perturb the structure of the gasket shapes and not the coloring of the shapes. They put texture on the shape surface so that light reflecting off the surface shows the texture. This parameter determines the intensity of the texture.
• global fBm scale – Determines the scale of the texture.

The following parameters are for coloring the ucl:

• color scale adj – This is an internal adjustment to how the colors in the gradient are used.
• # of colors – This determines how many colors are used to color the gasket shapes, depending upon the color method. The maximum value is 8.
• ring width – The formula can create a ring around each gasket shape.
• ring color – The color of the ring (1-8).
• color method – All of the coloring methods are done with a modulus of the # of colors.
• level – color by iteration level
• size – color by size
• number – color by index number of the gasket.
• position – color by position on the screen.

The user is encouraged to explore any parameters not listed here.

The first two images show the gradient use for the ufm and the ucl. With the ufm, all gasket shapes, in this case spheres, are colored with the same color. With the ucl, an 8 color gradient is used.

 ApolloBasic created with the ufm ApolloBasic2 created with the ucl

Because the gradients are so critical to creating these images, uprs for the two images follow:

The next three images are layered images which show off some of the capabilities of the ufm, the ucl and the transform. The first, ApolloOnApollo, layer the ufm and the ucl, taking advantage of the texturing abilities of the formulas. ApolloOuter10 and ApolloInner10 show some perturbation effects, some additional parameter settings, and use of the Apollonian Gasket transform. The user should study the uprs to determine how these images where created.

## Abstract

Definition of Apollonian gasket. Sphere packing, uniqueness of Apollonian gasket, examples of unbounded Apollonian tilings. Integral solutions to Descartes’s equation, groups freely generated by reflections.

### Keywords

• Sphere packing
• Arithmetic properties of curvatures of disks in an Apollonian gasket
• Fibonacci numbers
• Free groups
• Groups generated by reflections

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## Notes

Just as in the real life.

That is, points with rational coordinates.

As one of the reviewers pointed out, the quadruple (7, 2, 3, 6) is a counterexample, since 7 is not a sum of three squares.

I learned from R. Borcherds that this operation is known to mathematicians in England as “English major addition.” It is also the subject of one of the standard jokes quoted in Gelfand’s seminar.

Guess about the form of the right-hand side of the formula in this case.

We say that a measure $$\mu$$ on [0, 1] is a weak limit of the sequence of measures $$\mu _$$ if for every continuous function f on [0, 1], we have $$\lim _\int _<0>^<1>f(x)\mathrm\mu _(x) =\int _< 0>^<1>f(x)\mathrm\mu (x)$$ .

See Info G.

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## Author information

### Affiliations

Department of Mathematics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

# How to create a jump scare trap in minecraft

Diamond Log Favorite Log Feature on profile Embed Report

14 minecraft:glass 0 hollow”,id:”Control”>,id:”FallingSand”,Block:”command_block”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:

14 minecraft:stained_glass 5″,id:”Control”>,id:”FallingSand”,Block:”command_block”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:

-11 minecraft:stained_glass 5\”,id:\”Control\”>,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”iron_block\”,Time:1>”,id:”Control”>,id:”FallingSand”,Block:”command_block”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:

/scoreboard players add @e[score_sp_min=50,r=5] ac 1\”,id:\”Control\”>,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>”,id:”Control”>,id:”FallingSand”,Block:”command_block”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:

/playsound mob.endermen.death @a

/playsound mob.wither.death @a

/scoreboard players set @e[type=Zombie,r=50] scare 1\”,id:\”Control\”>,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>”,id:”Control”>,id:”FallingSand”,Block:”command_block”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:

/playsound ambient.weather.thunder @p

0 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

0 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

0 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

0 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

0 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

0 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

0 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

0 minecraft:air 0 /scoreboard players add @p es 1\”,id:\”Control\”>,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>”,id:”Control”>,id:”FallingSand”,Block:”command_block”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:

/playsound minecart.base @p

1 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

2 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

3 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

4 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

5 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

6 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

7 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

8 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

9 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

10 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

11 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

12 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

0 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

1 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

2 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

3 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

4 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

5 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

6 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

7 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

8 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

9 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

10 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

11 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

12 minecraft:air 0 scoreboard players add @p cs 1\”,id:\”Control\”>,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:

/playsound mob.ghast.death @p

/playsound mob.endermen.death @p

-8 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-7 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-6 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-5 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-4 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-3 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-2 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-1 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-8 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-7 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-6 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-5 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-4 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-3 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-2 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-1 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

0 minecraft:stone 0 /scoreboard players add @p hs 1\”,id:\”Control\”>,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:

-6 redstone_torch 3\”,id:\”Control\”>,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>”,id:”Control”>,id:”FallingSand”,Block:”command_block”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:

/playsound mob.wither.death @a

/effect @p 16 1 1 true\”,id:\”Control\”>,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>”,id:”Control”>,id:”FallingSand”,Block:”command_block”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:

-2 minecraft:redstone_torch 3 /execute @p

-1 minecraft:stone 0 /execute @p

-2 minecraft:redstone_torch 3 /execute @p

-1 minecraft:air 0 /execute @p

0 minecraft:air 0 scoreboard players add @p hssc 1\”,id:\”Control\”>,id:\”FallingSand\”,Block:\”command_block\”,Time:1>,TileEntityData:

Every play Minecraft with some friends and you want to scare them? Especially if they are inexperienced at the hit building game. This trap is sure to scare them out of their shoes! It is very simple to build and honestly is a very effective use for our friendly block of TNT!

If you finish reading the tutorial and are still stuck, check out the video!

### Let’s Get Building!

First, you are going to need the following items: a shovel, a lot of dirt or gravel, and a pressure plate (if you chose to go with dirt, make a wooden pressure plate whereas if you chose gravel, make a stone pressure plate) and, most importantly, TNT, and lots of it!

Second, dig straight down a good length and when you reach an appropriate depth, using the shovel and pickaxe, clear out the area surrounding the bottom of the hole. I recommend making the cove 4X4 square with the single block missing in the roof for the victim to fall through!

Third, once you dug out a big enough area, fill in the square with TNT but leave the top two blocks of the square open for the victim to fall into.

Finally, using either the jump tactic or any other way, get out of the hole but make sure there is two blocks free of TNT once the victim falls into the trap. Once you are out of the hole, cover the second block from the top of the hole with TNT and place a block of either gravel or sand on top of the single piece of TNT. Place your pressure plate on top of the gravel or sand and wait.

### How Does The Trap Work?

When your victim walks over the pressure plate, it will send a redstone signal to the TNT supporting the gravel or sand. From there the TNT will drop (leading your victim to drop with it) into the giant hole of TNT and when the already activated block of TNT explodes, it sets off a chain reaction, exploding the TNT stash in the hole!

This is a really fun trap for those looking to trap new players (or experienced players, if you are lucky) and mobs.

### How Are You Going To Use This Trap?

Who are you planning on trapping? Let us know in the comment section!

Traps are great, but sometimes you don’t want to kill anyone, you just want to know when they’re around. When that’s the case, check out this handy alarm system that uses the power of doors!

Doors, you say? Yes, doors! Some of you may already be familiar with how obnoxious doors can be in Minecraft, but if not, check out this video of it in action:

Now let’s take a look at how to build it!

## Step 1: Dig a Hole

My hole is pretty big in this case, but you can make it a lot smaller, if you can fit the redstone inside of it. I made it large so that it would be easy to explain.

You should start out by putting a pressure plate wherever you want your entrance to be, so that you know where to start building from.

## Step 2: Add Some Redstone and Make a Hole

Now you need a little redstone underneath your pressure plate. Pressure plates power up to two blocks beneath them, so just add redstone wire beneath it, and it’s no problem.

But then you need another hole for your T Flip-Flop.

From another angle:

## Step 3: Add a T Flip-Flop

In case you aren’t familiar with what a T Flip-Flop is, check out our earlier article!

Thusly armed with the knowledge of how to make a standard T Flip-Flop, go ahead and make one in this spot:

You can fill in all the areas at the bottom that don’t have redstone wire coming out.

## Step 4: Add a Rapid Pulsar

In case you don’t know what a rapid pulsar is or what it does, I recommend that you check out our article on them!

Again, armed with the knowledge of rapid pulsars, attach one to your T Flip-Flop like so:

I recommend adding a lever to the side of your rapid pulsar so that you can turn it off while you’re building. Trust me.

## Step 5: Attach a Pair of Doors

All that’s left is to add some doors to your rapid pulsar, like so:

Then that’s it! Your alarm is ready to go. Build your house on top of that, and you’ll be able to hear that awful, awful noise practically anywhere in the house when someone intrudes.

You can rest safely in the knowledge that no one will sneak up on you!

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This Minecraft tutorial explains how to tame a pillager with screenshots and step-by-step instructions.

In Minecraft, you can tame a pillager by breaking its crossbow. Let’s explore how to do this.

## Required Materials to Tame a Pillager

In Minecraft, these are the materials you can use to tame a pillager:

## Steps to Tame a Pillager

### 1. Find a Pillager

First, you need to find a pillager. You can usually find a pillager near the Pillager Outpost, but be sure to lure the pillager away (before starting to tame it) so that it is alone. You don’t want any other pillagers wandering over.

If you are having trouble finding a pillager, you can always summon a pillager using a cheat or you can use a spawn egg.

### 2. Use a Shield to Break its Crossbow

To tame the pillager, you need to break its crossbow. Since a crossbow has a durability of 326, you need the pillager to use its crossbow 326 times to break it!

So add 5 shields to your hotbar (we added 6, just in case) and possibly some food. Then stand near the pillager and use a shield to block the arrows as the pillager shoots at you.

It will take up to 5 shields and nearly 15 minutes to break the pillager’s crossbow. And once the crossbow breaks, the pillager will no longer attack. Instead, it will just wander away. Also, the pillager will NOT pick up any weapons off the ground, so it is safe to hang around with.

### 3. Use a Name Tag to prevent your Pillager from Despawning

If you want to keep the pillager as a friend, you can use a name tag to prevent the pillager from despawning.

We will give our pillager the name of Friendly Fred by using the following name tag:

### 4. Move your Pillager around in a Boat

Now the tricky part is to move the pillager around in the game with you. Since a Lead won’t work on a pillager, you can use a Boat to move the pillager to different locations in your world.

Just place a Boat on the ground, wait for the pillager to hop in, and then get into the boat yourself and row to your destination!

Congratulations, you have just tamed a pillager in Minecraft!

## Tips when Taming a Pillager

DO NOT stand too close to the pillager when blocking with your shield or the arrow will bounce off your shield and hit the pillager (hurting and eventually killing the pillager before you’ve tamed him).

DO NOT get in the boat with the pillager until it is tamed or it will attack you.

The name tag does NOT tame the pillager, it only prevents the pillager from naturally despawning from the game.

## Side Effects of Taming a Pillager

If you decide to keep your pillager by your side in the game, there are a few side effects that you should be aware of:

Your tamed pillager will still scare away villagers. Even though your tame pillager will not attack any of the villagers, the villagers are still programmed to run away from pillagers in the game.

You will NOT be able to sleep in a bed when your tamed pillager is nearby because the game still considers the pillager to be a monster. If you try to sleep in a bed with your tame pillager nearby, the following message will appear in the game:

You may not rest now; there are monsters nearby

• You should use a name tag on your tamed pillager to prevent him from despawning. After spending nearly 15 minutes taming the pillager, you don’t want him to disappear in the game.
• # How to create a gaming app

In this set of tutorials, you’ll learn how to use DirectX and C++/WinRT to create the basic Universal Windows Platform (UWP) sample game named Simple3DGameDX. The gameplay takes place in a simple first-person 3D shooting gallery.

The link from which you can download the Simple3DGameDX sample game itself is Direct3D sample game. The C++/WinRT source code is in the folder named cppwinrt . For info about other UWP sample apps, see Sample applications for Windows development.

These tutorials cover all of the major parts of a game, including the processes for loading assets such as arts and meshes, creating a main game loop, implementing a simple rendering pipeline, and adding sound and controls.

You’ll also see UWP game development techniques and considerations. We’ll focus on key UWP DirectX game development concepts, and call out Windows-Runtime-specific considerations around those concepts.

## Objective

To learn about the basic concepts and components of a UWP DirectX game, and to become more comfortable designing UWP games with DirectX.

## What you need to know

For this tutorial, you need to be familiar with these subjects.

• C++/WinRT. C++/WinRT is a standard modern C++17 language projection for Windows APIs, implemented as a header-file-based library, and designed to provide you with first-class access to the modern Windows APIs.
• Basic linear algebra and Newtonian physics concepts.
• Basic graphics programming terminology.
• Basic Windows programming concepts.
• Basic familiarity with the Direct2D and Direct3D 11 APIs.

## Direct3D UWP shooting gallery sample

The Simple3DGameDX sample game implements a simple first-person 3D shooting gallery, where the player fires balls at moving targets. Hitting each target awards a set number of points, and the player can progress through 6 levels of increasing challenge. At the end of the levels, the points are tallied, and the player is awarded a final score.

The sample demonstrates these game concepts.

• Interoperation between DirectX 11.1 and the Windows Runtime
• A first-person 3D perspective and camera
• Stereoscopic 3D effects
• Collision-detection between objects in 3D
• Handling player input for mouse, touch, and Xbox controller controls
• Audio mixing and playback
• A basic game state-machine

## Norman Ortiz

• 4.0 • 1.1K Ratings
• Free
• Offers In-App Purchases

## Description

The easiest, most affordable way to make apps; even if you don’t know anything on how to create an app. If you are looking to build an app for your business, team, group, organization or event, this is the best app creation tool in the market with no development or coding required. With our DIY app builder, you will be able to design, choose, create, and publish your own app without programming.

Take your business to the next level by having a mobile app that leads to customer retention, promotion awareness, push messages as well as being part of the mobile era. Our tool is an extremely easy to use app builder that will allow you to create powerful content-driven apps with an amazing app design that will look and feel beautifully, regardless of your user’s device.

This is a new and revolutionary way of creating apps, through our code-less developer tool, providing an easy and affordable way to build professional mobile apps.

A free 3 day trial is included. If you want to keep your App and unlock all screens you can get a $9.99/ monthly* or$89.99/yearly* subscription. You can cancel any time.

* Depending on currency and subscription provider
* You will need a subscription to keep your app published and unlock all screens. A free trial is included.
* Extra charges apply to submit your App to the store.
* Subscriptions will auto renew per month or year based on the selected subscription

In the past you had to be a programmer to make an app, which would likely take weeks, months or even years. Now, however, there are numerous app-building platforms you can use to create an app in minutes. We’ve put together some of our favorites for you here.

Also read: How to Run a Java Program from the Command Prompt

## 1. Andromo

Andromo is the most popular Android app-maker platform.

It only requires three steps to create your own app:

1. Create an Andromo project.
2. Fill out a few simple forms to add features, graphics, content and whatever makes your app unique.
3. Click a button to build your app.

Unlike many of the other app builders, Andromo does not have a preview screen for you to see what your app will look like while adding items or changing formatting. After you create your app, they will email it to you. They do not support uploading the app to the Play store. For free, you can create one app with ads. If you upgrade to the lowest cost plan for $8 a month, you can have up to 50 apps and monetize them. ## 2. AppsGeyser AppsGeyser is totally free. They boast no fees, charges, subscription plans, or limits. There are over 50 different available templates to get you started and make creating the app even easier. The site uses a preview screen to show what your app looks like, but I had a little trouble getting that to work consistently. Because it’s free, they don’t support the publishing of the app to the stores. They will get 50 percent of any monetization you do to make up for the cost. If you want to find out more about creating apps with AppsGeyser, then head over to our tutorial. ## 3. AppMakr AppMakr is a cloud-based app maker that allows you to craft iOS, HTML5 and Android apps. You have no limit to the number of apps you can build nor the number of updates you can add. It has numerous features, including a high-resolution photo gallery, push notifications, live updates, music and video streaming, chat rooms, Google map integration, shared events calendars, in-app shopping and more. You can monitor your apps on a dashboard and adjust the appearance and functions of your app. You’ll add contents using tabs. It is free to start but adds a one-time payment of$99 when you publish.

GameSalad is specific to building and publishing game apps for the Android, iOS, HTML5 and macOS platforms. Working on this platform does not require prior programming knowledge and involves the use of a drag-and-drop interface.

Its mode of operation includes the editing of characters in a scene, designing their features, sound and alternating between the characters.This builder includes drag-and-drop components, in-app shopping, and GameCircle APIs. The platform also includes a forum where you can ask other users’ opinions which can help the building of your app.

## 6. Appery

Using Appery to build apps is easy and fast. There is no need for writing codes or downloading and installing anything. It is done exclusively on the Cloud and uses drag-and-drop components to create the UI. This platform is used to build apps for Android, Windows phone, and iOS using Apache with the built-in component.

Appery has a plugin catalog that allows you to add some functions to your app, but you can also create plugins that would be specific to your app. It allows you to share your project with business users, customers or developers in real time. The price ranges from free to about $180 per month. ## 7. Swiftic Swiftic changed its name from Como. It’s an instant app builder that allows you to create apps regardless of your experience. It ranks among the best mobile app makers because it has a variety of features for making money and engaging your customers. Como makes a novice seem like a pro, as it involves just three simple steps with dozens of themes that are categorized. All you need to do is choose an app category, select a theme and publish. Many developers consider Swiftic’s features an upgrade when compared to those of other app builders. These features include advanced analytics which keeps track of app performance (to know what works and what does not). Other features on the app maker include a drag-and-drop interface, mobile commerce, user review, loyalty programs/coupons, ability to create a custom menu, RSS and social feeds, customization of the look and function of the apps, monetization features and push notifications. If you’re considering an upgrade from the free version, Como could quickly become expensive (depending on your payment plan). It ranges from$29 per month (paying once in two years), $33 per month (paying once per year) to$39 (paying monthly).

Also read: 6 of the Best Static Website CMS for You

Welcome to Android game development with the Google Play games services!

The Play Games SDK provides cross-platform Google Play games services that lets you easily integrate popular gaming features such as achievements, leaderboards, and Saved Games in your tablet and mobile games.

## Before you begin

To prepare your app, complete the steps in the following sections.

### App prerequisites

Make sure that your app’s build file uses the following values:

• A minSdkVersion of 19 of higher
• A compileSdkVersion of 28 or higher

You can move onto the sign-in documentation for next steps on setting up Play Games Services v2 Sign In.

Use Gecata by Movavi!

• Record HD game videos at up to 120 FPS
• Stream on any platform
• Grab sound from speakers or microphone
• Add webcam video to gameplay footage

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• How to Record Gameplay on a PC – Movavi

Want to share tips and walkthroughs on Grand Theft Auto missions or show off your highest castle in Minecraft? Or maybe you just want to save that breathtaking cinematic from the latest Final Fantasy game. Whether you share Let’s Plays on YouTube or create music videos using game clips, you’ll need an effective way to record PC gameplay.

Grabbing video games from consoles is much harder than recording gameplay on a PC – you need a special grabber device. On a PC, all you need is an app that lets you record game footage.

## Instructions for recording gameplay on a PC with Gecata by Movavi

Gecata by Movavi has everything you need to capture in-game video from your computer screen. Download the app and learn how to record gameplay on a PC with this tutorial.